[Download] Last 15 years Compulsory English Papers for UPSC (Mains) IAS IPS Examination

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This should also help those preparing CPF Examination because they also have similar paper.

  1. Why is Compulsory English paper important?
  2. How to Prepare compulsory English Language Paper for UPSC Mains?
  3. 1997
  4. 1998
  5. 1999
  6. 2000
  7. 2001
  8. 2002
  9. 2003
  10. 2004
  11. 2005
  12. 2006
  13. 2007
  14. 2008
  15. 2009
  16. 2010
  17. 2011

Why is Compulsory English paper important?

  • In the UPSC Civil Service Mains Exam, you’ve to face a compulsory English language paper worth 300 marks.
  • Although the marks scored in this paper, are not counted in the final merit list, but if you fail in this paper, they will not check your other papers and thus you miss the interview train.
  • In the UPSC 2010, total 819 candidates failed in the compulsory English paper. Therefore, you must not take the Compulsory English language paper lightly.

How to Prepare compulsory English Language Paper for UPSC Mains?

  1. Just solve all the previous years’ question paper given below. Want PDF file? Then Click me to download
  2. if you’re really weak , then use the Compulsory English for Civil and Judicial Services by AP Bhardwaj (TMH Publication)

1997

Q. 1. Write an essay of about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Tolerance is the key to national unity
(b) Your idea of a happy life
(c) Advertisements : need for control
(d) Is vegetarianism a virtue ?
(e) Failures are the pillars of success

Q. 2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow in your own words as far as possible. 75
It is true that the smokers cause some nuisance to the non-smokers, but this nuisance is physical while the nuisance that the non-smokers cause the smokers is spiritual. There are, of course, a lot of non-smokers who don’t try to interfere with the smokers. It is sometimes assumed that the non-smokers are morally superior, not realizing that they have missed one of the greatest pleasures of mankind. I am willing to allow that smoking is a moral weakness, but on the other hand we must beware of a man without weakness. He is not to be trusted. He is apt to be always sober and he cannot make a single mistake. His habits are too regular, his existence too mechanical and his head always maintains its supremacy over his heart. Much as I like reasonable persons, I hate completely rational beings. For that reason, I am always scared and ill at ease when I enter a house in which there are no ash-trays.

The room is apt to be too clean and orderly, and the people are apt to be correct and unemotional. Now the moral and spiritual benefits of smoking have never been appreciated by these correct, righteous, unemotional and unpoetic souls. In my opinion the smokers’ morality is, on the whole, higher than that of the non-smokers. The man with a pipe in his mouth is the man after my heart. He is more genial, more open-hearted, and he is often brilliant in conversation. As Thackeray observes, “The pipe draws wisdom from the lips, of the philosopher and shuts up the mouth of the foolish; it generates a style of conversation that is contemplative, thoughtful, benevolent and unaffected.”

(a) What kind of hardship do .a smoker and a non-smoker cause to each other ? 15
(b) Why is it wrong to think that a non-smoker is morally superior to a smoker ? 15
(c) Why is a man without any moral weakness untrustworthy ? 15
(d) What pleasure of life is missed by a non-smoker ? 15
(e) What does Thackeray mean to say ? 15

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in about 230 words. As far as possible, the precis should be in your own words. It should be written on the special sheets provided, which should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words in your answer. 75
N.B. : Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
In our country begging has become a profession and the beggars continue to increase in numbers. So, vast indeed is the fraternity of these beggars that foreigners visiting India, especially ,cities like Varanasi, our cities of pilgrimage, have been led to call our cities the cities of beggars and of dust ! There are no statistics available for estimating their number, but that is not needed for our present purpose. Of course, any practical reform in this matter does not require a close investigation into the causes and conditions of the existence of beggars, but we are here concerned with the question of seeing how these beggars live and what, in particular, is the effect on society of their existence.

As already suggested, the vastness of the number of the Indian beggars is evident to any visitor from a foreign country. The causes of the increase in the number of beggars are many, but of these we may just consider only a few. For good or evil, Indians have been very religious in their outlook on life, and also very generous and hospitable towards those who go to them for begging. Our Puranas and Shastras point out that giving charity to beggars ensures Moksha in the next world. The social conscience deveolped from such an article of faith has been the main cause of the increase in the number of beggars. They are always sure of finding people anxious to go to heaven by offering doles and donations to the needy and so they are thriving. There are many beggars whose profession has been hereditary – a strange perversion of human nature, which, as we are told, ought to eat out of the sweat of its brow. The most amusing spectacle from the point of view of reason, is to see able-bodied persons, dressed in abundance of rags and many coloured clothes wandering about the streets and going from house to house regularly at certain hours for no more serious a purpose than that of begging ! This might be seen at almost any village and town in our country. For ages uncounted this thing has been going on. The ignorant masses have a fear of the curse supposed to emanate from the mouths of angered beggars, and thus the beggars get more than they need. In fact, strange as it might seem, a considerable number of these beggars are richer . than their poor patrons !

With the percolation of social consciousness among the modern educated Indians, the problem of beggars is today being seriously thought about and ways and means are being seriously mooted on how to solve this problem. When we read how in the West, for example, begging has become a crime coming under the vagrancy acts of Parliaments and when we know that in some countries people are warned that “Those who do not work, neither shall they eat”, we begin to think how depressing is the situation in India. Poverty, no doubt, is one of the major causes of begging, and unemployment and increase in population have also been responsible for the same, but the disease-of begging has deeper roots in the social consciousness of us all, and it is to this that any reformer has to turn. We must make it clear to the masses that there is no special glory of Punya in giving charity to the able-bodied persons, and that such misplaced charity is only increasing idleness and chronic poverty. If the masses are educated in social science, its elementary principles at any rate, there will be a gradual lessening of the number of beggars in our country.

The State, too, has to devise laws for checking the growth of beggars. Some strict laws against vagrants must be put into practice in every city and village in India. It is more important to introduce them in holy cities where the beggars are leading the most unholy life. Finally, it is for the development of saner outlook on life that we must agitate if we are to root out this evil of beggary. In one form or another, begging has become the most widespread thing today. Some are honourable, modernised beggars in pants and boots and ties and they have subtler ways of exploiting their patron victims.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
abhor, alter, determine, dwell, fellow, handle, innocent, slay, torrent, radiant.
(i) He is making a ………………… effort to succeed in the examination.
(ii) We should hold corruption in …………………. .
(iii) He ………………….. in a rented house in Delhi last year.
(iv) There is no ………………… in this, town; it is the same as it was five years ago.
(v) He deserves praise ………………. for the situation tactfully.
(vi) We love children for their ………………. .
(vii) The crops have been damaged by these …………… rains.
(viii) The rich man has been ………………. by the militants.
(ix) The …………….. of his face suggests that he is a saint.
(x) He has been awarded a ……………… for studying in Canada.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb :
favour, meet, occasion, sound, support. 10

(c) Do as directed : 5
(i) A stranger said to me, “Do you know me ?”
(Change into the Indirect form of Narration.)
(ii) He is blind …………… his own faults.

(Use the correct preposition.)
(iii) Are you not making a noise ?
(Write it in the passive voice.)
(iv) Is virtue not its own reward ?

(Transform into an assertive sentence.)
(v) God is present everywhere.
(Substitute a single word for “present everywhere”.)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) If you will run, you will catch the train.
(ii) I am too glad to help you.
(iii) I am fed up of his evil ways.
(iv) He has only two brother-in-laws.
(v) I am one of those persons who cannot describe what I feel.
(vi) He has not bought some books.
(vii) Do not prevent the child to read.
(viii) I doubt that she will help you.
(ix) Ganges is a holy river.
(x) He is more intelligent than either of his four brothers.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that you think is appropriate : 10
(i) He is an ……………… mechanic.
(ingenuous / ingenious)
(ii) He died after he had been struck by ……………… .
(lightning / lightening)
(iii) Your story is not at all ………………. .
(credulous / credible)
(iv) Only the virtuous experience true …………….. .
(facility / felicity)
(v) Some politicians try to influence the …………… officers.
(judicious / judicial)
(vi) You cannot question his honesty and …………….. .
(veracity / voracity)
(vii) The patient is still in a state of …………….. .
(comma / coma)
(viii) After the accident, the field was covered with …………….. .
(corpses / corps)
(ix) He is a dealer in ……………….. .
(stationary / stationery)
(x) You should settle this dispute in an …………….. way.
(amiable / amicable)

(c) Use the following phrases/idiomatic expressions in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
give rise to, hang fire, pass away, put up with, tone down.

1998

INSTRUCTIONS
Candidates should attempt all questions.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on- any one of the following : 100

(a) The Limits of Science
(b) Our Intellectuals
(c) Have We Lost the Direction ?
(d) Computers in Everyday Life
(e) Below the Poverty Line
Q. 2. Read this passage carefully and answer the questions set at the end 75
We think of the moon as only a stone, a stone gone cold. An airless, waterless stone and the prophetic image of our own earth when, some few million years from now, the senescent sun shall have lost its present fostering power . …. And so on. This passage could easily be prolonged – a Study in Purple. But I forbear. Let every reader lay on as much of the royal rhetorical colour as he finds to his taste. Anyhow, purple or no purple, there the stone is – stony. You cannot think about it for long without finding yourself invaded by one or other of several sentiments. These sentiments belong to one or other of two contrasted and complementary groups. The name of the first family is Sentiments of Human Insignificance, of the second, Sentiments of Human Greatness. Meditating on that derelict stone afloat there in the abyss, you may feel a worm,. abject and futile in the face of wholly incomprehensible immensities. ‘The silence of those infinite spaces frightens. me.’ You may feel as Pascal felt. Or, alternatively, you may feel as M. Paul Valery has said: `The silence of those infinite spaces does not frighten me.’
For the spectacle of that moon need not necessarily make you feel like a worm. It may, on the contrary, cause you to rejoice exultantly in your manhood. There floats the stone, the nearest and most familiar symbol of all the astronomical horrors: but the astronomers who discovered those horrors of space and time were men. The universe throws down a challenge to the human spirit; in spite of his insignificance and abjection, man has taken it up. The stone glares down at us out of the black boundlessness. But the fact that we know it justifies us in feeling a certain human pride. We have a right to our moods of sober exultation.

(a) How does the writer describe the moon ?
(b) Do you think that the image of the moon revealed here is prophetic ? Why ?
(c) What kind of two contrasted and complementary sentiments does the moon evoke ?
(d) What does the author try to suggest about the place of man in the universe ?
(e) Give the central idea of the passage. Q. 3. Write a precis of the passage given below in your own words, not exceeding 160, on the special sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in the precis.
N.B. : Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. 75
I speak of peace because of the new face of war. Total war makes no sense in an age when great powers can maintain large and relatively invulnerable nuclear forces and refuse to surrender without resort to those forces. It makes no sense in an age when a single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by all of the Allied air forces in the Second World War. It makes no sense in an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by the wind and water and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn.
Today the expenditure of billions of dollars every year on weapons acquired for the purpose of making sure we never need to use them is essential to keeping the peace. But surely the acquisition of such idle stockpiles, which can only destroy and never create, is not the only, much less the most efficient, means of assuring peace.

I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men. I realize that the pursuit of peace is not as dramatic as the pursuit of war, and frequently the words of the pursuer fall on deaf ears. But we have no more urgent task.

Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament, and that it will be useless until the leaders of those nations, perceived to be hostile by us, adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them do it. But I also believe that we must re-examine our own attitude, as individuals and as a nation, for our attitude is as essential as theirs. And every graduate of this school, every thoughtful citizen who despairs of war and wishes to bring peace, should begin by looking inward, by examining his own attitude toward the possibilities of peace.

First, let us examine our attitude toward peace itself. Too many of us think it is impossible. Too many think it unreal. But that is a dangerous, defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable, that mankind is doomed, that we are gripped by forces we cannot control.
Our problems are man-made: therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings. Man’s reason and spirit have often solved the seemingly unsolvable and we believe they can do it again.

Let us focus on a more practical, more attainable peace, based not on a sudden revolution in human nature but on a gradual evolution in human institutions, on a series of concrete actions and effective agreements which are in the interest of all concerned. There is no single, simple key to this peace, no grand or magic formula to be adopted by one or two powers. Genuine peace must be the product of many nations, the sum of many acts. It must be dynamic, not static, changing to meet the challenge of each new generation. For peace is a process, a way of solving problems.

With such a peace there will still be quarrels and conflicting interests, as there are within families and nations. World peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbour; it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance, submitting their disputes to a just and peaceful settlement. And history teaches us that enmities between nations, as between individuals, do not last forever. However fixed our likes and dislikes may seem, the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations between nations and neighbours.

So let us persevere. Peace need not be impracticable, and war need not be inevitable. By defining our goal more clearly, by making it seem more manageable and less remote, we can help all peoples to see it, to draw hope from it, and to move irresistibly toward it.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of words given below : 10
deter, increase, ardour, resolve, courage, divide, prestige, commend, pious, invoke
(i) Paradise Lost opens with an ………………. of the divine.
(ii) When is your next ……………… due ?
(iii) One must have a firm ………………. to achieve one’s goal.
(iv) Unless we are ……………… we can never face obstacles.
(v) Will our nuclear explosions have quite a ……………… effect ?
(vi) United we stand, ……………… we fall.
(vii) The programme of rehabilitation is …………………. .
(viii) Without ……………… religious pursuit has hardly any meaning.
(x) In Gandhian era the people of our country had ……………… spirit of patriotism.
(x) This school is a very ……………….. institution.

(b) Use the following words in your own sentences, each both as a noun and a verb : 10
practice; question; complement; substitute; crop.

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed : 5
(i) “Help me Cassius, or l die,” cried Caesar.
(Turn it into the indirect form.)
(ii) John in brighter than all other students in his class.
(Change into the positive degree.)
(iii) You cannot see him, for it is not easy to reach him.
(Give one word for the words in bold italics.)
(iv) She would not go home during the holidays
(Use a question tag.)
(v) If you do not work hard, you cannot succeed.
(Use ‘unless’.)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) It is an unique privilege to welcome our guests.
(ii) A herd of cattles were grazing in the farm.
(iii) If you would have studied hard, you should have passed.
(iv) One of my friend is a good poet.
(v) Either his parents or Pheroze is going to come today.
(vi) When you are going to London to meet with your friends there ?
(vii) For heaven’s sake, please don’t ask me that why am I not coming ?
(viii) I cannot be able to play cricket this evening.
(ix) You are the teacher here, isn’t it ?
(x) Shakespeare, the playwright and the poet born in Stratford-upon-Avon.

(b) Fill in the blanks choosing the appropriate words put within the brackets : 10
(i) He …………… his past statement in the course of his speech.
(avert, advert)
(ii) In their response to the call they are ………………… .
(invert, inert)
(iii) There is no ………………. to the gift he received.
(illusion, allusion)
(iv) ………………. distillation is an offence.
(Elicit, Illicit)
(v) He had no ………………….. to any help.
(recourse, resource)
(vi) He is certainly not honest; he is always ……………….. .
(hypercritical, hypocritical)
(vii) Smoking is ………………. here.
(proscribed, prescribed)
(viii) Kishore sends his …………………….. to you.
(compliments, complements)
(ix) We must not cast any …………….. at him, for he is innocent.
(aspiration, aspersion)
(x) The students’ attitude to their teacher is not ………………. .
(deferential, differential)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences bringing out the meaning : 5
(i) Out of tune
(ii) To put one’s foot down
(iii) At sixes and sevens
(iv) Through thick and thin
(v) To put something up

1999

Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100

(a) Power of the press
(b) An ideal college
(c) The technological miracles of the twentieth century
(d) An encounter with an astrologer
(e) “Cowards die many times before their death”.

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer in your own language the questions that follow : 75
Forecasting the weather, or trying to find out what it will be like in several day’s time, has always been a difficult business. Many different things affect the weather and each one has to be carefully studied before we can make even a fairly accurate forecast. The ancient Egyptians, of course, had no need of this- the weather in the Nile valley hardly ever changes -but people living farther north had to protect themselves and their crops. During a period of drought, when no rain fell for weeks on end, streams and rivers dried up, cattle died from thirst and crops were ruined. A storm could wreck ships and houses, and heavy falls of rain caused rivers to flood a whole countryside. Action in the sky stirred man into action, and in this respect farmers became just as much men of action as were sailors on the high seas. Both had to reckon with the weather – it often upset their plans, sometimes with disastrous results.

In early times, when there were no instruments such as thermometer or barometer, man looked for tell-tale signs in the sky. He made his forecasts by watching the flights of birds or the way smoke rose from a fire. He thought that the moon controlled the weather – that it held a lot of water, especially when as a crescent or sickle-shaped moon it lay on its back. Even today there are people who think that the sight of the moon lying on its back means that the rain is on its way. Many of the weather-sayings are still heard today. I expect you know the one : ‘A red sky at night is the shepherd’s delight. A red sky in the morning is the shepherd’s warning.’ Do you believe this ? It’s sometimes right but more often wrong. If this and hundreds of other sayings like it were true, there would be no need for weather science or meteorology.

(a) What is drought and what are its consequences?
(b) Does the writer endorse the popular sayings about the red sky ?
(c) Is weather forecasting a science; if so, what is it called ?
(d) Why is it not easy to forecast the weather ?
(e) How would the moon help the people in forecasting weather ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
N.B. Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
Karl Marx was no gentle dreamer about a better life. such as the Utopian socialists have been. He was a fighter. As he examined the relations between the capitalists and labourers of the world, his belief became clearer and sharper, until at last he was sure that he was dealing with a new science – the science of the means of production. He was sure that his ideas were not dreams but solid scientific facts, and he therefore referred to himself as a scientific socialist, so that people would not confuse him with the Utopians.

Marx and a friend named Friedrich Engels were in France during the revolution of 1848, and it was at this time they published a pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto. This was a call to battle for the labouring classes of the world: “Workers of the world, arise: you have nothing to lose but your chains.” The last years of Marx were spent in England writing his book Das Kapital (‘Capital’). Engels supported Marx and completed the work when the latter died, leaving the book unfinished.

Das Kapital is one of the most important books ever written. In it Marx expressed some astonishing and radical ideas. According to his economic theory, all the wealth in the world is produced by human labour. This is true of not only the goods turned out by factories and of the money received for such goods, but is true as well of the factories themselves, which were also built by human toil, and therefore represent a type of frozen and stored up labour. It is the workers, said Marx, rather than the capitalists, who have supplied this labour, and therefore the wealth should belong to them. They do not receive it, but are paid instead only a small fee for their efforts. The great difference between what the workers produce and what they are paid is surplus wealth, which goes to the owners of the factory, when it should go to the workers. Hence the workers are being exploited, or robbed, and the capitalists are growing wealthy. So said Marx.
Das Kapital also included Marx’s philosophy of history. According to this theory, in every age the social class that controls the source of wealth also controls the government and has power over the people. There is, however, a considerable overlapping. As the sources of wealth change, the, old group in power tends to hang on to its control of the government. For example, the nobles of the Middle Ages owned the land which was the key source of wealth at that time, and they also controlled the government.
With the coming of factories as the chief producers of wealth, the nobles retained their control of the various governments of Europe for many years. Finally, the businessmen, or capitalists, who controlled the new source of wealth gained control of the government. They still control it, said Marx, but it is an unfair situation, and will not continue. In time, the workers, who really produce the wealth, will get the power. As wealth piles up, the factories and other means of production will fall into fewer and fewer hands as the rich grow steadily richer. The poor, at the same time, will grow steadily poorer and more numerous until at last a point will be reached is which almost everybody will be living in misery to support a few fabulously wealthy individuals.
This situation will be so intolerable and so ridiculous that the great masses of the workers will rise up, take industry away from its owners, and run it for the benefit of the workers.

We now know that many of Karl Marx’s ideas were wrong, and that many of his predictions have not come true. Wealth has become more widely distributed rather than less, and the standard of living of the workers has gone up rather than down. Capitalists have proved not to be the evil ogres that Mary pictured them. Nevertheless, the ideas of Karl Marx have had a strong appeal for many people and a profound effect upon the history of the world. Communism. one of the greatest forces in the twentieth century, had its origins in the writings of Karl Marx.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
stay; reality; health; pertinent; proof; post; stretched; accident; rouse; provision
(i) I am not his ………………. brother.
(ii) He got up with a ……………… and a yawn.
(iii) Keep him …………….. with the latest news about his mother.
(iv) He fell into the gorge ………………… .
(v) I have sold off my farm-house and the land ………………….. to it.
(vi) Demagogues try ………………. the masses.
(vii) The new typist ……………….. to be useless.
(viii) I will go …………………. that my expenses are paid.
(ix) ……………… you have forgotten one thing.
(x) Had you taken the medicine, the wound …………………… by now.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb : 10
(i) dog
(ii) freeze
(iii) spoon
(iv) book
(v) refuse

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) Einstein was the greatest scientist of our century.
(Use the comparative degree)
(ii) Let us have a cup of coffee now.
(Use the right tag question)
(iii) She said. “Darling, why are you looking so pale ? Cheer up, please.”
(Change the mode of narration)
(iv) The fact is so evident that it requires no proof.
(Replace ‘so’ by ‘too’)
(v) He has to do his job well. (Change the voice)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) You are a mechanic; isn’t it ?
(ii) I have already availed of all the casual leave due to me.
(iii) The health of my brother is better than me.
(iv) He insisted to leave immediately.
(v) She congratulated him for his success.
(vi) The choice lies between honour or dishonour.
(vii) If it will rain, we shall stay back.
(viii) The ship was drowned in the sea.
(ix) By studying hard, his grades improved.
(x) I have to give my examination in April.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that, you think, is appropriate to fill in the blanks : 10
(i) The book has been ………………. for the Indian readership.
(adapted; adopted)
(ii) The case has been hanging fire because the judge is …………….. .
(disinterested; uninterested)
(iii) Trespassers will be ……………….. .
(persecuted; prosecuted)
(iv) He is a man of ……………… .
(principal; principle)
(v) Justice should be ……………. with mercy.
(tampered; tempered)
(vi) The condition of homeless people becomes ……………….. in winter.
(pitiful; pitiable)
(vii) He led a ……………. life.
(sensuous; sensual)
(viii) I vowed to …………… myself for the death of my cousin.
(avenge; revenge)
(ix) I have ……………. him a job in our company.
(assured; ensured)
(x) Aren’t you tired of this ……………… rain ?
(continual; continuous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
(i) to lead by the nose
(ii) pell- mell
(iii) gift of the gab
(iv) to make a dash
(v) to fish in troubled waters

2000

Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Man is saved not by faith but by work
(b) Indian Culture
(c) Contribution of Science to human progress
(d) Political reform you want in India
(e) Laughter is the best medicine

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow : 5 x 15 = 75
Two important stages came not so long before the dawn of written history. The first was the domestication of animals; the second was agriculture. Agriculture, which began in the river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia, was a step in human progress to which subsequently there was nothing comparable until our own machine age. Agriculture made possible an immense increase in the numbers of the human species in the regions where it could be successfully practised but at first these regions were few. These were in fact, only those in which nature fertilised the soil after each harvest. Agriculture met with violent resistance, analogous to that which our Ruskins and Samuel Butlers offered to machines. Pastoral nomads considered themselves vastly superior to the tame folk who stayed in one place and were enslaved to the soil. But although the nomads repeatedly won military victories, the physical comforts which the upper classes derived from agricultural serfs always prevailed in the end, and the area of agriculture gradually increased. Even now this process is not at an end, but what remains for it to achieve is no longer very important.

The only fundamental technical advance that preceded the emergence of man into recorded history was the invention of writing. Writing, like spoken language, developed gradually. It developed out of pictures, but as soon as it had reached a certain stage. it made possible the keeping of records and the transmission of information to people who were not present when the information was given.
(a) What was he second important stage in our pre-history and where did it begin?
(b) What happened in the regions where agriculture was successful ?
(c) What happened in the conflict between the nomads and agriculturists?
(d) What technical advance took place before the period of recorded history and what did it accomplish?
(e) Who considered themselves superior to whom and why ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage, in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided Marks will be deducted for precis not written on the precis-sheets. Marks will also be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter that the prescribed length. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
It has been estimated than the human population of 600 B.C. was about five million people, taking perhaps one million years to get there from two and a half million. The population did not reach 500 million until almost 8,000 years later-about 1650 A.D. This means it doubled roughly once every thousand years or so. It reached a billion people around 1850, doubling in some 200 years. It took on1y 80 years or so for the next doubling, as the population reached two billion around 1930. We have not completed the next doubling to four billion yet, but we now have well over three billion people. The doubling time at present seems to be about 37 years. Quite a reduction in doubling times: 1,000,000 years, 1,000 years, 200 years, 80 years, 37 years.

One of the most ominous facts of the current situation is that roughly 40% of the population of the undeveloped world is made up of people under 15 years old. As that mass of young people moves into its reproductive years during the next decade, we’re going to see the greatest baby boom of all time. Those youngsters are the reason for all the ominous predictions for the year 2000. They are the gun-powder for the population explosion.

How did we get into this bind ? It all happened along time ago, and the story involves the process of natural selection, the development of culture, and mans swollen head. The essence of success in evolution is reproduction …. for reproduction is the key to winning the evolutionary game. Any structure. physiological process or pattern of behaviour that leads to greater reproductive success will tend to be perpetuated. The entire process by which man developed involves thousands of millenia of our ancestors being more successful breeders than their relatives. Facet number one of our bind-the urge to reproduce has been fixed in us by billions of years of evolution.

Of course through all those years of evolution. our ancestors were fighting a continual battle to keep the birth rate ahead of the death rate. That they were successful is attested to by our very existence, for, if the death rate had overtaken the birth rate for any substantial period of time, the evolutionary line leading to man would have gone extinct. Among our apelike ancestors, a few million years ago, it was still very difficult for a mother to rear her children successfully. Most of the offspring died before they reached reproductive age. The death rate was near the birth rate. Then another factor entered the picture – cultural evolution was added to biological evolution.

Of course, in the early days the whole system did not prevent a very high mortality among the young, as well as among the older members of the group. Hunting and food-gathering is a risky business. Cavemen had to throve very impressive cave bears out of their caves before the men could move in. Witch doctors and shamans had a less than perfect record at treating wounds and curing disease. Life was short, if not sweet. Man’s total population size doubtless increased slowly but steadily as human populations expanded out of the African cradle of our species.

Then about 8,000 years ago a major change occurred – the agricultural revolution. People began to give up hunting food and settled down to grow it. Suddenly some of the risk was removed from life. The chances of dying of starvation diminished greatly in some human groups. Other threats associated with the nomadic life were also reduced, perhaps balanced by new threats of disease and large scale warfare associated with the development of cities. But the overall result was a more secure existence than before and the human population grew more rapidly. Around 1800, when the standard of living in what are today the developed countries was dramatically increasing due to industrialization, population growth really began to accelerate. The development of medical science was the straw that broke the camel’s back.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
characterize; coagulant; fright; globe; civilized;
disastrous; move; enthusiasm; pessimistic; philosophizing
(i) The ————- of clouds leads to changes in the weather.
(ii) Man’s continuance on earth is shrouded in ———– .
(iii) A cosmic ————– may end life on earth.
(iv) Vitamin K is essential for the ———— of blood.
(v) Is our ———- going on the right path
(vi) The economic. ———- of our country is changing.
(vii) Once in the jungle, the boys were ————– .
(viii) What does Indian ————- teach?
(ix) —————- is affecting India’s economy.
(x) He spoke ———— about the existence of God.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb. 10
(i) hunt
(ii) wound
(iii) discredit
(iv) team
(v) experience

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) “Shut the door after you,” she told him curtly.
(Change into indirect form)
(ii) Did she commit all the mistakes ?
(Change into passive voice)
(iii) Many difficulties are impossible to overcome.
(Use a single word for the underlined phrase)
(iv) Hard as he tried, the old man failed to find a buyer for his bicycle.
(Use “though”)
(v) She is so good that others cannot beat her.
(Replace “so” by “too”)

Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) She vividly described about the situation.
(ii) He chose only such men for his company whom he could trust.
(iii) He does not boast his-merits.
(iv) The rich lead a luxuriant life.
(v) The work was hard and exhaustive.
(vi) Sages had prophecied the coming of the prophet.
(vii) Earth may again be hit by a huge meteor.
(viii) He came to the city with a view to get a job.
(ix) He was angry upon me.
(x) Why she is doing this ?

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to till in the blanks : 10
(i) She has the ——————- to this property.
(wright ; right)
(ii) He has ——————- his own method for doing the work.
(devised ; deviced)
(iii) Fetch me a ——————- of water.
(pale ; pail)
(iv) All the ————— of the airline were grounded.
(aircraft ; aircrafts)
(v) The government has selected the ——————— for the hospital.
(site ; cite)
(vi) The ——————- of Kargil have fallen silent.
(canons ; cannons)
(vii) The tropic of ——————— is an imaginary line.
(Cancer ; cancer)
(viii) The budget —————— could not be offset.
(deficit ; deficiency)
(ix) When they came down the hill the ——————- was steep.
(descent ; decent)
(x) The government collapsed when there was a ————– in the party.
(fraction ; faction)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning : 5
(i) bring about
(ii) break in
(iii) heart and soul
(iv) lie low
(v) hold one’s breath

2001

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Knowledge is power
(b) Consequences of globalization
(c) Value of yoga
(d) Science and human happiness
(e) Tourism in India

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The world we live in presents an endless variety of fascinating problems which excite our wonder and curiosity. The scientific worker attempts to formulate these problems in accurate terms and to solve them in the light of all the relevant facts that can be collected by observation and experiment. Such questions as ‘What, ‘How’, ‘Where’ and ‘When’ challenge him to find the clues that may suggest possible replies. Confronted by the many problems presented by, let us say, an active volcano, we may ask ‘What are the lavas made of? How does the volcano work and how Is the heat generated? Where do the lavas and gases come from? When did the volcano first begin to erupt and when is it likely to erupt again?

In terms of chemical compounds and elements, the question ‘How’ refers to processes — the way things are made or happen or change. The ancients regarded natural processes as manifestations of energy acting on or through matter. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes no longer reflect the erratic behaviour of the gods of the underworld; they arise from the action of the earth’s internal heat on and through the surrounding crust. The source of the energy lies in the material of inner earth. In many directions, of course, our knowledge is still incomplete, only the first of the questions we have asked about volcanoes, for example, can as yet be satisfactorily answered. The point is not that we now pretend to understand everything but that we have faith in the orderliness of natural processes. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation, we have come to believe that Nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments, she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.

(a) How does the author describe the task of the scientific worker?
(b) Why does the author speak about volcanoes?
(c) What does the equation ‘How’ refer to?
(d) How did the ancients look upon volcanoes and earthquakes?
(e) What does the author say about our knowledge of the world?

3. Make a précis of the following passage, in your own words, in about 230 words, on the special
précis-sheets provided. Marks will be deducted for précis not written on the précis sheets. Marks will
also be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. The précissheets
should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your précis. (75)

No amount of improvement and reconstruction in education will bear much fruit if our schools and colleges are undermined by indiscipline. An impartial examination makes it clear that students and teachers alike need more of the spirit of discipline. If proper education is to be given, acts of indiscipline prevalent in our educational institutions have to be checked. Indiscipline may take the shape of group indiscipline or individual indiscipline. Group indiscipline is the worse of the two. While as individuals many of our students are as good as students elsewhere, the tendency to group indiscipline has increased in recent years. Many causes have led to this group indiscipline. For various reasons under a foreign regime, acts of indiscipline became frequent, often necessitated by the political activities, which were launched against a foreign government. While there may have been justification for such indiscipline under different political circumstances, we feel that there is no justification on for such acts of indiscipline after the attainment of independence. The democratic constitution which the country has adopted permits the redressing of grievances through democratic machinery. It would be against all principles of democracy if such acts of indiscipline were to continue.

The real purpose of education is to train youth to discharge the duties of citizenship properly. All other objectives are incidental. Discipline, therefore, should be the responsibility of parents, teachers, the general public and the authorities concerned. There are some positive factors promoting discipline. The Indian student’s natural tendency is to be disciplined. It is only when forces act strongly on him that he may sometimes be led astray. He appreciates rules and is normally inclined to abide by them. Much can be done to encourage this trend in school and college life. Personal contact between teacher and pupil is essential. Emphasis is also to be laid on the role of the class teacher or tutorial guide in promoting general discipline and the welfare of the pupils. Further a greater responsibility should devolve upon the students themselves in the maintenance of discipline. Nothing is more calculated to develop a proper sense of self-discipline and proper behaviour than their enforcement, not by any outside authority with any symbol of punishment but by the students themselves. They should choose their own representatives to see that proper codes of conduct are observed.

Another important method of bringing home to pupils the value of discipline is through group games. It is on the playing fields that the virtue of playing the game for its own sake and the team spirit can be cultivated. Such extracurricular activities as Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, the National Cadet Corps, Junior Red Cross and Social Service activities will promote a proper spirit of discipline. The building up of a truly harmonious and united form of community life should be the endeavour of all progressive educational institutions.

Besides these positive factors, certain negative factors also promote discipline. The discipline of the youth of any country depends upon the discipline that is exercised by the elders. It is a well – known fact that in all democracies election time is a time offeverish activity not always conducted in the most healthy spirit, and the utilization by politicians of immature minds like students for purposes of electioneering campaigns, with or without slogans attached thereto, is not calculated to promote sound discipline among students. It should be considered an election offence for any member or party to utilize the services of pupils under the age of 17 in political or civic campaigns. Besides, while the educative value of leading politicians addressing our students from time to time may be readily admitted, the tendency often is for the leaders not to speak to the audience before hem but to a wider audience whose attention they wish to attract through the press. It is not  necessary that every speech made by a politician should be a political speech. Lastly, discipline among students can only be promoted if there is discipline among the staff. The teacher and the educational administrator should realize that their activities are all being watched by their pupils. To what extent, therefore, both in their personal conduct and in their general attitude to all problems concerning their country, they have to realize that there are limitations within which they must act for the best interests of education. Ultimately, it is the school or college atmosphere and the quality of the teachers there that ensure proper codes of conduct and discipline among our students.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: 10
Value, offend, strike, jealous, put, grant, disturb, learn, fly, economic
(i) The man …………………. into a rage and tore away his garments.
(ii) A sensible man never takes everything for ………………
(iii) No one seems to have taken ……………….at her manners.
(iv) When are you ………………out to sea again?
(v) I have no mind to trespass upon you ………………..time.
(vi) Try to rise above petty personal …………………
(vii) The officer ………………….through one paragraph and accepted the rest.
(viii) The report I have received is very …………………indeed.
(ix) She has sent her paper to a ………………..journal.
(x) These new measures will give a boost to our ………………………

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: 10
(i) tum
(ii) spell
(iii) part
(iv) contact
(v) meet

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed:
(i) You are too early for the show. (Use “enough”)
(ii) The Mahanadi is not as long as the Gange. (Use the comparative degree)
(iii) Varsha readily complied ……………..my request. (Fill in the gap with a preposition)
(iv) We are sure of his honesty. (Change into a complex sentence)
(v) Santa said, “Don’t open the window.” (Change into the indirect form)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: 10
(i) May 1 now take your leave?
(ii) The soup will taste better if it had more salt in it.
(iii) Is he used to come late everyday?
(iv) Your daughter is twelve years old, isn’t it?
(v) We must be true to our words.
(vi) Datta is living here since 1998.
(vii) A twenty miles walk is really very hard.
(viii) We watched the man to disappear in the woods.
(ix) Kalidas has written Meghadutam.
(x) Let’s have coffee.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks (10)
(i) He seems to be…………….. to hard work. (adverse; averse)
(ii) The building does not ………………..to safety regulations (conform; confirm)
(iii) Asharam was accused of …………the workers against the management. (exciting; inciting)
(iv) Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane…………… (crass; crash)
(v) Gagan uses expensive ………….for his letters. (stationery; stationary)
(vi) The factory was ………………making toys. (seized; ceased)
(vii) Shakil is …………….. at solving difficult crossword puzzles (ingenuous; ingenious)
(viii) I wish you a …………….. recovery (fast; speedy)
(ix) Everybody said that her decision was ………………. (judicious; judicial)
(x) You will have to ………………. your afternoon tea as we have no more sugar.
(forego; forgo)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning: 5
(i) deal in
(ii) prime of life
(iii) above board
(iv) dwell upon
(v) in full swing

2002

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The ways to enrich our regional languages.
(b) Whither Indian democracy today?
(c) Terrorism in India.
(d) Science and Religion.
(e) If I were the Prime Minister of India.

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The scientific and technological revolution has brought about fundamental changes in the socio – economic sphere. The use of diesel engine and electricity and the beginning of the application of atomic energy have changed the modes of production. These things have led to the concentration of capital in a few hands. Great enterprises are replacing cottage industries and small firms. The working classes have certainly benefited economically. The miracle of production has necessitated the miracle of consumption. Better amenities are available at a lower cost. A man can buy anything he wants today, if he can only afford. But what kinds of men are needed today for our society? Men who can cooperate in large groups, men whose tasks are standardized, men who feel free and independent and at the same time are willing to fit in the social machine without any friction. Modem man is faced with a sort of moral and spiritual dilemma. The crisis of values yawns before him. Today the old values are in the melting pot, and the new values have not found their foothold. Man has become the automaton he has contrived; he has lost ownership of himself. The discord between the development of positive science on the one hand and the dehumanization of man on the other is the worst crisis of the modem age.

Apart from the economic sphere, the socio-political sphere has not escaped this stratification and the congruent crisis of values. Since the Renaissance, man has been striving for individual rights and self-dignity. But under the present set-up, only two types of men are found — the conditioner and the conditioned. The propaganda offices and the planning bureaus have almost crushed the ‘individual self’, and it has resulted in the rise of the ‘social self. Due to this pressure, the personality fulfillment or its all- round development is denied to many.

(a) What has changed the modes of production today?
(b) What things are being replaced by great enterprise?
(c) What kind of men is needed today for our society?
(d) Why has man become the automation of his own creation?
(e) Is modem man able to attain personality fulfillment?

3. Make a précis of the following passage in your own language in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. Indicate the number of words used by you in your précis.

N.B.: Marks will be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. (75)
“What is the use of a house if you haven’t got a tolerable planet to put it on?” asked Henry David Thoreau. More than century later the Earth seems to be literally falling to pieces — recent environmental set-backs include billions of tonnes of ice shelves breaking off in the Antarctic and unusually warm temperatures in different parts of the world. Panic reactions range from predictions of sinking islands to the lamenting the ill-effects of global warming induced by release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The trouble is that we are too much obsessed with the problem of climatic Change to even acknowledge the fact that the state of the planet hinges on much more. Climatic change is at best a symptom of a far more complex malaise, just as a fever is most often only an Indicator of something that’s  gone awry in our body. It is time for a complete and comprehensive planetary health check that will examine the impacts of change in land use, loss of biodiversity, use of fertilizers and pesticides and consistent pollution of water bodies. This would overcome the  limitations of evaluating how ecosystems work by reacting to just one major environmental concern as is happening in the case of global warming. These considerations have been responsible for the setting up of an international panel, the Milleniurn Ecosystem Assessment. Financed by four major international bodies, including the UNO and the World Bank, the eco-panel was set up without much fuss last June (2001), and is expected to determine, over a period of four years and at a cost of $ 21 million, the state of the Earth’s ecosystems.

The eco-panel will have source inputs from more than 2,000 natural and social scientists the world over. Put simply, the Earth will go through the equivalent of a thorough physical analysis, so that biological, economic and social information can be collated to help scientists arrive at a final diagnosis. What is crucial, says one of the scientists, and is that “no one has previously tried to work out how all of these conflicting pressures interact.” The other important factor is how well we can orchestrate trade-offs and interactions in order to maintain ecological balance. Scientific bodies like the international Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have access to vast amounts of baseline data relating to the subject — although critics points out that the information available is mostly from the North, leaving the concerns of he south largely unrepresented. The newly-constituted eco-panel will have to take all these aspects into account. For instance, it will have to ensure that data collection is more representative of the regions of the world. Today, we have the advantage of sourcing data from remote sensing satellites as well. The information thus gathered would have to be sorted out and analyzed by specialists and also by generalists before the panel comes out with specific periodic predictions, prescriptions and warnings. The healing process can begin only if all the scientific evidence and direction is made available to a wide audience and not just restricted to policy makers. Rather than depending solely upon governments to listen to and take corrective action, the focus should now be on convincing individuals and communities whose collective or individual action will eventually make the difference between regression and recovery.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: (10)
ride, diminish, devotion, shout, watch, contest, disastrous, pleasure, philosophizing, finance.
(i) Mohan is …………to his father.
(ii) None seems to have been ……………with his speech.
(iii) She ……………at the peon when he sat down.
(iv) His …………….condition is at a low ebb now.
(v) Several candidates are ………………..the Panchayat elections.
(vi) The boy was frightened to …………………the movie.
(vii) What does Samkara’s ……………….teach us
(viii) Hariharans suspicious moves herald a………………….
(ix) In the circus show, I saw a bear ……………a bicycle.
(x) The chances of starvation deaths have ……………….today

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) race
(ii) hit
(iii) play
(iv) touch
(v) experiment

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically: 5
(i) “Do not make a noise.” said the teacher to his students. (Change into indirect form)
(ii) Han is so short that he cannot touch the ceiling. (Replace ‘so by ‘too’)
(iii) I gave him a ten-rupee not yesterday. (Change into passive voice)
(iv) She bought a house last year. The house is white. (Change into a simple sentence)
(v) Hard as he worked, he failed in the examination. (Use ‘though’)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) He boasts his achievements now and then.
(ii) She is living in this flat since 1995.
(iii) The Principal was angry upon the boys.
(iv) Character is more preferable than intelligence.
(v) Krishna hanged all the pictures on the wall.
(vi) The sceneries of Kashmir more me most.
(vii) Cattle is grazing in the field.
(viii) Han is going foreign next month.
(ix) She knew that I am leaving the place.
(x) His elder brother gave him many good advices.

(b) Of the words given in the brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks: 10
(i) The road accident proved to be…………… (fateful, fatal)
(ii) He got a ………………..opportunity to qualify in the test. (gold, golden)
(iii) Fariciabad is an …………….. city. (industrial, industrious)
(iv) An ashram is a ………………..place. (quite, quiet)
(v) Sohan’s handwriting is…………….(eligible. illegible)
(vi) We should not disturb the ……………. of his mind. (piece. peace)
(vii) You should ………………… an example to strengthen your viewpoint (site, cite)
(viii) Akbar was an …………………..to Humayun. (hair, heir)
(ix) Rajasthan is a well-known ……………….. (desert, dessert)
(ix) The ………………..turned me out of the class. (principle, principal)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning; (5)
(i) bring about
(ii) call names
(iii) run out
(iv) by leaps and bounds
(v) lame excuse

2003

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The Need for Alternative Sources of Energy
(b) The Role of Judiciary in India
(c) Freedom of Expression
(d) My Idea of an Administrator
(e) Pleasures of Reading

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 × 15 = 75)
This rule of trying always to do things as well as one can do them has an important bearing upon the problem of ambition. No man or woman should be without ambition, which is the inspiration of activity. But if one allows ambition to drive one to attempt things which are beyond one’s own personal capacity, then unhappiness will result: If one imagines that one can do everything better than other people, then envy and jealousy, those twin monsters, will come to sadden one’s days. But if one concentrates one’s attention upon developing one’s own special capacities, the things one is best at, then one does not worry over much if other people Ere more successful.

There are those again who are discontented with their own job and complain of drudgery. But there is no job in the world which does not contain a large element of drudgery. Do you imagine that a Prime Minister has no drudgery to do, or an artist, or an author? I loathe drudgery as much as any man; but I have learnt that the only way to conquer drudgery is to get through it as neatly, as efficiently as one can. You know I am right when I say that. A dull job slackly done becomes twice as dull; a dull job which you try to do just as well as you can becomes half as dull. Here again effort appears to me the main part of the art of living.

Have I any other, and less disagreeable, hints to suggest? I believe that every man and woman has somewhere tucked away inside them a sense of beauty. Without  this sense life on this earth is veiled in dim grey clouds. It may be that you do not care, or think you do not care, for poetry or art or music. If you make the least effort, you may find that some or all of these things will cause you sudden delight; and once you catch that delight it will never leave you. Because if life, as I believe, is a constantly renewed effort, then the human frame aid nerves require some relaxation.

(a) When does ambition lead to unhappiness?
(b) How can a person avoid envy and jealousy?
(c) How can we avoid the feeling of drudgery?
(d) Should we avoid ambition?
(e) What does the phrase “to get through it” mean?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 230 words. Marks will be deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and the length of the precis exceeds or falls short of more than 10 words of the prescribed length. State the number of words used by you in the precis and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Some wars in the past were quite as disorganizing and as destructive of the civilization of devastated areas as was the Second World War. North Africa has never regained the level of rosperity that t enjoyed under the Romans. Persia never recovered from the Mongols nor Syria from  the Turks. There have always been two kinds of wars, those in which the vanquished incurred disaster, and those in which they only incurred discomfort. We seem, unfortunately, to be entering upon an era in which wars are of the former sort.

The atom bomb, and still more the hydrogen bomb, have caused new fears, involving new doubts as to the effects of science on human life. Some eminent authorities, including Einstein, have pointed out that there is a danger of the extinction of all life on this planet. I do not myself think that this will happen in the next war, but I think it may well happen in the next but one, if that is allowed to occur. If this expectation is correct, we have to choose, within the next fifty years or so, between two alternatives. Either we must allow the human race to exterminate itself, or we must forgo certain liberties which are very dear to us, more especially the liberty to kill foreigners whenever we fell so disposed. I think it probable that mankind will choose its own extermination as the preferable alternative. The choice will be made, of course, by persuading ourselves that it is not being made, since (so militarists on both sides will say) the victory of the right is certain without risk of universal disaster. We are perhaps living in the last age of man, and, if so, it is to science that he will owe his extinction.

If, however, the human race decides to let itself go on living, it will have to make very drastic changes in its ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. We must learn not to say ‘Never! Better death than dishonour’. We must learn to submit to law, even when imposed by aliens whom we hate and despise, and whom we believe to be blind to all considerations of righteousness. Consider some concrete examples. Jews and Arabs will have to agree to submit to arbitration; if the award goes against the Jews, the President of the United States will have to ensure the victory of the party to which he is opposed, since, if he supports the international authority, he will lose the Jewish vote in New York State. On the other hand, if the award goes in favour of the Jews, the Mohammedan world will be indignant, and will be supported by all other malcontents. Or, to take another instance, Eire will demand the right to oppress the Protestants of Ulster, and on this issue the United States will support Eire while Britain will support Ulster. Could an international authority survive such a dissension?

Again: India and Pakistan cannot agree about Kashmir, therefore one of them must support Russia and the other the United States. It will be obvious to anyone who is an interested party in one of these disputes that the issue is far more important than the continuance of life on our planet. The hope that the human race will allow itself to survive is therefore somewhat slender. But if human life is to continue in spite of science, mankind will have to learn a discipline of the passions which, in the past, has not been necessary. Men will have to submit to the law, even when they think the law unjust and iniquitous. Nations which are persuaded that they are only demanding the barest justice will have to acquiesce when this demand is denied them by the neutral authority. I do not say that this is easy; I do not prophesy that it will happen; I say only that if it does not happen the human race will perish, and will perish as a result of science.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of the words given below: (10)
offensive, imagination, psychological, conceive, vacation, entire, enthusiasm, lacerating, deify, margin
(i) I do not believe in the ……………….of an ordinary politician.
(ii) She could not bear to look at his …………….hand.
(iii) Most people do not have any clear ……………of judicial activism.
(iv) Who can dare to ………………….the boss?
(v) A sensible person can ………………….the plight of others.
(vi) You have to consider the matter in its …………………
(vii) It is difficult to ………………..such dullards.
(viii) We can no longer ………………..the poor and the suppressed.
(ix) You will have to …………….the house.
(x) ………………..is an interesting subject.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) help
(ii) nurse
(iii) judge
(iv) pillory
(v) round

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed within brackets: (5)
(i) No metal is as costly as gold. (Use the comparative degree of “costly”)
(ii) I doubt if you have done it. (Change into a negative sentence without changing the meaning)
(iii) He was elected leader. (Change into active voice)
(iv) She confessed that she was guilty. (Turn it into a simple sentence)
(v) She said, “Can you write a poem?” (Change into indirect speech)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) Each of the scholars, belonging to various countries, have spoken about it.
(ii) All were present except he and his sister.
(iii) I wonder if ten thousand rupees are a large sum.
(iv) She lay the table an hour ago.
(v) He absented from the class for no reason.
(vi) He is untidy boy.
(vii) All his plans fell out for lack of help.
(viii) Of milk, coke and coffee the latter is my favourite.
(ix) All this happened prior 1971 war.
(x) Scarcely had she gone that he arrived.

(b) Choose the appropriate words given in the brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences: (10)
(i) Nehruji made a ………………. speech in Parliament on this occasion.
(historical, historic)
(ii) Such heavy responsibilities cannot be ………………….easily.
(born, borne)
(iii) The doctor visits him on ………………….days.
(alternative, alternate)
(iv) I do not know why he is …………………..towards me.
(contemptuous, contemptible)
(v) To work for more than eight hours is quite ……………………
(exhaustive, exhausting)
(vi) Democracy does not allow the ………………..of the minorities.
(prosecution, persecution)
(vii) No meeting of the ……………..of ministers has been scheduled for tomorrow.
(council, cabinet)
(viii) All worldly pleasures are considered to be …………………..by saints.
(momentary, momentous)
(ix) Any …………………. of secret documents is punishable by law.
(tempering, tampering)
(x) He is an ……………..person to work with.
(amiable, amenable)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) to come across
(ii) to be cut out for
(iii) over head and ears
(iv) to see eye to eye
(v) to draw the line

2004

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) Indian Budget is a Gamble on the Monsoons
(b) Necessity of Water-Harvesting in India
(c) Social Harmony vs. Communal Frenzy
(d) Criminalization of Politics
(e) ‘All That Glitters Is Not Gold’

2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow at the end (5 x 15 = 75)
The flowering of Indian civilization constitutes one of the most glorious chapters in the history of mankind. A culture, remarkable for its moral no less than for its material creativity, which has endured for three millennia and more, is necessarily a subject of great fascination. Yet over and above its longevity, Indian civilization is also characterized by some other features which deserve to be highlighted in any review of its past. The ability of this civilization to absorb alien cultures without losing its distinctive identity has intrigued scholars over the centuries; and this capacity for creative absorption is as much in evidence today, when India is undergoing a seminal transformation into a modern industrial community, as it was in the centuries past, when alien communities with novel ways of life migrated into the subcontinent, to be drawn into the living matrix of Indian society; The continuity of Indian civilization rests very substantially upon social institutions and upon the dissemination of a common corpus of religious values among different classes and communities in the subcontinent.

This civilization was also geared to a cycle of agricultural activity which substantially determined the total ordering of society. Hence, the fact that the great epicentres of Indian civilization were located in the plains of the Indus and the Ganga in the north; and those of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery in the south. Over the centuries the people living in these riverine regions had conjured into existence a round of economic activity and a set of social institutions, which were designed to produce the agricultural wealth which sustained life. Indeed, the structure of rural society; with a central place occupied by the cultivating classes, which were linked by ties of patronage and prescription to numerous artisanal and menial groups; and the fabric of caste society; with the interlocking institutions of Varna and Jati has to be looked upon as the historical answer of the Indian genius to the needs of sustaining production in a rural society; The striking feature of this social organization was the premium which it put on self-sufficiency and survival within the framework of an agrarian civilization.

(a) What is the most distinctive feature of Indian civilization?
(b) Which section of the society occupied a central place in Indian civilization?
(c) Identify the great epicentres of Indian civilization as narrated in the passage.
(d) On what did the Indian social organization lay emphasis?
(e) What does the phrase “conjured into existence” mean?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will be deduced if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

There is some similarity between Italy and India. Both are ancient countries with long raditions of culture behind them, though Italy is a newcomer compared to India, and India is a much more vast country Both are split up politically, and yet the conception of Italia, like that of India, never died, and in all their diversity the unity was predominant. In Italy the unity was largely a Roman unity, for that great city had dominated the country and been the fount and symbol of unity. In India there was no such single centre or dominant city, although Benares might well be called the Eternal City of the East, not only for India, but also for Eastern Asia. But, unlike Rome, Benares never dabbled in empire or thought of temporal power. Indian culture was so widespread all over India that no part of the country could be called the heart of that culture. From Kanyakumari to Amarnath and Badrinath in the Himalayas, from Dwarka to Pun, the same ideas coursed, and if there was a clash of ideas in one place, the noise of it soon reached distant parts of the country. Just as Italy gave the gift of culture and religion to Western Europe, India did so to Eastern Asia though China was as old and venerable as India. And even when Italy was lying prostrate politically, her life coursed through the veins of Europe. It was Metternich who called Italy a “geographical expression”, and many a would-be Metternich has used that phrase for India, and, strangely enough, there is a similarity even in their geographical positions in the two continents.

More interesting is the comparison of England with Austria, for has not England of the twentieth century been compared to Austria of the nineteenth, proud and haughty and imposing still, but with the roots that gave strength shriveling up and decay eating its way into the mighty fabric. It is curious how one cannot resist the tendency to give an anthropomorphic form to a country. Such is the force of habit and early associations. India becomes Bharat Mata, Mother India, a beautiful lady, very old but ever youthful in appearance, sad-eyed and forlorn, cruelly treated by aliens and outsiders, and calling upon her children to protect her. Some such picture rouses the emotions of hundreds of thousands and drives them to action and sacrifice. And yet India is in the main, the peasant and the worker, not beautiful to look at, for poverty is not beautiful.

Does the beautiful lady of our imaginations represent the bare-bodied and bent workers in the fields and factories? Or the small group of those who have from ages past crushed the masses and exploited them, imposed cruel customs on them and made many of them even untouchable ? We seek to cover truth by the creatures of our imaginations and endeavour to escape from reality to a world of dreams. And yet, despite these different classes and their mutual conflicts there was a common bond which united them in India, and one is amazed at its persistence and tenacity and enduring vitality. What was this strength due to? Nor merely the passive strength and weight of inertia and tradition, great as these always are. There was an active sustaining principle, for it resisted successfully powerful outside influences and absorbed internal forces that rose to combat it.

And yet with all its strength it could not preserve political freedom or endeavour to bring about political unity. These latter do not appear to have been considered worth much trouble; their importance was very foolishly ignored, and we have suffered for this neglect. Right through history the old Indian ideal did not glorify political and military triumph, and it looked down upon money and the professional moneymaking class. Honour and wealth did not go together, and honour was meant to go, at least in theory, to the men who served the community with little in the shape of financial reward. The old culture managed to live through many a fierce storm and tempest, but though it kept its outer form, it lost its real content. Today it is fighting silently and desperately against a new and all-powerful opponent — the bania civilization of the capitalist West. It will succumb to this newcomer, for the West brings science, and science brings food for the hungry millions. But the West also brings an antidote to the evils of this cut-throat civilization — the principles of socialism, of cooperation, and service to the community for the common good.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below: (10)
burn, near, harm, perfect, invite, create, join, administer, spendthrift, skill

(i) I did not accept the ……………….because I was angry
(ii) An honest man is the noblest …………….of God.
(iii) His father prevented him from ……………….a dance school.
(iv) A judge should ……………..equal justice to all.
(v) He looks gentle enough, but he can be …………………at times.
(vi) He has ………………his case to my satisfaction.
(vii) Your opponent is too …………………to cope with.
(viii) Despite suggestions to the contrary, he continued to be a ……………
(ix) The ………………..sun made the traveller thirsty.
(x) Bombay is the seaport ……………to Europe.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) present
(ii) move
(iii) issue
(iv) pain
(v) crowd

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed within brackets: (5)

(i) He had to sign or be executed.
(Turn into a complex sentence)

(ii) Given the order.
(Use the passive form)

(iii) I was doubtful whether it was you.
(Turn into a negative sentence)

(iv) He was disgraced his family.
(Use the noun form of “disgraced”)

(v) He was so tired that he could not stand.
(Turn into a simple sentence replacing “so” by “too”)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) The rain was accompanied by hail and storm.
(ii) I cannot help but think that he is a fool.
(iii) I have never seen a clever man at engineering than him.
(iv) It is all the more better if he marries your daughter.
(v) Objections to this proposal can be stated as thus.
(vi) He travelled from one corner of India to the other.
(vii) She could not make up the mind.
(viii) They tried to wipe out the poor widow’s tears.
(ix) It is the best ideal each person may aspire for.
(x) You are not entitled for admission

(b) Choose the appropriate words from those given in the brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences:10

(i) She has a ………………….appearance.
(gracious, graceful)

(ii) Out principal is a man of kind and ………………nature
(judicious, judicial)

(iii) He is ………………to both praise and blame.
(sensible, sensitive)

(iv) Gandhiji was the ………………head of the Congress party
(virtuous, virtual)

(v) I do not regard his scheme as ………………
(practicable, practical)

(vi) The Equator is an ……………… line round the world.
(imaginative, imaginary)

(vii) The ship sailed ashore in spite of ……………… difficulties.
(elemental, elementary)

(viii) Acts of ……………… negligence are punishable by law.
(willing, wilful)

(ix) He was offered a ………………job.
(temporal, temporary)

(x) I am the ………………owner of the house.
(rightful, righteous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) to call forth
(ii) to fall through
(iii) to get along
(iv) to lay bare
(v) to put up with

2005

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Environment and Conservation
(b) Role of Women in Social Transformation
(c) Nuclear Energy in War and Peace
(d) India’s Foreign Policy and World Power
(e) Television and its Impact on Youth

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
It is wrong to believe that science has totally eclipsed literature with its inspiring zeal. That  literature plays a subordinate role to science is equally untrue. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that  science has comparatively a wider range for its impact on the physical world than literature. But that  does not mean that literature has been incorporated in the realm of science to the extent that it loses  its distinct individuality. The reality is that both co-exist without the one overshadowing the other,  Those who think that science has pushed literature into shade reducing it to a non-entity seem to be  simply imaginative and illogical in the comparisons of their respective merits. It is no doubt unquestionable that products of science are of greater material value than those which make an   emotional appeal, e.g., a bridge is of greater use to the public than a poem. But thereby one should  not ignore the importance of a poem which will continue to appeal to human mind for time to come.  It is indisputable that a scientific theory like the one propounded by Einstein is not without its  philosophical import as it lays its impress on the future growth of literature. But to be effective in  this respect, science should unfold its principles by appealing to human emotions and not through  crude and concrete material facts. Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection in its exposition of the  evolution of man by appeal to emotions and imagination of men has been conducive to the growth of  nineteenth century literature. Mans emotional attitudes to life and vicissitudes of his fortune are  colored not only by his inherited instincts and faith in his fate but also by his hope in point of  longevity of life and betterment of future prospects. Oriented by a scientific theory, they give a  colour to literature.

Literature feeds the emotional and imaginative hunger of man in this perspective science will  not oust literature but enrich it by its impact on human life. Science can provide amenities of life for  human comfort but fails to lend or impart spiritual pleasure Delight that literature instills in man far  transcends the comforts which science provides.

(a) What is the basic contribution of science to humankind?
(b) What aspect of human life is fulfilled by works of literature?
(c) How have Darwin’s and Einstein’s theories proved conducive to the growth of literature?
(d) How is science friendly and not hostile to the growth of literature?
(e) Briefly enumerate the key ideas in the passage.

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will he deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or  shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and  securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Gautama, the Buddha, has suffered as much as anyone from critics without a sense of history.  He has been cried up, and cried down, with an equal lack of historical imagination”. Buddhism came  to be widely known in the west in the latter part of the 19th century when a wave of scepticism  spread over the world as a result of the growth of science and enlightenment. Positivism, agnosticism  atheism and ethical humanism found wide support. In much of the literature of doubt and disbelief,  the name of Buddha is mentioned with respect. The humanists honour him as one of the earliest  protagonists of their cause- the happiness the dignity, and the mental integrity of mankind.

Those  who declare that man cannot know reality and others who affirm that there is no reality to know, use  his name. Agnostics quote his example. Social idealists, ethical mystic’s rationalist prophets are all  attracted by his teaching.  Great as is the value of the Buddha’s teaching for our age, we cannot hope to understand its  true significance without reference to the environment in which he lived. This effort of historical  imagination is not easy. To view the Buddha as a thinker of the sixth century B.C., living, moving  and teaching in its peculiar conditions, is a task of extreme difficulty and delicacy; and the work of  reconstruction can never be complete. But we may be reasonably certain that it yields a picture  which in its main outlines, at least, must correspond fairly well to the reality.  The supremacy of the ethical is the clue to the teaching of the Buddha. His conceptions of life  and the universe are derived from his severely practical outlook. The existence of everything  depends on a cause. If we remove the cause, the effect will disappear. If the source of all suffering is  destroyed, suffering will disappear. The only way in which we can remove the cause of suffering is  by purifying the heart and following the moral law. Man is not divine but is to become divine. His  divine status is something to be built up by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. The ego  consists of the feelings that burn us, of the passions we brood over, of the desires that hunt us and of  the decisions we make. These are the things that give life its dramatic character. There is nothing  absolute and permanent in them.

That is why we can become something different from what we are.  The reality of the person is the creative will. When we deny the clamour of emotions, stay the stream  of things, silence the appetites of body, we feel the power of self within our own being.  For the Buddha, the impulse to dharma, to justice and kindliness is operative in things, and its  efficient activity will mean the reduction of disorder, cruelty and oppression. Dharma is organic to  existence and its implication of karma or right action is the builder of the world. There is not in the  Buddha’s teaching that deep personal loyalty, passion of love, and intimate dialogue between soul  and soul resembling closely in its expression of earthly love. And yet the essence of religion, the  vision of a reality which stands beyond and within the passing flux of immediate things, the intuitive  loyalty to something larger than and beyond oneself, and absolute active in the world, is in him.  We find in Gautama, the Buddha, in powerful combination, spiritual profundity and moral  strength of the highest order and a discreet intellectual reserve.

He is one of those rare spirits who  bring to men a realization of their own divinity and make the spiritual life seem adventurous and  attractive, so that they may go forth into the world with a new interest and a new joy of heart. While  his great intellect and wisdom gave him comprehension of the highest truth, his warm heart led him  to devote his life to save from sorrow suffering humanity. The greatness of his personality, his  prophetic zeal, and burning love for suffering humanity made a deep impression on those with whom  he lived; but his true greatness stands out clearer and brighter as the ages pass, and even the sceptical  minded are turning to him with a more real appreciations a deeper reverence and a truer worship. He  is one of those few heroes of humanity who have made epochs in the history of our race, with a  message for other times as well as their own.

4. (a) Correct the following sentences:  (10)
(i) Too great a variety of studies destruct the mind.
(ii) The whole fleet of their ships were captured
(iii) Each of these students have done their work.
(iv) None but fools has ever believed it.
(v) He is one of the cleverest boys that has passed through the school.
(vi) My friend, philosopher and guide have come.
(vii) The majority are opposed to this proposal.
(viii) He told me that he saw his father last month.
(ix) If he would have worked hard, he would have passed the examination.
(x) Unless he will be more careful, he will not recover.

(b) Add the suffix ‘able’ or ‘ible’ to each of the following words making necessary changes in spelling. Write out the “new” words. (10)
(i) Advice
(ii) Contempt
(iii) Force
(iv) Access
(v) Value
(vi) Reduce
(vii) Discern
(viii) Agree
(ix) Detach
(x) Reverse

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) Apple of discord
(ii) A bolt from the blue
(iii) A feather in one’s cap
(iv) Achilles’ heel
(v) A man of letters

5. (a) Which of the two words within brackets in the following sentences is correct in the context? (10)
(i) Poets often (sore, soar) to great heights of imagination.
(ii) Knowledge (proceeds, proceeds) from the Goddess of Learning.
(iii) The tower was struck by (lightning, lightening) and fell down.
(iv) Kanpur lies on the air (rout, route) to Calcutta.
(v) Everyone is (jealous, zealous) of him.
(vi) The crocodile emerged from the river and (seized, ceased) a goat.
(vii) He was found in (collusion, collision) with the plotters.
(viii) Wicked persons are not (illegible, eligible) for responsible posts.
(ix) He is a man of (lose, loose) character.
(x) The Emperor is staying at the royal (mansion, mention).

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) Book
(ii) Bare
(iii) Clam
(iv) Drive
(v) Face

(c) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (10)
(i) He said, “I am too ill to speak now.”
(ii) The policeman said to the man, “Where are you going?”
(iii) She said to her children, “Let me work undisturbed.”
(iv) He said to the students, “Do not sit here.”
(v) He said, “May god pardon the sinner.”

2006

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Social Impact of Black Money
(b) Women Combat Forces
(c) Internet as Virtual Library
(d) Fashion Boom in India
(e) Are we Aggressive and Rude People?

2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language (5 x 15 = 75)
There is no reason to believe that there are fundamental differences between the East and the West. Human beings are everywhere human and hold the same deepest values. The differences which are, no doubt, significant, are related to external, temporary social conditions and are alterable with them. East and West are relative terms. They are geographical expressions and not cultural types. The differences among countries like China, Japan and India are quite as significant as those among European or American countries. Specific cultural patterns with distinctive beliefs and habits developed in different regions in relative isolation from one another. There were periods when China and India were pre-eminent in cultural affairs, others when Western nations became dominant. For the last four centuries Western nations aided by scientific development have dominated the East. The world has now reached a state of inter-communication. All societies are fast becoming industrialized and new sets of values are springing up. We are called upon to participate in the painful birth of a new civilization. If we are to live together in peace we must develop international cooperation and understanding.

It is for the political leaders to determine the practical steps by which the sources of power and communication now available to us can be used for closer cooperation and friendliness among the people of the world. No political understanding can be made permanent without understanding at the cultural level. Apart from its intrinsic importance, such understanding contributes to the enrichment of human experience. Facile generalizations are made by philosophers of history which are highly misleading. Hegel in his Lectures on the philosophy of History says that ‘Persia is the land of light; Greece the land of grace; India the land of dream; Rome the land of Empire,’

(a) What does the passage say about cultural differences in different regions?
(b) What comments does the author make about the similarities and dissimilarities between the East and the West?
(c) What, according to the passage, is the role of communication in building up a new civilization?
(d) How will cultural understanding at the international level benefit human societies?
(e) Why does the author call the statements of Hegel ‘facile generalization’?

3. Make a precis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on the separate precis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. Clearly state the number of words in the precis at the end. (75)

We all show our feelings on issues by the way we look and react. This has been referred to as body language. We tend to lean forward, hand on chin when we are interested, or turn away when disinterested. Our hands and arms can indicate we are open to what is being said by being relaxed, or show that we are not by being clenched or crossed. We are, therefore, making body pictures of what we feel and think all the time. Indeed people who are taking to us can often get as much information from our body posture as from what we say of how we say it. We might calmly but show we are anxious by moving from foot to foot or by blushing. It is hard to control one’s behavioural reactions, for it is more of a stimulus response reaction than the words we use.

Nevertheless through training it is feasible to portray the image you want to others. With the advent of television as a major political medium there is a lot of effort going into grooming representatives of organizations and particularly chief executives to control their gestures and gesticulations. All this may sound as if you need to be a good actor in order to be successful at conversation control. The answer is, in one sense you do. There is no use in saying one thing and doing another. The actual visual behaviour of shaking your head, for example while saying yes will deafen the words. Those who are effective at conversation control act in a congruent way. Their behaviour matches their words. You can see they mean what they say. They present an authentic picture because their visuals match their verbals.  With practice it is possible to improve performance in conversation without adding any more words. The improvement can come because you improve your visual gestures and gesticulations. For example, you can encourage another person by smiling when he/she says something that pleases you. Indeed the smile is a very powerful gesture. It can switch people ‘on and off’ if done at the appropriate time.

Psychologists refer to the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. To be skilled in conversation control you need to know and apply these laws. Conditioning means having an effect on someone’s behaviour by introducing a condition that either encourages or discourages that behaviour. For example, we have all been conditioned to stop when we see a red light at a traffic intersection, and to proceed if we see a green light. People can be conditioned in conversation by such visual cues. For example if you want someone to continue talking, smile and nod at regular intervals. The smile sets up the green light permission as a condition for the other person to speak. The nod reinforces what is being said and gives the unspoken permission to continue. People are very sensitive to such permission cues and clues. If you stop smiling and head nodding, they will usually stop and you can then contribute. Likewise you can influence the attention of people with whom you are talking by the way you use your eyes and hands, particularly when you are addressing a group. To exercise control it is important to make eye contact with one or more people. If it is a group, move your eye contact from time to time so that each person is being conditioned to the fact that it could be their turn next for you to speak to them.

Body language and the gestures and gesticulations you make are key aspects of conversation control. Many books have been written on the subject of how our body very often tells others what we are thinking before we have spoken. The visual clues get through much more quickly than the verbal ones. Also use your hands to emphasize a point or get them to direct the listener’s gaze where you want it to concentrate. The pointed finger or the open palm tells the story. Our task is to line up what we say with what we do and vice versa, if you do clench your fist and are angry, then your words should reflect this. If you are relaxed, happy and smiling, they say no. (words: 705)

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10)
(i) Neither percept nor dscipline are so forceful as example.
(ii) Do you know if there is a house for letting in the neighbourhood.
(iii) Who you said was coming to see me in the morning?
(iv) He was finding it increasingly difficult to mike his two ends meet.
(v) The poor people of the village buy neither vegetables nor grow them,
(vi) On entering the hail, the humber of visitors surprised me
(vii) The short story should not exceed more than two hundred words.
(viii) Before giving the mixture to the child shake it thoroughly.
(ix) Nothing has or could be more tragic than his death.
(x) The reason that the students these days are so undisciplined is that they do not get any guidance from their parents.

(b) Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition/particle and rewrite the completed sentences: (5)
(i) I told him that he could not catch a big fish __________ a small rod.
(ii) He was taken __________ task for shortage in cash balance.
(iii) The father pulled ___________ his son for his extravagant habits.
(iv) He is so clever, it is difficult to see __________ his tricks.
(v) I have been invited by my friend __________ tea.

(c) Choose the appropriate verb form to fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences: (5)
(i) The efficiency of a plant ________ by the load it can take.
(A) knows (B) is known
(C) has been known (D) has known

(ii) Everyday last week my aunt _______ a plate.
(A) breaks (B) was broken
(C) broke (D) has broken

(iii) If I _________ one more question, I would have passed.
(A) had answered (B) would have answered
(C) would answer (D) has broken

(iv) He promised _______________ me a post in his department.
(A) to have given (B) having given
(C) have given (D) to give

(v) Please don’t ______________ when you go out.
(A) leave opening the door (B) leave the door open
(C) Leave the door opened (D) leave open the door

(d) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (5)
(i) He said, “I will not approve of such a behaviour in future.”
(ii) He said on the telephone, “We kept on doing our work till late night.”
(iii) She said, “As your mother is ill, you must go home at once.”
(iv) Ram said to Sita, “Do you intend to come with me to the forest?”
(v) The child said to the Sherpa, “Why didn’t you choose to climb to the Moon?”

5. (a) Fill in the blank with an appropriate derivative of the word given within brackets & rewrite the sentences: (10)
For example: It has been raining (continue) continuously for two days.
(i) She had few rights but all the (responsible) _______ of her work.
(ii) Women chose not to vote (machine) ____________ at the bidding of their men folk.
(iii) In South Africa, certain areas are (exclude) __________ meant for white people.
(iv) The Pathans of the Frontier are (descend) __________ of Genghis Khan.
(v) The court ordered him a heavy fine and (prison) ____________ of 3 years.
(vi) India lodged a complaint with Pakistan for (courage) ________ terrorism in Kashmir.
(vii) Candidates with Graduate degrees in (Human) _________and Arts prefer office jobs.
(viii) Despite ne call for ceasefire, the war continued (abate) __________.
(ix) A creative person is known for his (source) ___________ and flexibility.
(x) The police could not control the situation as the protesters (number) _________ them manifold.

(b) Make sentences using the following words as directed so as to bring out the meaning: 10
(i) Pitch (as noun and verb)
(ii) Mirror (as noun and verb)
(iii) Humble (as adjective and verb)
(iv) In (as adverb and preposition)

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5)
(i) bell the cat
(ii) thank one’s stars
(iii) be on tenterhooks
(iv) true to one’s salt colours
(v) come ant with flying

2007

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Heritage Tourism is Good for Us
(b) Importance of a Work-Ethic
(c) Should Mercy-Killing be Legalized for Terminally ill Patients?
(d) The Culture of Modesty
(e) “Eternal Vigilance is the Price of Liberty”.

2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language: (5 x 15 = 75)
An educated man should know what is first-rate in those activities which spring from the creative and intellectual faculties of human nature, such as literature, art, architecture and music. I should like to add science and philosophy, but in these two subjects it is difficult for any but the expert to estimate quality, and many educated people have not the close knowledge necessary to judge their real worth. On the other hand everyone has close and daily contact with the other four. Architecture surrounds him in every city, literature meets him on every book-stall, music assails his ears on his radio set and from every juke-box; and art in its protean aspects of form and colour is a part of daily life. The architecture may often be bad, the literature and music often puerile, the art often undeserving of the name; but that is all the more reason why we should be able, in all of them, to distinguish good from bad.

To judge by the literature offered us in hotel book-stands, and by most of the music played on the radio and by jukeboxes we might be more discriminating in these fields than we are if it be said that music and art and literature are not essentials of life but. its frills, I would reply that if so, it is curious that they are among the few immortal things in the world, and that should a man wish to be remembered two thousand years hence, the only certain way is to write a great poem or book, compose a great symphony, paint a great picture, carve a great sculpture, or build a great building.

(a) What is it that is necessary for an educated person to know?
(b) Why does the author exclude science and philosophy from it?
(c) What makes it practically easy for an educated man to be able to know literature, art, architecture and music?
(d) How does exposure to ordinary literature and music help us?
(e) What is the author’s argument to prove that music, art and literature are essentials of life?

3. Make a précis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The précis must be written on the separate précis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. (75)

What part should reading play in our lives? It should certainly not be a substitute for action, not for independent thinking, nor for conversation; but it may be a help and stimulant to action; thought and talk; and it is capable of providing almost infinite pleasure. There on our bookshelves or on summons from a library are wits, wisdom, adventure, romance from all ages and from all over the world. Is there any wonder that our eyes sometimes stray wistfully to the bookshelves and away from a dull visitor, or that we shirk a tiresome duty for an exciting book?

Books or people? Reading or conversation, listening in to a broadcast or watching a television programme? Which is the better way to gain knowledge or to spend your leisure? Some fortunate people seem always to find time for both and to enjoy both almost equally. My great friend, Arthur Wanchope, a fine soldier, an able administrator and a very gifted personality, was a constant reader; yet always ready to lay aside a book for talk.

The advantages of reading over talk are, of course, many. We can select the book that suits our mood, can go at our own pace, skip or turn back whereas we cannot turn over two pages of a tedious companion or close him or her, with a bang. But reading too has its own drawbacks. It lacks the human touch, the salt of life, and is therefore a dangerous substitute for thought or action. Bacon in one of his essays observes that reading maketh a full man; conference (that is talking) a ready man; and writing an exact man. One would like to be full of knowledge, ready in speech and exact by training. What short of books have impressed me and what books have found a permanent place  on my bookshelves?

To begin with my profession-soldiering. I do not believe that soldiering, a practical business,  in which human nature is the main element, can be learnt from text-books. But for those who have  grasped the principles of war and have understood that the human factor is the most important element in it. There is military reading that is quite fascinating and valuable. Real and re-read the campaigns of the great commanders, said Napoleon. I would venture to put it differently and would say that the lives and characters of the great commanders are what students of war should examine, since their campaigns are only incidents in them; and that the behaviour of leaders and of their men in the field is the real subject for study.

In my general reading history, biography and travel occupy a prominent place; and since I have spent a considerable proportion of my life in the East there are a good number of volumes on India and the Middle East. There is plenty of poetry on my shelves and a good deal of it is in my head. Poetry should dance in the mind, and blow one a kiss; or gallop to adventure with a cheer; or whisper gently of things past; not shuffle or slouch past with dark incomprehensible mutterings. Perhaps I am getting old, anyway I prefer the old poets.

Lastly comes what is sometimes called ‘escapist literature, the books we read with no other aim, than to rest or amuse the mind; to forget the day’s chores and the morrow’s anxieties. This is perhaps the most pleasant form of reading for most, and I suspect the only form of reading for many. The volume chosen may either be a thriller or soother — a thriller to bring sense of adventure into the dull daily routine or a soother to rest tired nerves. Our grandfathers in their leisurely days were content with the stately, comfortable three volume novel, but that had passed before the beginning of this century.

You will choose your books as you choose your friends, with taste and discrimination; I hope; because they can tell you something of your profession and interests, because they are wise and helpful, because they can stir your blood with tales of adventure, or because they are gay and witty. I can only wish you will get as much pleasure from them as I get from my books.  (Words: 703)

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10)
(i) The Greeks were brave peoples.
(ii) His hat was blown off by the strong air.
(iii) I am the one who am to blame.
(iv) We should sympathies with blind.
(v) I’d rather play cricket and not swim.
(vi) Walking through the front door a wasp stung him.
(vii) Two plus nine are eleven.
(viii) I have built the house in 1960.
(ix) Their wedding has not been a very happy one.
(x) Choose only such friends whom you can trust.

(b) Rewrite the following sentences, inserting suitable articles where necessary: (5)
(i) What kind of ______ animals is it?
(ii) He will return in _____ hour.
(iii) He is ______ richest man in our street.
(iv) Gold is not ______ useful metal.
(v) While there is ______ life there is hope.

(c) Form Verbs from the following Nouns: (5)
(i) Courage
(ii) Memory
(iii) Prison
(iv) Class
(v) Friend

(d) Put the verbs in bracket in the correct tense and rewrite the following: (5)
India (have) many calendars which Indians (use) since very early times. More than thirty (be) still in use. One difficulty about having so many calendars (be) that the same date (fall) on different days according to each.

5. (a) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a Noun and then as a Verb: (10)
(i) Bank
(ii) Battle
(iii) Bite
(iv) Brave
(v) Brush

(b) Change the following sentences into their corresponding (a) Negatives and (b) Questions: (10)
(i) Ram resembles his father.
(ii) Raju studies French.
(iii) The bicycle costs Rs. 500.
(iv) The thief broke the window open.
(v) My mother has a beautiful umbrella.

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5)
(i) The Lion’s share
(ii) Close shave
(iii) At daggers drawn
(iv) (To) die in harness
(v) (To) eat one’s words

2008

Not available in TXT/HTML form. Although you can download the scanned question paper by right clicking me >Save as

2009

Q 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following:  (100 Marks)
(a)    Why are our farmers committing suicide?
(b)   Ragging: should it be distinguished from brutality or criminality?
(c)     “Sweet are the uses of adversity.”
(d)   Reforms of sports bodies in our country
(e)   Alternative sources of energy for our country

Q 2. Read carefully the passage below and write your answers to the questions that follow, in clear, correct and concise language: (5×15=75 Marks)

The altogether new thing in the world then was the scientific method of research, which in that period of Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Harvey and Francis Bacon was advancing with enormous strides. All walls, all the limitations, all the certainties of the ages were in dissolution, tottering. In fact this epoch, in which we are participating still, with continually opening vistas, can be compared in magnitude and promise only to that of the 8th to the 4th millenniums B.C. : of the birth of civilization in the Near East, when the inventions of food production, grain agriculture and stockbreeding, released mankind from the primitive condition or foraging and so made possible an establishment of soundly grounded communities: first villages, then towns, then cities, kingdoms, and empires. Leo Frobenius wrote of that age as the Monumental Age, and of the age now dawning as the Global :

“In all previous ages, only restricted portions of the surface of the earth were known. Men looked out from the narrowest, upon a somewhat larger neighbourhood, and beyond that, a great unknown. They were all, so to say, insular: bound in. Whereas our view is confined no longer to a spot of space on the surface of this earth. It surveys the whole of the planet. And this fact, this lack of horizon, is something new.”

“It is chiefly to the scientific method of research that this release of mankind is due, and every developed individual has been freed from the once protective but now dissolved horizons of the local land, local moral code, local modes of group thought and sentiment. Not only in the sciences but in every department of life the will and courage to credit one’s own senses and to honor one’s own decisions, to name one’s own virtues and to claim one’s own vision of truth, have been the generative forces of the new age. There is a growing realization even in the moral field that all Judgments are (to use Nietzsche’s words) “human, all too human,”

1. What is the “epoch in which we are participating still”?
2. In what way is it comparable to the period of the 8th to the 4th millenniums B.C.?
3. What is meant by the new “lack of horizon”?
4. What do you think is implied by “all the certainties of the ages” that were “in dissolution” during the period of Galileo and his fellow scientists?
5. What is the new freedom we have found, and why does it require courage?

Q 3. Make a précis of the following passage in about 235 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The précis must be written on the separate précis sheets provided, which must then be fastened securely inside the answer book. (75 Marks)

There are, of course, many motivating factors in human behaviour, but we would claim that nationalism is particularly worthy of study. Why is it particularly significant? Its significance lies in its power to arouse passionate loyalties and hatreds that motivate acts of extreme violence and courage; people kill and die for their nations. Of course it is not alone in this: people are driven to similar extremes to protect their families, their extended families or ‘tribes’, their home areas with their populations; and their religious groups and the holy places and symbols of their religions. However, these other loyalties are often rather easier to understand than nationalism. Parents making supreme sacrifices for their children can be seen as obeying a universal imperative in life forms, the instinct to protect one’s own genetic material. This instinct can also be seen at work in the urge to protect one’s extended family; but then the extended family, or on a slightly larger scale the ‘tribe’, can also be seen, in perhaps the majority of circumstances in which human beings have existed, as essential for the survival of the individual and the nuclear family. The nation is not generally essential to survival in this way. Of course, if the entire nation were to be wiped out, the individuals and their families would die, but the disappearance of the nation as a social unit would not in itself pose a threat to individual or family survival: only if it were to be accompanied by ethnic violence or severe economic collapse would it be life-threatening, and such cataclysmic events are not an inevitable consequence of the loss of political independence. Conversely, there is no logical connection between the gaining of political independence by a subject nation and increased life chances for its citizens. In many, perhaps the vast majority, of modern nations there is likewise no evidence that in defending the nation one is defending one’s own genetic material; the notion that the citizens of modem nations are kinsfolk, while the citizens of (potentially) hostile neighbours are aliens, makes no sense in view of the highly varied genetic make-up of most modern populations,’

Devotion to one’s religious group, like support for one’s nation, is much less obviously to the individual’s advantage than is defence of the family, but we would maintain that it can be more comprehensible than nationalism. It can be seen in ideological terms as the defence of a world view and its symbols, against rival world views, which are considered to be fundamentally erroneous and which, if successful, would force the conquered to act in ways abhorrent to their beliefs. While the defence of one’s nation has often been seen as the defence of one’s religion, and while modern hostilities between nations frequently do have a religious dimension, there are many serious national conflicts that have no clear religious element; the two world wars were fought in Europe with Catholic France, Protestant Britain, and Orthodox Russia opposing Germany with its mixed Catholic and Protestant population. Thus, while modern nationalisms may be linked to religion, many cases can be found without any clear religious dimension. Not only do modern nationalisms lack a religious element: there is often (to outsiders) no obvious ideological difference between rival nations. Hence, while defence of one’s religion can be seen as defence of an entire system of beliefs, a world view, it is difficult in many cases to claim that this is true of the defence of one’s nation. There is in fact a good case for seeing nations as ‘imagined communities’, and such would be the view of some commentators.

Such imagined communities could not, of course, exist unless they fulfilled a need. We can postulate that the need to belong to a community of some kind is a fundamental human characteristic, and that nations have arisen to fulfil this need, as earlier more primary communities – local, ‘tribal’, and religious – have lost their significance through economic and social change. But why should this need be fulfilled by nations, rather than some other type of unit? There is strong support in the literature for a view of nations as products of particular social and economic conditions operating from around the mid-eighteenth century, as products of ‘modernization’.

Q 4. Answer as directed: (25 Marks)

(a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections: (10 Marks)
1. The bear had a ring on it’s nose.
2. This shirt is too lose for me.
3. This coat looks a bit small – l’d like to try on it.
4. Let’s listen the music.
5. Do you know what is the answer?
6. The weather today is too good.
7. I saw him yesterday only.
8. Who you want to see?
9. The ice cream’s good – may I please have little more?
10. His office is quite opposite to my house.

(b) Supply the missing words: (5 Marks)
1. The shopkeeper refused to bargain————- the customer.
2. He did not be believe ————– bargaining.
3. He had already decided ———–a fair price.
4. The customer was looking ———— a bargain.
5. They argued —————- the price for a long time.

(c) Use the correct form of the verb in brackets: (5 Marks)
1. I do not usually————– an umbrella but today I’m————- one. (CARRY)
2. She never ————- about her children. (WORRY)
3. That child always ————when he has a bath. Listen, he’s———– now. (CRY)

(d) Form the opposites of these words by adding a prefix: (5 Marks)
1. do                                        —————-
2. credible                                —————-
3. ambiguous                           —————-
4. lawful                                  —————-
5. legal                                     —————-

Q 5. Answer as directed: (25 Marks)
(a) Combine the following sentences using too——to (5 Marks)
1. The coffee was hot.
We could not drink it.

2. You are now old.
You cannot continue to work.

3. The child was very small.
It could not walk.

4. This book is heavy.
I cannot carry it.

5. She was shocked.
She did not react.

(b) Rewrite these sentences so that they begin with the word it. (5 Marks)
1. To talk like that is silly.
2. To hear your voice was good.
3. To tell the truth is essential.
4. To have friends is better than money.
5. To think for yourself is difficult.

(c) Combine these sentences using one of the words although, but, yet, so or because. Use each word once. (5 Marks)
1. They were tired. They worked late into the night.
2. He slept early. He woke up late.
3. He was on medication. He felt drowsy.
4. She was very angry. She said nothing.
5. The engine stopped. It had heated up.

(d) Combine the following sentences using enough to. (5 Marks)
1. The wind was strong. It could blow people away.
2. The print was clear. We could read it easily.
3. It was hot. We could cook food with the sun’s rays.
4. You are old. You should know better.
5. The essay was good. It earned full marks.

(e) Rewrite these sentences, using a form of the word get and a suitable preposition or prepositions instead of the word(s) underlined.  (5 Marks)
1. Has the company recovered from its losses?
2. I’d like to continue with my cooking now, if I may.
3. How do you manage with so little to eat?
4. Did you establish a connection with New York on the telephone?
5. Put the milk away where the cat can’t reach it.

2010

write an essay in about 300 words any 1 of the following. 100 mks.

increasing consumerism in the middle class in India
are traditional forms of protest no longer effective?
The nuclear civil liability bill
To feed our increasing population , forest areas need to be cleared to increase land area available for cultivation. Do you agree?
Need to check politicization of sports bodies in India

2. read the following passage carefully & based on it, answer the questions given below it in clear , correct & concise language. 5×15 = 75

according to the findings of recent government survey there are an estimated of 3.3 million registered NGOs working in the country – one for every 400 Indians . not only has the number of NGOs in India risen dramatically but so has their influence. In some of India’s flagship development efforts – the national rural employment guarantee act, the national rural health mission, the right to education or even the draft right to food act – NGOs have been at forefront both in formulating in these laws & policies & in implementing them. NGOs have helped voice the concerns of some of the India’s most vulnerable groups & focus the attention of the government on critical, social & development issues. They have also spearheaded efforts to expose corruption & maladministration in government bringing in much needed transparency.

But despite the growing influence of NGOs in India today, we know very little about them, their structure, activities, sources of funding & more importantly, how accountable they are to the people they represent. This is alarming given the crores of rupees in development aid that NGOs  receive from the government & from donors every year. Ironically, though NGOs have been watchdogs of the government for many years there has been little regulation or monitoring of their own activities. Leading many to ask a very fundamental question : who watches the watchers?

Interestingly , although India has probably the world’s highest NGOs population , the debate on NGO accountability is still in its nascent stages. Across the world NGOs have been experimenting with different ways of addressing the issue of accountability ; Indian NGOs would do well by learning from these efforts . for example , NGOs in Kenya are legally required to comply with code of conduct for NGOs developed by the national council of NGOs a self regulatory body set up under the NGO coordination act in 1990. the code ensures that NGOs comply with basic ethical & governance standards. Similarly in Uganda, the NGO quality assurance mechanism (QuAM) certifies NGO against a set of quality standards designed to ensure NGO credibility. In chile, chile transparent has developed transparency standards for NGOs which require organizations to establish online information about their mission , vision, activities, staff, details of funding etc.

  1. what are India’s important development schemes?
  2. how do NGOs help ‘vulnerable groups’ in India?
  3. what do we know about structure , activities & sources of funding of NGOs in India?
  4. whom does authors describes as watchers? Why?
  5. how do the NGOs in other nations deal with the issue of accountability?

3. make a precise of the following passage in about 210 – 230 words .

failure to write within the stipulated word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precise must be written on the separate precise sheets provided which must be then fastened securely inside the answer book.  75 mks.

In many respects sakuntala is comparable to the more idyllic comedies of Shakespeare, & kanva’s hermitage is surely not far from the forest of arden. The plot of the play, like many of the Shakespeare plot, depends much on happy chances & on the super-natural , which, of course, was quite acceptable to the audience for which kalidasa wrote. Its characters , even to the minor ones , are happily delineated individuals . kalidasa makes no pretence to realism, but his dialogue is fresh & vigorous . in fact the dialogue of the better Sanskrit plays generally seems based on vernacular, & is full of idiomatic expressions. Indian playgoers did not demand the conflict of feelings & emotions which is the chief substance of serious European drama , but kalidasa was quite capable of portraying such conflict effectively. His beauties & merits are tarnished by any translation, but few who can read him in the original would doubt that, both as poet & dramatist , he was one of the great men of the world.

There were many other dramatist . sudraka , probably kalidasa’s approximate contemporary , has left only one play “the little clay cart” (Mricchakatika) . this is the most realistic of Indian dramas , unraveling a complicated story , rich in humor & pathos & crowded with action , of the love of  a poor Brahman , carudutta, for the virtuous courtesan vasantasena; this story is interwoven with one of political intrigue, leading up to the overthrow of the wicked king palaka, & the play contains a vivid trial scene, after which the hero is saved from execution at the last moment. It is notable for its realistic depiction of city life , & for its host of minor characters, all of whom are drawn with skill & individuality. It has more than once been performed in translation on the European stage, &, to a western audience, is certainly the most easily appreciated of Indian plays.

Vishakadutta was the dramatist of politics. His only complete surviving play, “the ministers signet ring” (mudrarakshasa) deals with the schemes of the wily chanakya to foil the plots of rakshasa, the minister of the last of the nandas, & to place chandragupta maurya firmly on the throne. The plot is exceedingly complicated , but is worked out with great skill , & play is beautifully constructed to lead up, like “the little clay cart” , to a pathetic scene where one of the chief characters is saved from death by impalement at the last movement .

Second only to kalidasa in the esteem of the critics was bhavabhuti , who lived at kanyakubja in the early 8th c. three of his plays – malati & madhava , deeds of the great hero (mahaviracharita) & the later deeds of rama (uttararamacharita). The first is the love story with the pseudo-realistic background , full of incident of an exciting or horrific type, in which the heroine is more than one rescued from death , while the two latter plays tell the story of rama . by western standards as a dramatist bhavabhuti falls short of those we have mentioned earlier . his plots are weakly constructed & his characters lack individuality. His greatness rests on his deep understanding of sorrow; in his treatment of the pathetic & the terrible he perhaps excels kalidasa.

4.a. rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections , if any: 10 .

  1. I live half of a mile from here.
  2. do you like music? I like.
  3. do you like some more coffee
  4. he worked like a waiter for two years.
  5. like what does she look?
  6. I know him since 1960.
  7. I wasn’t use to drive big car.
  8. he suggested me to try the main car park
  9. I have never met so nice person
  10. too many mathematics is taught in schools.

b. rewrite the following sentences inserting suitable article(s) , wherever necessary. 5 mks

i. my grandfather has hard life
ii. she hit him in stomach
iii. queen had dinner with president
vi. my friend is in hospital.

c. rewrite the following sentences inserting suitable prepositions in the blank spaces. 5

i. I am angry ________ her _______ lying.
ii. I was red ________ at his remarks
iii. could you explain this rule ________ me please?
vi. people have always been kind ________ me.

d. give the antonyms of the following adjectives. 5

i. common
ii. loyal
iii. formal
iv. mature
v. sensitive.

5.answer as directed.

a. rewrite the following using passive structure. 5
i. she gave her sister the car
ii. I had already shown the suspect’s photograph to the policewomen
iii. they believe him to be dangerous
iv. they made him tell them everything
v. they elected me president.

b. change the following sentence into indirect speech. 5

i. he wrote in his letter , “ I saw poonam at the theater a couple of days ago”.
ii. the forecast says , “it will rain tomorrow”
iii. he said to me , “it would be nice if I could see you again”.
iv. I said, “if I had any money I’d buy you a drink “
v. the teacher said, “why don’t you work harder?”.

c. rewrite the following sentences , changing them into simple ones. 5

i. I wonder who I should invite
ii show him what he should do
iii she couldn’t decide whether she should answer his letter.
iv he dint know where he should park his car.
v. tell me why I should pay

d. add a question tag at the end of each of the following sentences. 5.

i pooja can speak french
ii the meeting is at ten
iii you dint speak to mohan
iv she wouldn’t like a pet
v harish gave you a cheque

e. rewrite the following sentences using ‘it’ in the beginning as a preparatory subject. 5

i to make mistakes is easy
ii to wait for people who were late made him angry
iii my ambition was to retire at thirty
iv your task is to get across the river without being seen
v for you to ask ramesh would be a big mistake.

2011

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100

(a) The predicaments of Democracy.
(b) In India when inflation rises govenance stalls.
(c) Modern world’s fears about nuclear energy.
(d) Information Technology transforming the Indian Society.
(e) Inventions generate necessity.

2. Read carefully the passage below and write your answers to the questions that follow in clear, correct and concise language:

‘Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and every plant contains a substantial proportion of free or combined water in its body, and no kind of physiological activity is possible in which the fluid does not play an essential part. Water is, of course, necessary for animal life. While moisture in the soil is equally imperative for the life and growth of plants and trees. Though the quantity necessary varies enormously with the species. The conservation and utilisation of water is thus fundamental for human welfare. Apart from artesian water the ulimate source in all cases is rain or snowfall. Much of Indian Agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and is therefore very sensitive to any failure or irregularity of the same. It is clear that the adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would also help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted. In other words, on and in the soil, and such techniques therefore serve a double purpose. Its is evident, however that in a country having only a seasonal rainfall an immense quantity of rain-water must be necessarily run off the ground. The collection and utilization of water is therefore of vital importance. Much of it flows down into the streams and rivers and ultimately finds its way to the sea. The harnessing of our rivers. the waters of which now mostly run to waste is a great national problem which must be considered and dealt with on national lines. Closely connected with the conservation of water supplies is the problem of afforestation. The systematic planning of suitable trees in every possible or even in impossible areas and the developement of what one can call civilized forests as distinguished from wild and untamed jungle is one the most urgent needs of India. Such plantation would directly and indirectly prove a source of untold wealth to the country. They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and would provide the necessary supplies of cheap fuel and thus stop unnecessary waste of farmyard manure.

Questions:

1. Where does the world get water from ?
2. What is the national problem relating to our rivers ?
3. What are the benefits of afforestation ?
4. What is fundamental for human welfare ?
5. What are the advantages of preventing soil erosion ?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in about 204 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on seprate precis sheets provided, which must then be fastened securely inside the answer book.  75

‘While all the religious teachers tell us that compassion gives us a motive for existence, a guide for action and a reason for courage and help us to diminish the sum of human suffering, in the very name of God, who is all compassion, abominable crimes have been committed in the world. It is not enough to believe in God of love but we must love. The rains that makes the lower plains fertile are formed in the upper layers of the atmosphere.

The saints are the masters who are not stained-glass figures, remote and ethereal in their sancity. There is nothing in them, which we would like to spread everywhere in the world. It is there but what it is, we cannot say. It is there in their blood and bones, in the breath of their speech, in the lights and shades of their speech, in the lights and shades of their personalities, a mystery that can be lived but no spoken in words.

On the rock of moral law and not on the shifting sands of political or economic expediency can be built a civilized society with individual freedom, social justice and political equality. Truth, freedom and righteousness are essential to peace. The Evangelist tells us how ‘the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them. And saith unto him, ‘All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me’. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship thy Lord, Thy God and Him alone shalt thou serve’.

In the new society we need a new universal religion. By it we mean not a uniform religion but a religion of awareness and love of wisdom and compassion, prajna and karuna. of truth and love. Religion must be cured of their provincialism and made to reveal their universality. This does not mean spiritual vagueness or ambiguity.

Tolerance implies an elementary right belonging to the dignity of every man. The right to believe like the right to live a free, unfettered —-is fundamental to the concept of both—-we have had in our country peaceful co-existence of different religions. It is not passive co-existence but an active fellowship, a close inter-relation of the best of different religions.
Co-existence is the first step and fraternity is the goal. We have not adhered steadfastly to these ideals and have suffered often. Yet the ideal has been kept in view and support by great leaders like Ram Mohan Roy, Ramakrishna, Tagore and Gandhiji.

The view of tolerance is based on the conviction that all transcendental use of the logical categories, all attempt to submit the transcendent to the finite are wrong. Nature and history announce God’s presence but do not disclose his whole nature. Religions are cut off from one another by mutual incomprehensiveness. We are born or trained in certain traditions of religion.
Loyalty to tradition does not mean imprisonment within it. We adopt different symbolic representations of the supreme determined by our age, circumstances, upbringing and by narrower loyalties of caste, class, race or nation. Whatever progress we make at the expense of those values is morally wrong.

The seers of all religions affirm that the various peoples of the world form a community with a common purpose and a common destiny. It is said that the whole world is the fatherland of a noble soul. The application of this universality of spirit requires us to look upon our common enemies not as monsters of evil but as misled by their obsessions and as capable of change.

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections :  10

1. Saints desire nothing________the society.
2. I regret at the delay in doing this.
3. I congratulate you for your success.
4. Ram as well as Mohan have gone.
5. He has passed order on my application.
6. He is more intelligent than any boy.
7. What will be ensued on this.
8. This is high time that we should change the bike.
9. I did nothing but laughed.
10. I informed him, “Leave the room.”

(b) Supply the missing words :

1. The wages of sin ______death.  5
2. I trust______God.
3. I have no fondness_____music.
4. I have no doubt_____your honesty.
5. I am Conscious______my duties.

(c) Use the correct forms of the verbs in brackets :  5

1. I remember ______her when she was a little girl. (SEE)
2. You will ______twenty-four hours to consider your decision. (GIVE)
3. Can you hear what he_____? (SAY)

(d) Write the opposites of the following :  5

1. Notorious
2. Legitimate
3. Responsible
4. Satisfaction
5. Promotion

5. Answer as directed :

(a) Rewrite the following sentences removing ‘too……..to’.   5

1. He is too honest to steal.
2. He is too weak to run.
3. She is too shy to sing.
4. He was too shocked to speak.
5. The matter will be too complicated to resolve.

(b) Rewrite the following sentences using ‘It’ in the beginning as a subject.

1. To scold the boys would be foolish.
2. Smoking is bad for him.
3. To call after ten was unusual for him.
4. Keeping the windows open on the roadside does not look decent.
5. To play games on sundays is not allowed.This should also help those preparing CPF Examination because they also have similar paper.

  1. Why is Compulsory English paper important?
  2. How to Prepare compulsory English Language Paper for UPSC Mains?
  3. 1997
  4. 1998
  5. 1999
  6. 2000
  7. 2001
  8. 2002
  9. 2003
  10. 2004
  11. 2005
  12. 2006
  13. 2007
  14. 2008
  15. 2009
  16. 2010
  17. 2011

Why is Compulsory English paper important?

  • In the UPSC Civil Service Mains Exam, you’ve to face a compulsory English language paper worth 300 marks.
  • Although the marks scored in this paper, are not counted in the final merit list, but if you fail in this paper, they will not check your other papers and thus you miss the interview train.
  • In the UPSC 2010, total 819 candidates failed in the compulsory English paper. Therefore, you must not take the Compulsory English language paper lightly.

How to Prepare compulsory English Language Paper for UPSC Mains?

  1. Just solve all the previous years’ question paper given below. Want PDF file? Then Click me to download
  2. if you’re really weak , then use the Compulsory English for Civil and Judicial Services by AP Bhardwaj (TMH Publication)

1997

Q. 1. Write an essay of about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Tolerance is the key to national unity
(b) Your idea of a happy life
(c) Advertisements : need for control
(d) Is vegetarianism a virtue ?
(e) Failures are the pillars of success

Q. 2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow in your own words as far as possible. 75
It is true that the smokers cause some nuisance to the non-smokers, but this nuisance is physical while the nuisance that the non-smokers cause the smokers is spiritual. There are, of course, a lot of non-smokers who don’t try to interfere with the smokers. It is sometimes assumed that the non-smokers are morally superior, not realizing that they have missed one of the greatest pleasures of mankind. I am willing to allow that smoking is a moral weakness, but on the other hand we must beware of a man without weakness. He is not to be trusted. He is apt to be always sober and he cannot make a single mistake. His habits are too regular, his existence too mechanical and his head always maintains its supremacy over his heart. Much as I like reasonable persons, I hate completely rational beings. For that reason, I am always scared and ill at ease when I enter a house in which there are no ash-trays.

The room is apt to be too clean and orderly, and the people are apt to be correct and unemotional. Now the moral and spiritual benefits of smoking have never been appreciated by these correct, righteous, unemotional and unpoetic souls. In my opinion the smokers’ morality is, on the whole, higher than that of the non-smokers. The man with a pipe in his mouth is the man after my heart. He is more genial, more open-hearted, and he is often brilliant in conversation. As Thackeray observes, “The pipe draws wisdom from the lips, of the philosopher and shuts up the mouth of the foolish; it generates a style of conversation that is contemplative, thoughtful, benevolent and unaffected.”

(a) What kind of hardship do .a smoker and a non-smoker cause to each other ? 15
(b) Why is it wrong to think that a non-smoker is morally superior to a smoker ? 15
(c) Why is a man without any moral weakness untrustworthy ? 15
(d) What pleasure of life is missed by a non-smoker ? 15
(e) What does Thackeray mean to say ? 15

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in about 230 words. As far as possible, the precis should be in your own words. It should be written on the special sheets provided, which should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words in your answer. 75
N.B. : Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
In our country begging has become a profession and the beggars continue to increase in numbers. So, vast indeed is the fraternity of these beggars that foreigners visiting India, especially ,cities like Varanasi, our cities of pilgrimage, have been led to call our cities the cities of beggars and of dust ! There are no statistics available for estimating their number, but that is not needed for our present purpose. Of course, any practical reform in this matter does not require a close investigation into the causes and conditions of the existence of beggars, but we are here concerned with the question of seeing how these beggars live and what, in particular, is the effect on society of their existence.

As already suggested, the vastness of the number of the Indian beggars is evident to any visitor from a foreign country. The causes of the increase in the number of beggars are many, but of these we may just consider only a few. For good or evil, Indians have been very religious in their outlook on life, and also very generous and hospitable towards those who go to them for begging. Our Puranas and Shastras point out that giving charity to beggars ensures Moksha in the next world. The social conscience deveolped from such an article of faith has been the main cause of the increase in the number of beggars. They are always sure of finding people anxious to go to heaven by offering doles and donations to the needy and so they are thriving. There are many beggars whose profession has been hereditary – a strange perversion of human nature, which, as we are told, ought to eat out of the sweat of its brow. The most amusing spectacle from the point of view of reason, is to see able-bodied persons, dressed in abundance of rags and many coloured clothes wandering about the streets and going from house to house regularly at certain hours for no more serious a purpose than that of begging ! This might be seen at almost any village and town in our country. For ages uncounted this thing has been going on. The ignorant masses have a fear of the curse supposed to emanate from the mouths of angered beggars, and thus the beggars get more than they need. In fact, strange as it might seem, a considerable number of these beggars are richer . than their poor patrons !

With the percolation of social consciousness among the modern educated Indians, the problem of beggars is today being seriously thought about and ways and means are being seriously mooted on how to solve this problem. When we read how in the West, for example, begging has become a crime coming under the vagrancy acts of Parliaments and when we know that in some countries people are warned that “Those who do not work, neither shall they eat”, we begin to think how depressing is the situation in India. Poverty, no doubt, is one of the major causes of begging, and unemployment and increase in population have also been responsible for the same, but the disease-of begging has deeper roots in the social consciousness of us all, and it is to this that any reformer has to turn. We must make it clear to the masses that there is no special glory of Punya in giving charity to the able-bodied persons, and that such misplaced charity is only increasing idleness and chronic poverty. If the masses are educated in social science, its elementary principles at any rate, there will be a gradual lessening of the number of beggars in our country.

The State, too, has to devise laws for checking the growth of beggars. Some strict laws against vagrants must be put into practice in every city and village in India. It is more important to introduce them in holy cities where the beggars are leading the most unholy life. Finally, it is for the development of saner outlook on life that we must agitate if we are to root out this evil of beggary. In one form or another, begging has become the most widespread thing today. Some are honourable, modernised beggars in pants and boots and ties and they have subtler ways of exploiting their patron victims.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
abhor, alter, determine, dwell, fellow, handle, innocent, slay, torrent, radiant.
(i) He is making a ………………… effort to succeed in the examination.
(ii) We should hold corruption in …………………. .
(iii) He ………………….. in a rented house in Delhi last year.
(iv) There is no ………………… in this, town; it is the same as it was five years ago.
(v) He deserves praise ………………. for the situation tactfully.
(vi) We love children for their ………………. .
(vii) The crops have been damaged by these …………… rains.
(viii) The rich man has been ………………. by the militants.
(ix) The …………….. of his face suggests that he is a saint.
(x) He has been awarded a ……………… for studying in Canada.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb :
favour, meet, occasion, sound, support. 10

(c) Do as directed : 5
(i) A stranger said to me, “Do you know me ?”
(Change into the Indirect form of Narration.)
(ii) He is blind …………… his own faults.

(Use the correct preposition.)
(iii) Are you not making a noise ?
(Write it in the passive voice.)
(iv) Is virtue not its own reward ?

(Transform into an assertive sentence.)
(v) God is present everywhere.
(Substitute a single word for “present everywhere”.)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) If you will run, you will catch the train.
(ii) I am too glad to help you.
(iii) I am fed up of his evil ways.
(iv) He has only two brother-in-laws.
(v) I am one of those persons who cannot describe what I feel.
(vi) He has not bought some books.
(vii) Do not prevent the child to read.
(viii) I doubt that she will help you.
(ix) Ganges is a holy river.
(x) He is more intelligent than either of his four brothers.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that you think is appropriate : 10
(i) He is an ……………… mechanic.
(ingenuous / ingenious)
(ii) He died after he had been struck by ……………… .
(lightning / lightening)
(iii) Your story is not at all ………………. .
(credulous / credible)
(iv) Only the virtuous experience true …………….. .
(facility / felicity)
(v) Some politicians try to influence the …………… officers.
(judicious / judicial)
(vi) You cannot question his honesty and …………….. .
(veracity / voracity)
(vii) The patient is still in a state of …………….. .
(comma / coma)
(viii) After the accident, the field was covered with …………….. .
(corpses / corps)
(ix) He is a dealer in ……………….. .
(stationary / stationery)
(x) You should settle this dispute in an …………….. way.
(amiable / amicable)

(c) Use the following phrases/idiomatic expressions in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
give rise to, hang fire, pass away, put up with, tone down.

1998

INSTRUCTIONS
Candidates should attempt all questions.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on- any one of the following : 100

(a) The Limits of Science
(b) Our Intellectuals
(c) Have We Lost the Direction ?
(d) Computers in Everyday Life
(e) Below the Poverty Line
Q. 2. Read this passage carefully and answer the questions set at the end 75
We think of the moon as only a stone, a stone gone cold. An airless, waterless stone and the prophetic image of our own earth when, some few million years from now, the senescent sun shall have lost its present fostering power . …. And so on. This passage could easily be prolonged – a Study in Purple. But I forbear. Let every reader lay on as much of the royal rhetorical colour as he finds to his taste. Anyhow, purple or no purple, there the stone is – stony. You cannot think about it for long without finding yourself invaded by one or other of several sentiments. These sentiments belong to one or other of two contrasted and complementary groups. The name of the first family is Sentiments of Human Insignificance, of the second, Sentiments of Human Greatness. Meditating on that derelict stone afloat there in the abyss, you may feel a worm,. abject and futile in the face of wholly incomprehensible immensities. ‘The silence of those infinite spaces frightens. me.’ You may feel as Pascal felt. Or, alternatively, you may feel as M. Paul Valery has said: `The silence of those infinite spaces does not frighten me.’
For the spectacle of that moon need not necessarily make you feel like a worm. It may, on the contrary, cause you to rejoice exultantly in your manhood. There floats the stone, the nearest and most familiar symbol of all the astronomical horrors: but the astronomers who discovered those horrors of space and time were men. The universe throws down a challenge to the human spirit; in spite of his insignificance and abjection, man has taken it up. The stone glares down at us out of the black boundlessness. But the fact that we know it justifies us in feeling a certain human pride. We have a right to our moods of sober exultation.

(a) How does the writer describe the moon ?
(b) Do you think that the image of the moon revealed here is prophetic ? Why ?
(c) What kind of two contrasted and complementary sentiments does the moon evoke ?
(d) What does the author try to suggest about the place of man in the universe ?
(e) Give the central idea of the passage. Q. 3. Write a precis of the passage given below in your own words, not exceeding 160, on the special sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in the precis.
N.B. : Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. 75
I speak of peace because of the new face of war. Total war makes no sense in an age when great powers can maintain large and relatively invulnerable nuclear forces and refuse to surrender without resort to those forces. It makes no sense in an age when a single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by all of the Allied air forces in the Second World War. It makes no sense in an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by the wind and water and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn.
Today the expenditure of billions of dollars every year on weapons acquired for the purpose of making sure we never need to use them is essential to keeping the peace. But surely the acquisition of such idle stockpiles, which can only destroy and never create, is not the only, much less the most efficient, means of assuring peace.

I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men. I realize that the pursuit of peace is not as dramatic as the pursuit of war, and frequently the words of the pursuer fall on deaf ears. But we have no more urgent task.

Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament, and that it will be useless until the leaders of those nations, perceived to be hostile by us, adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them do it. But I also believe that we must re-examine our own attitude, as individuals and as a nation, for our attitude is as essential as theirs. And every graduate of this school, every thoughtful citizen who despairs of war and wishes to bring peace, should begin by looking inward, by examining his own attitude toward the possibilities of peace.

First, let us examine our attitude toward peace itself. Too many of us think it is impossible. Too many think it unreal. But that is a dangerous, defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable, that mankind is doomed, that we are gripped by forces we cannot control.
Our problems are man-made: therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings. Man’s reason and spirit have often solved the seemingly unsolvable and we believe they can do it again.

Let us focus on a more practical, more attainable peace, based not on a sudden revolution in human nature but on a gradual evolution in human institutions, on a series of concrete actions and effective agreements which are in the interest of all concerned. There is no single, simple key to this peace, no grand or magic formula to be adopted by one or two powers. Genuine peace must be the product of many nations, the sum of many acts. It must be dynamic, not static, changing to meet the challenge of each new generation. For peace is a process, a way of solving problems.

With such a peace there will still be quarrels and conflicting interests, as there are within families and nations. World peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbour; it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance, submitting their disputes to a just and peaceful settlement. And history teaches us that enmities between nations, as between individuals, do not last forever. However fixed our likes and dislikes may seem, the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations between nations and neighbours.

So let us persevere. Peace need not be impracticable, and war need not be inevitable. By defining our goal more clearly, by making it seem more manageable and less remote, we can help all peoples to see it, to draw hope from it, and to move irresistibly toward it.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of words given below : 10
deter, increase, ardour, resolve, courage, divide, prestige, commend, pious, invoke
(i) Paradise Lost opens with an ………………. of the divine.
(ii) When is your next ……………… due ?
(iii) One must have a firm ………………. to achieve one’s goal.
(iv) Unless we are ……………… we can never face obstacles.
(v) Will our nuclear explosions have quite a ……………… effect ?
(vi) United we stand, ……………… we fall.
(vii) The programme of rehabilitation is …………………. .
(viii) Without ……………… religious pursuit has hardly any meaning.
(x) In Gandhian era the people of our country had ……………… spirit of patriotism.
(x) This school is a very ……………….. institution.

(b) Use the following words in your own sentences, each both as a noun and a verb : 10
practice; question; complement; substitute; crop.

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed : 5
(i) “Help me Cassius, or l die,” cried Caesar.
(Turn it into the indirect form.)
(ii) John in brighter than all other students in his class.
(Change into the positive degree.)
(iii) You cannot see him, for it is not easy to reach him.
(Give one word for the words in bold italics.)
(iv) She would not go home during the holidays
(Use a question tag.)
(v) If you do not work hard, you cannot succeed.
(Use ‘unless’.)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) It is an unique privilege to welcome our guests.
(ii) A herd of cattles were grazing in the farm.
(iii) If you would have studied hard, you should have passed.
(iv) One of my friend is a good poet.
(v) Either his parents or Pheroze is going to come today.
(vi) When you are going to London to meet with your friends there ?
(vii) For heaven’s sake, please don’t ask me that why am I not coming ?
(viii) I cannot be able to play cricket this evening.
(ix) You are the teacher here, isn’t it ?
(x) Shakespeare, the playwright and the poet born in Stratford-upon-Avon.

(b) Fill in the blanks choosing the appropriate words put within the brackets : 10
(i) He …………… his past statement in the course of his speech.
(avert, advert)
(ii) In their response to the call they are ………………… .
(invert, inert)
(iii) There is no ………………. to the gift he received.
(illusion, allusion)
(iv) ………………. distillation is an offence.
(Elicit, Illicit)
(v) He had no ………………….. to any help.
(recourse, resource)
(vi) He is certainly not honest; he is always ……………….. .
(hypercritical, hypocritical)
(vii) Smoking is ………………. here.
(proscribed, prescribed)
(viii) Kishore sends his …………………….. to you.
(compliments, complements)
(ix) We must not cast any …………….. at him, for he is innocent.
(aspiration, aspersion)
(x) The students’ attitude to their teacher is not ………………. .
(deferential, differential)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences bringing out the meaning : 5
(i) Out of tune
(ii) To put one’s foot down
(iii) At sixes and sevens
(iv) Through thick and thin
(v) To put something up

1999

Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100

(a) Power of the press
(b) An ideal college
(c) The technological miracles of the twentieth century
(d) An encounter with an astrologer
(e) “Cowards die many times before their death”.

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer in your own language the questions that follow : 75
Forecasting the weather, or trying to find out what it will be like in several day’s time, has always been a difficult business. Many different things affect the weather and each one has to be carefully studied before we can make even a fairly accurate forecast. The ancient Egyptians, of course, had no need of this- the weather in the Nile valley hardly ever changes -but people living farther north had to protect themselves and their crops. During a period of drought, when no rain fell for weeks on end, streams and rivers dried up, cattle died from thirst and crops were ruined. A storm could wreck ships and houses, and heavy falls of rain caused rivers to flood a whole countryside. Action in the sky stirred man into action, and in this respect farmers became just as much men of action as were sailors on the high seas. Both had to reckon with the weather – it often upset their plans, sometimes with disastrous results.

In early times, when there were no instruments such as thermometer or barometer, man looked for tell-tale signs in the sky. He made his forecasts by watching the flights of birds or the way smoke rose from a fire. He thought that the moon controlled the weather – that it held a lot of water, especially when as a crescent or sickle-shaped moon it lay on its back. Even today there are people who think that the sight of the moon lying on its back means that the rain is on its way. Many of the weather-sayings are still heard today. I expect you know the one : ‘A red sky at night is the shepherd’s delight. A red sky in the morning is the shepherd’s warning.’ Do you believe this ? It’s sometimes right but more often wrong. If this and hundreds of other sayings like it were true, there would be no need for weather science or meteorology.

(a) What is drought and what are its consequences?
(b) Does the writer endorse the popular sayings about the red sky ?
(c) Is weather forecasting a science; if so, what is it called ?
(d) Why is it not easy to forecast the weather ?
(e) How would the moon help the people in forecasting weather ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
N.B. Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
Karl Marx was no gentle dreamer about a better life. such as the Utopian socialists have been. He was a fighter. As he examined the relations between the capitalists and labourers of the world, his belief became clearer and sharper, until at last he was sure that he was dealing with a new science – the science of the means of production. He was sure that his ideas were not dreams but solid scientific facts, and he therefore referred to himself as a scientific socialist, so that people would not confuse him with the Utopians.

Marx and a friend named Friedrich Engels were in France during the revolution of 1848, and it was at this time they published a pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto. This was a call to battle for the labouring classes of the world: “Workers of the world, arise: you have nothing to lose but your chains.” The last years of Marx were spent in England writing his book Das Kapital (‘Capital’). Engels supported Marx and completed the work when the latter died, leaving the book unfinished.

Das Kapital is one of the most important books ever written. In it Marx expressed some astonishing and radical ideas. According to his economic theory, all the wealth in the world is produced by human labour. This is true of not only the goods turned out by factories and of the money received for such goods, but is true as well of the factories themselves, which were also built by human toil, and therefore represent a type of frozen and stored up labour. It is the workers, said Marx, rather than the capitalists, who have supplied this labour, and therefore the wealth should belong to them. They do not receive it, but are paid instead only a small fee for their efforts. The great difference between what the workers produce and what they are paid is surplus wealth, which goes to the owners of the factory, when it should go to the workers. Hence the workers are being exploited, or robbed, and the capitalists are growing wealthy. So said Marx.
Das Kapital also included Marx’s philosophy of history. According to this theory, in every age the social class that controls the source of wealth also controls the government and has power over the people. There is, however, a considerable overlapping. As the sources of wealth change, the, old group in power tends to hang on to its control of the government. For example, the nobles of the Middle Ages owned the land which was the key source of wealth at that time, and they also controlled the government.
With the coming of factories as the chief producers of wealth, the nobles retained their control of the various governments of Europe for many years. Finally, the businessmen, or capitalists, who controlled the new source of wealth gained control of the government. They still control it, said Marx, but it is an unfair situation, and will not continue. In time, the workers, who really produce the wealth, will get the power. As wealth piles up, the factories and other means of production will fall into fewer and fewer hands as the rich grow steadily richer. The poor, at the same time, will grow steadily poorer and more numerous until at last a point will be reached is which almost everybody will be living in misery to support a few fabulously wealthy individuals.
This situation will be so intolerable and so ridiculous that the great masses of the workers will rise up, take industry away from its owners, and run it for the benefit of the workers.

We now know that many of Karl Marx’s ideas were wrong, and that many of his predictions have not come true. Wealth has become more widely distributed rather than less, and the standard of living of the workers has gone up rather than down. Capitalists have proved not to be the evil ogres that Mary pictured them. Nevertheless, the ideas of Karl Marx have had a strong appeal for many people and a profound effect upon the history of the world. Communism. one of the greatest forces in the twentieth century, had its origins in the writings of Karl Marx.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
stay; reality; health; pertinent; proof; post; stretched; accident; rouse; provision
(i) I am not his ………………. brother.
(ii) He got up with a ……………… and a yawn.
(iii) Keep him …………….. with the latest news about his mother.
(iv) He fell into the gorge ………………… .
(v) I have sold off my farm-house and the land ………………….. to it.
(vi) Demagogues try ………………. the masses.
(vii) The new typist ……………….. to be useless.
(viii) I will go …………………. that my expenses are paid.
(ix) ……………… you have forgotten one thing.
(x) Had you taken the medicine, the wound …………………… by now.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb : 10
(i) dog
(ii) freeze
(iii) spoon
(iv) book
(v) refuse

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) Einstein was the greatest scientist of our century.
(Use the comparative degree)
(ii) Let us have a cup of coffee now.
(Use the right tag question)
(iii) She said. “Darling, why are you looking so pale ? Cheer up, please.”
(Change the mode of narration)
(iv) The fact is so evident that it requires no proof.
(Replace ‘so’ by ‘too’)
(v) He has to do his job well. (Change the voice)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) You are a mechanic; isn’t it ?
(ii) I have already availed of all the casual leave due to me.
(iii) The health of my brother is better than me.
(iv) He insisted to leave immediately.
(v) She congratulated him for his success.
(vi) The choice lies between honour or dishonour.
(vii) If it will rain, we shall stay back.
(viii) The ship was drowned in the sea.
(ix) By studying hard, his grades improved.
(x) I have to give my examination in April.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that, you think, is appropriate to fill in the blanks : 10
(i) The book has been ………………. for the Indian readership.
(adapted; adopted)
(ii) The case has been hanging fire because the judge is …………….. .
(disinterested; uninterested)
(iii) Trespassers will be ……………….. .
(persecuted; prosecuted)
(iv) He is a man of ……………… .
(principal; principle)
(v) Justice should be ……………. with mercy.
(tampered; tempered)
(vi) The condition of homeless people becomes ……………….. in winter.
(pitiful; pitiable)
(vii) He led a ……………. life.
(sensuous; sensual)
(viii) I vowed to …………… myself for the death of my cousin.
(avenge; revenge)
(ix) I have ……………. him a job in our company.
(assured; ensured)
(x) Aren’t you tired of this ……………… rain ?
(continual; continuous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
(i) to lead by the nose
(ii) pell- mell
(iii) gift of the gab
(iv) to make a dash
(v) to fish in troubled waters

2000

Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Man is saved not by faith but by work
(b) Indian Culture
(c) Contribution of Science to human progress
(d) Political reform you want in India
(e) Laughter is the best medicine

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow : 5 x 15 = 75
Two important stages came not so long before the dawn of written history. The first was the domestication of animals; the second was agriculture. Agriculture, which began in the river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia, was a step in human progress to which subsequently there was nothing comparable until our own machine age. Agriculture made possible an immense increase in the numbers of the human species in the regions where it could be successfully practised but at first these regions were few. These were in fact, only those in which nature fertilised the soil after each harvest. Agriculture met with violent resistance, analogous to that which our Ruskins and Samuel Butlers offered to machines. Pastoral nomads considered themselves vastly superior to the tame folk who stayed in one place and were enslaved to the soil. But although the nomads repeatedly won military victories, the physical comforts which the upper classes derived from agricultural serfs always prevailed in the end, and the area of agriculture gradually increased. Even now this process is not at an end, but what remains for it to achieve is no longer very important.

The only fundamental technical advance that preceded the emergence of man into recorded history was the invention of writing. Writing, like spoken language, developed gradually. It developed out of pictures, but as soon as it had reached a certain stage. it made possible the keeping of records and the transmission of information to people who were not present when the information was given.
(a) What was he second important stage in our pre-history and where did it begin?
(b) What happened in the regions where agriculture was successful ?
(c) What happened in the conflict between the nomads and agriculturists?
(d) What technical advance took place before the period of recorded history and what did it accomplish?
(e) Who considered themselves superior to whom and why ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage, in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided Marks will be deducted for precis not written on the precis-sheets. Marks will also be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter that the prescribed length. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
It has been estimated than the human population of 600 B.C. was about five million people, taking perhaps one million years to get there from two and a half million. The population did not reach 500 million until almost 8,000 years later-about 1650 A.D. This means it doubled roughly once every thousand years or so. It reached a billion people around 1850, doubling in some 200 years. It took on1y 80 years or so for the next doubling, as the population reached two billion around 1930. We have not completed the next doubling to four billion yet, but we now have well over three billion people. The doubling time at present seems to be about 37 years. Quite a reduction in doubling times: 1,000,000 years, 1,000 years, 200 years, 80 years, 37 years.

One of the most ominous facts of the current situation is that roughly 40% of the population of the undeveloped world is made up of people under 15 years old. As that mass of young people moves into its reproductive years during the next decade, we’re going to see the greatest baby boom of all time. Those youngsters are the reason for all the ominous predictions for the year 2000. They are the gun-powder for the population explosion.

How did we get into this bind ? It all happened along time ago, and the story involves the process of natural selection, the development of culture, and mans swollen head. The essence of success in evolution is reproduction …. for reproduction is the key to winning the evolutionary game. Any structure. physiological process or pattern of behaviour that leads to greater reproductive success will tend to be perpetuated. The entire process by which man developed involves thousands of millenia of our ancestors being more successful breeders than their relatives. Facet number one of our bind-the urge to reproduce has been fixed in us by billions of years of evolution.

Of course through all those years of evolution. our ancestors were fighting a continual battle to keep the birth rate ahead of the death rate. That they were successful is attested to by our very existence, for, if the death rate had overtaken the birth rate for any substantial period of time, the evolutionary line leading to man would have gone extinct. Among our apelike ancestors, a few million years ago, it was still very difficult for a mother to rear her children successfully. Most of the offspring died before they reached reproductive age. The death rate was near the birth rate. Then another factor entered the picture – cultural evolution was added to biological evolution.

Of course, in the early days the whole system did not prevent a very high mortality among the young, as well as among the older members of the group. Hunting and food-gathering is a risky business. Cavemen had to throve very impressive cave bears out of their caves before the men could move in. Witch doctors and shamans had a less than perfect record at treating wounds and curing disease. Life was short, if not sweet. Man’s total population size doubtless increased slowly but steadily as human populations expanded out of the African cradle of our species.

Then about 8,000 years ago a major change occurred – the agricultural revolution. People began to give up hunting food and settled down to grow it. Suddenly some of the risk was removed from life. The chances of dying of starvation diminished greatly in some human groups. Other threats associated with the nomadic life were also reduced, perhaps balanced by new threats of disease and large scale warfare associated with the development of cities. But the overall result was a more secure existence than before and the human population grew more rapidly. Around 1800, when the standard of living in what are today the developed countries was dramatically increasing due to industrialization, population growth really began to accelerate. The development of medical science was the straw that broke the camel’s back.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
characterize; coagulant; fright; globe; civilized;
disastrous; move; enthusiasm; pessimistic; philosophizing
(i) The ————- of clouds leads to changes in the weather.
(ii) Man’s continuance on earth is shrouded in ———– .
(iii) A cosmic ————– may end life on earth.
(iv) Vitamin K is essential for the ———— of blood.
(v) Is our ———- going on the right path
(vi) The economic. ———- of our country is changing.
(vii) Once in the jungle, the boys were ————– .
(viii) What does Indian ————- teach?
(ix) —————- is affecting India’s economy.
(x) He spoke ———— about the existence of God.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb. 10
(i) hunt
(ii) wound
(iii) discredit
(iv) team
(v) experience

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) “Shut the door after you,” she told him curtly.
(Change into indirect form)
(ii) Did she commit all the mistakes ?
(Change into passive voice)
(iii) Many difficulties are impossible to overcome.
(Use a single word for the underlined phrase)
(iv) Hard as he tried, the old man failed to find a buyer for his bicycle.
(Use “though”)
(v) She is so good that others cannot beat her.
(Replace “so” by “too”)

Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) She vividly described about the situation.
(ii) He chose only such men for his company whom he could trust.
(iii) He does not boast his-merits.
(iv) The rich lead a luxuriant life.
(v) The work was hard and exhaustive.
(vi) Sages had prophecied the coming of the prophet.
(vii) Earth may again be hit by a huge meteor.
(viii) He came to the city with a view to get a job.
(ix) He was angry upon me.
(x) Why she is doing this ?

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to till in the blanks : 10
(i) She has the ——————- to this property.
(wright ; right)
(ii) He has ——————- his own method for doing the work.
(devised ; deviced)
(iii) Fetch me a ——————- of water.
(pale ; pail)
(iv) All the ————— of the airline were grounded.
(aircraft ; aircrafts)
(v) The government has selected the ——————— for the hospital.
(site ; cite)
(vi) The ——————- of Kargil have fallen silent.
(canons ; cannons)
(vii) The tropic of ——————— is an imaginary line.
(Cancer ; cancer)
(viii) The budget —————— could not be offset.
(deficit ; deficiency)
(ix) When they came down the hill the ——————- was steep.
(descent ; decent)
(x) The government collapsed when there was a ————– in the party.
(fraction ; faction)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning : 5
(i) bring about
(ii) break in
(iii) heart and soul
(iv) lie low
(v) hold one’s breath

2001

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Knowledge is power
(b) Consequences of globalization
(c) Value of yoga
(d) Science and human happiness
(e) Tourism in India

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The world we live in presents an endless variety of fascinating problems which excite our wonder and curiosity. The scientific worker attempts to formulate these problems in accurate terms and to solve them in the light of all the relevant facts that can be collected by observation and experiment. Such questions as ‘What, ‘How’, ‘Where’ and ‘When’ challenge him to find the clues that may suggest possible replies. Confronted by the many problems presented by, let us say, an active volcano, we may ask ‘What are the lavas made of? How does the volcano work and how Is the heat generated? Where do the lavas and gases come from? When did the volcano first begin to erupt and when is it likely to erupt again?

In terms of chemical compounds and elements, the question ‘How’ refers to processes — the way things are made or happen or change. The ancients regarded natural processes as manifestations of energy acting on or through matter. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes no longer reflect the erratic behaviour of the gods of the underworld; they arise from the action of the earth’s internal heat on and through the surrounding crust. The source of the energy lies in the material of inner earth. In many directions, of course, our knowledge is still incomplete, only the first of the questions we have asked about volcanoes, for example, can as yet be satisfactorily answered. The point is not that we now pretend to understand everything but that we have faith in the orderliness of natural processes. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation, we have come to believe that Nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments, she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.

(a) How does the author describe the task of the scientific worker?
(b) Why does the author speak about volcanoes?
(c) What does the equation ‘How’ refer to?
(d) How did the ancients look upon volcanoes and earthquakes?
(e) What does the author say about our knowledge of the world?

3. Make a précis of the following passage, in your own words, in about 230 words, on the special
précis-sheets provided. Marks will be deducted for précis not written on the précis sheets. Marks will
also be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. The précissheets
should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your précis. (75)

No amount of improvement and reconstruction in education will bear much fruit if our schools and colleges are undermined by indiscipline. An impartial examination makes it clear that students and teachers alike need more of the spirit of discipline. If proper education is to be given, acts of indiscipline prevalent in our educational institutions have to be checked. Indiscipline may take the shape of group indiscipline or individual indiscipline. Group indiscipline is the worse of the two. While as individuals many of our students are as good as students elsewhere, the tendency to group indiscipline has increased in recent years. Many causes have led to this group indiscipline. For various reasons under a foreign regime, acts of indiscipline became frequent, often necessitated by the political activities, which were launched against a foreign government. While there may have been justification for such indiscipline under different political circumstances, we feel that there is no justification on for such acts of indiscipline after the attainment of independence. The democratic constitution which the country has adopted permits the redressing of grievances through democratic machinery. It would be against all principles of democracy if such acts of indiscipline were to continue.

The real purpose of education is to train youth to discharge the duties of citizenship properly. All other objectives are incidental. Discipline, therefore, should be the responsibility of parents, teachers, the general public and the authorities concerned. There are some positive factors promoting discipline. The Indian student’s natural tendency is to be disciplined. It is only when forces act strongly on him that he may sometimes be led astray. He appreciates rules and is normally inclined to abide by them. Much can be done to encourage this trend in school and college life. Personal contact between teacher and pupil is essential. Emphasis is also to be laid on the role of the class teacher or tutorial guide in promoting general discipline and the welfare of the pupils. Further a greater responsibility should devolve upon the students themselves in the maintenance of discipline. Nothing is more calculated to develop a proper sense of self-discipline and proper behaviour than their enforcement, not by any outside authority with any symbol of punishment but by the students themselves. They should choose their own representatives to see that proper codes of conduct are observed.

Another important method of bringing home to pupils the value of discipline is through group games. It is on the playing fields that the virtue of playing the game for its own sake and the team spirit can be cultivated. Such extracurricular activities as Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, the National Cadet Corps, Junior Red Cross and Social Service activities will promote a proper spirit of discipline. The building up of a truly harmonious and united form of community life should be the endeavour of all progressive educational institutions.

Besides these positive factors, certain negative factors also promote discipline. The discipline of the youth of any country depends upon the discipline that is exercised by the elders. It is a well – known fact that in all democracies election time is a time offeverish activity not always conducted in the most healthy spirit, and the utilization by politicians of immature minds like students for purposes of electioneering campaigns, with or without slogans attached thereto, is not calculated to promote sound discipline among students. It should be considered an election offence for any member or party to utilize the services of pupils under the age of 17 in political or civic campaigns. Besides, while the educative value of leading politicians addressing our students from time to time may be readily admitted, the tendency often is for the leaders not to speak to the audience before hem but to a wider audience whose attention they wish to attract through the press. It is not  necessary that every speech made by a politician should be a political speech. Lastly, discipline among students can only be promoted if there is discipline among the staff. The teacher and the educational administrator should realize that their activities are all being watched by their pupils. To what extent, therefore, both in their personal conduct and in their general attitude to all problems concerning their country, they have to realize that there are limitations within which they must act for the best interests of education. Ultimately, it is the school or college atmosphere and the quality of the teachers there that ensure proper codes of conduct and discipline among our students.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: 10
Value, offend, strike, jealous, put, grant, disturb, learn, fly, economic
(i) The man …………………. into a rage and tore away his garments.
(ii) A sensible man never takes everything for ………………
(iii) No one seems to have taken ……………….at her manners.
(iv) When are you ………………out to sea again?
(v) I have no mind to trespass upon you ………………..time.
(vi) Try to rise above petty personal …………………
(vii) The officer ………………….through one paragraph and accepted the rest.
(viii) The report I have received is very …………………indeed.
(ix) She has sent her paper to a ………………..journal.
(x) These new measures will give a boost to our ………………………

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: 10
(i) tum
(ii) spell
(iii) part
(iv) contact
(v) meet

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed:
(i) You are too early for the show. (Use “enough”)
(ii) The Mahanadi is not as long as the Gange. (Use the comparative degree)
(iii) Varsha readily complied ……………..my request. (Fill in the gap with a preposition)
(iv) We are sure of his honesty. (Change into a complex sentence)
(v) Santa said, “Don’t open the window.” (Change into the indirect form)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: 10
(i) May 1 now take your leave?
(ii) The soup will taste better if it had more salt in it.
(iii) Is he used to come late everyday?
(iv) Your daughter is twelve years old, isn’t it?
(v) We must be true to our words.
(vi) Datta is living here since 1998.
(vii) A twenty miles walk is really very hard.
(viii) We watched the man to disappear in the woods.
(ix) Kalidas has written Meghadutam.
(x) Let’s have coffee.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks (10)
(i) He seems to be…………….. to hard work. (adverse; averse)
(ii) The building does not ………………..to safety regulations (conform; confirm)
(iii) Asharam was accused of …………the workers against the management. (exciting; inciting)
(iv) Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane…………… (crass; crash)
(v) Gagan uses expensive ………….for his letters. (stationery; stationary)
(vi) The factory was ………………making toys. (seized; ceased)
(vii) Shakil is …………….. at solving difficult crossword puzzles (ingenuous; ingenious)
(viii) I wish you a …………….. recovery (fast; speedy)
(ix) Everybody said that her decision was ………………. (judicious; judicial)
(x) You will have to ………………. your afternoon tea as we have no more sugar.
(forego; forgo)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning: 5
(i) deal in
(ii) prime of life
(iii) above board
(iv) dwell upon
(v) in full swing

2002

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The ways to enrich our regional languages.
(b) Whither Indian democracy today?
(c) Terrorism in India.
(d) Science and Religion.
(e) If I were the Prime Minister of India.

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The scientific and technological revolution has brought about fundamental changes in the socio – economic sphere. The use of diesel engine and electricity and the beginning of the application of atomic energy have changed the modes of production. These things have led to the concentration of capital in a few hands. Great enterprises are replacing cottage industries and small firms. The working classes have certainly benefited economically. The miracle of production has necessitated the miracle of consumption. Better amenities are available at a lower cost. A man can buy anything he wants today, if he can only afford. But what kinds of men are needed today for our society? Men who can cooperate in large groups, men whose tasks are standardized, men who feel free and independent and at the same time are willing to fit in the social machine without any friction. Modem man is faced with a sort of moral and spiritual dilemma. The crisis of values yawns before him. Today the old values are in the melting pot, and the new values have not found their foothold. Man has become the automaton he has contrived; he has lost ownership of himself. The discord between the development of positive science on the one hand and the dehumanization of man on the other is the worst crisis of the modem age.

Apart from the economic sphere, the socio-political sphere has not escaped this stratification and the congruent crisis of values. Since the Renaissance, man has been striving for individual rights and self-dignity. But under the present set-up, only two types of men are found — the conditioner and the conditioned. The propaganda offices and the planning bureaus have almost crushed the ‘individual self’, and it has resulted in the rise of the ‘social self. Due to this pressure, the personality fulfillment or its all- round development is denied to many.

(a) What has changed the modes of production today?
(b) What things are being replaced by great enterprise?
(c) What kind of men is needed today for our society?
(d) Why has man become the automation of his own creation?
(e) Is modem man able to attain personality fulfillment?

3. Make a précis of the following passage in your own language in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. Indicate the number of words used by you in your précis.

N.B.: Marks will be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. (75)
“What is the use of a house if you haven’t got a tolerable planet to put it on?” asked Henry David Thoreau. More than century later the Earth seems to be literally falling to pieces — recent environmental set-backs include billions of tonnes of ice shelves breaking off in the Antarctic and unusually warm temperatures in different parts of the world. Panic reactions range from predictions of sinking islands to the lamenting the ill-effects of global warming induced by release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The trouble is that we are too much obsessed with the problem of climatic Change to even acknowledge the fact that the state of the planet hinges on much more. Climatic change is at best a symptom of a far more complex malaise, just as a fever is most often only an Indicator of something that’s  gone awry in our body. It is time for a complete and comprehensive planetary health check that will examine the impacts of change in land use, loss of biodiversity, use of fertilizers and pesticides and consistent pollution of water bodies. This would overcome the  limitations of evaluating how ecosystems work by reacting to just one major environmental concern as is happening in the case of global warming. These considerations have been responsible for the setting up of an international panel, the Milleniurn Ecosystem Assessment. Financed by four major international bodies, including the UNO and the World Bank, the eco-panel was set up without much fuss last June (2001), and is expected to determine, over a period of four years and at a cost of $ 21 million, the state of the Earth’s ecosystems.

The eco-panel will have source inputs from more than 2,000 natural and social scientists the world over. Put simply, the Earth will go through the equivalent of a thorough physical analysis, so that biological, economic and social information can be collated to help scientists arrive at a final diagnosis. What is crucial, says one of the scientists, and is that “no one has previously tried to work out how all of these conflicting pressures interact.” The other important factor is how well we can orchestrate trade-offs and interactions in order to maintain ecological balance. Scientific bodies like the international Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have access to vast amounts of baseline data relating to the subject — although critics points out that the information available is mostly from the North, leaving the concerns of he south largely unrepresented. The newly-constituted eco-panel will have to take all these aspects into account. For instance, it will have to ensure that data collection is more representative of the regions of the world. Today, we have the advantage of sourcing data from remote sensing satellites as well. The information thus gathered would have to be sorted out and analyzed by specialists and also by generalists before the panel comes out with specific periodic predictions, prescriptions and warnings. The healing process can begin only if all the scientific evidence and direction is made available to a wide audience and not just restricted to policy makers. Rather than depending solely upon governments to listen to and take corrective action, the focus should now be on convincing individuals and communities whose collective or individual action will eventually make the difference between regression and recovery.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: (10)
ride, diminish, devotion, shout, watch, contest, disastrous, pleasure, philosophizing, finance.
(i) Mohan is …………to his father.
(ii) None seems to have been ……………with his speech.
(iii) She ……………at the peon when he sat down.
(iv) His …………….condition is at a low ebb now.
(v) Several candidates are ………………..the Panchayat elections.
(vi) The boy was frightened to …………………the movie.
(vii) What does Samkara’s ……………….teach us
(viii) Hariharans suspicious moves herald a………………….
(ix) In the circus show, I saw a bear ……………a bicycle.
(x) The chances of starvation deaths have ……………….today

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) race
(ii) hit
(iii) play
(iv) touch
(v) experiment

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically: 5
(i) “Do not make a noise.” said the teacher to his students. (Change into indirect form)
(ii) Han is so short that he cannot touch the ceiling. (Replace ‘so by ‘too’)
(iii) I gave him a ten-rupee not yesterday. (Change into passive voice)
(iv) She bought a house last year. The house is white. (Change into a simple sentence)
(v) Hard as he worked, he failed in the examination. (Use ‘though’)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) He boasts his achievements now and then.
(ii) She is living in this flat since 1995.
(iii) The Principal was angry upon the boys.
(iv) Character is more preferable than intelligence.
(v) Krishna hanged all the pictures on the wall.
(vi) The sceneries of Kashmir more me most.
(vii) Cattle is grazing in the field.
(viii) Han is going foreign next month.
(ix) She knew that I am leaving the place.
(x) His elder brother gave him many good advices.

(b) Of the words given in the brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks: 10
(i) The road accident proved to be…………… (fateful, fatal)
(ii) He got a ………………..opportunity to qualify in the test. (gold, golden)
(iii) Fariciabad is an …………….. city. (industrial, industrious)
(iv) An ashram is a ………………..place. (quite, quiet)
(v) Sohan’s handwriting is…………….(eligible. illegible)
(vi) We should not disturb the ……………. of his mind. (piece. peace)
(vii) You should ………………… an example to strengthen your viewpoint (site, cite)
(viii) Akbar was an …………………..to Humayun. (hair, heir)
(ix) Rajasthan is a well-known ……………….. (desert, dessert)
(ix) The ………………..turned me out of the class. (principle, principal)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning; (5)
(i) bring about
(ii) call names
(iii) run out
(iv) by leaps and bounds
(v) lame excuse

2003

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The Need for Alternative Sources of Energy
(b) The Role of Judiciary in India
(c) Freedom of Expression
(d) My Idea of an Administrator
(e) Pleasures of Reading

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 × 15 = 75)
This rule of trying always to do things as well as one can do them has an important bearing upon the problem of ambition. No man or woman should be without ambition, which is the inspiration of activity. But if one allows ambition to drive one to attempt things which are beyond one’s own personal capacity, then unhappiness will result: If one imagines that one can do everything better than other people, then envy and jealousy, those twin monsters, will come to sadden one’s days. But if one concentrates one’s attention upon developing one’s own special capacities, the things one is best at, then one does not worry over much if other people Ere more successful.

There are those again who are discontented with their own job and complain of drudgery. But there is no job in the world which does not contain a large element of drudgery. Do you imagine that a Prime Minister has no drudgery to do, or an artist, or an author? I loathe drudgery as much as any man; but I have learnt that the only way to conquer drudgery is to get through it as neatly, as efficiently as one can. You know I am right when I say that. A dull job slackly done becomes twice as dull; a dull job which you try to do just as well as you can becomes half as dull. Here again effort appears to me the main part of the art of living.

Have I any other, and less disagreeable, hints to suggest? I believe that every man and woman has somewhere tucked away inside them a sense of beauty. Without  this sense life on this earth is veiled in dim grey clouds. It may be that you do not care, or think you do not care, for poetry or art or music. If you make the least effort, you may find that some or all of these things will cause you sudden delight; and once you catch that delight it will never leave you. Because if life, as I believe, is a constantly renewed effort, then the human frame aid nerves require some relaxation.

(a) When does ambition lead to unhappiness?
(b) How can a person avoid envy and jealousy?
(c) How can we avoid the feeling of drudgery?
(d) Should we avoid ambition?
(e) What does the phrase “to get through it” mean?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 230 words. Marks will be deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and the length of the precis exceeds or falls short of more than 10 words of the prescribed length. State the number of words used by you in the precis and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Some wars in the past were quite as disorganizing and as destructive of the civilization of devastated areas as was the Second World War. North Africa has never regained the level of rosperity that t enjoyed under the Romans. Persia never recovered from the Mongols nor Syria from  the Turks. There have always been two kinds of wars, those in which the vanquished incurred disaster, and those in which they only incurred discomfort. We seem, unfortunately, to be entering upon an era in which wars are of the former sort.

The atom bomb, and still more the hydrogen bomb, have caused new fears, involving new doubts as to the effects of science on human life. Some eminent authorities, including Einstein, have pointed out that there is a danger of the extinction of all life on this planet. I do not myself think that this will happen in the next war, but I think it may well happen in the next but one, if that is allowed to occur. If this expectation is correct, we have to choose, within the next fifty years or so, between two alternatives. Either we must allow the human race to exterminate itself, or we must forgo certain liberties which are very dear to us, more especially the liberty to kill foreigners whenever we fell so disposed. I think it probable that mankind will choose its own extermination as the preferable alternative. The choice will be made, of course, by persuading ourselves that it is not being made, since (so militarists on both sides will say) the victory of the right is certain without risk of universal disaster. We are perhaps living in the last age of man, and, if so, it is to science that he will owe his extinction.

If, however, the human race decides to let itself go on living, it will have to make very drastic changes in its ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. We must learn not to say ‘Never! Better death than dishonour’. We must learn to submit to law, even when imposed by aliens whom we hate and despise, and whom we believe to be blind to all considerations of righteousness. Consider some concrete examples. Jews and Arabs will have to agree to submit to arbitration; if the award goes against the Jews, the President of the United States will have to ensure the victory of the party to which he is opposed, since, if he supports the international authority, he will lose the Jewish vote in New York State. On the other hand, if the award goes in favour of the Jews, the Mohammedan world will be indignant, and will be supported by all other malcontents. Or, to take another instance, Eire will demand the right to oppress the Protestants of Ulster, and on this issue the United States will support Eire while Britain will support Ulster. Could an international authority survive such a dissension?

Again: India and Pakistan cannot agree about Kashmir, therefore one of them must support Russia and the other the United States. It will be obvious to anyone who is an interested party in one of these disputes that the issue is far more important than the continuance of life on our planet. The hope that the human race will allow itself to survive is therefore somewhat slender. But if human life is to continue in spite of science, mankind will have to learn a discipline of the passions which, in the past, has not been necessary. Men will have to submit to the law, even when they think the law unjust and iniquitous. Nations which are persuaded that they are only demanding the barest justice will have to acquiesce when this demand is denied them by the neutral authority. I do not say that this is easy; I do not prophesy that it will happen; I say only that if it does not happen the human race will perish, and will perish as a result of science.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of the words given below: (10)
offensive, imagination, psychological, conceive, vacation, entire, enthusiasm, lacerating, deify, margin
(i) I do not believe in the ……………….of an ordinary politician.
(ii) She could not bear to look at his …………….hand.
(iii) Most people do not have any clear ……………of judicial activism.
(iv) Who can dare to ………………….the boss?
(v) A sensible person can ………………….the plight of others.
(vi) You have to consider the matter in its …………………
(vii) It is difficult to ………………..such dullards.
(viii) We can no longer ………………..the poor and the suppressed.
(ix) You will have to …………….the house.
(x) ………………..is an interesting subject.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) help
(ii) nurse
(iii) judge
(iv) pillory
(v) round

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed within brackets: (5)
(i) No metal is as costly as gold. (Use the comparative degree of “costly”)
(ii) I doubt if you have done it. (Change into a negative sentence without changing the meaning)
(iii) He was elected leader. (Change into active voice)
(iv) She confessed that she was guilty. (Turn it into a simple sentence)
(v) She said, “Can you write a poem?” (Change into indirect speech)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) Each of the scholars, belonging to various countries, have spoken about it.
(ii) All were present except he and his sister.
(iii) I wonder if ten thousand rupees are a large sum.
(iv) She lay the table an hour ago.
(v) He absented from the class for no reason.
(vi) He is untidy boy.
(vii) All his plans fell out for lack of help.
(viii) Of milk, coke and coffee the latter is my favourite.
(ix) All this happened prior 1971 war.
(x) Scarcely had she gone that he arrived.

(b) Choose the appropriate words given in the brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences: (10)
(i) Nehruji made a ………………. speech in Parliament on this occasion.
(historical, historic)
(ii) Such heavy responsibilities cannot be ………………….easily.
(born, borne)
(iii) The doctor visits him on ………………….days.
(alternative, alternate)
(iv) I do not know why he is …………………..towards me.
(contemptuous, contemptible)
(v) To work for more than eight hours is quite ……………………
(exhaustive, exhausting)
(vi) Democracy does not allow the ………………..of the minorities.
(prosecution, persecution)
(vii) No meeting of the ……………..of ministers has been scheduled for tomorrow.
(council, cabinet)
(viii) All worldly pleasures are considered to be …………………..by saints.
(momentary, momentous)
(ix) Any …………………. of secret documents is punishable by law.
(tempering, tampering)
(x) He is an ……………..person to work with.
(amiable, amenable)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) to come across
(ii) to be cut out for
(iii) over head and ears
(iv) to see eye to eye
(v) to draw the line

2004

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) Indian Budget is a Gamble on the Monsoons
(b) Necessity of Water-Harvesting in India
(c) Social Harmony vs. Communal Frenzy
(d) Criminalization of Politics
(e) ‘All That Glitters Is Not Gold’

2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow at the end (5 x 15 = 75)
The flowering of Indian civilization constitutes one of the most glorious chapters in the history of mankind. A culture, remarkable for its moral no less than for its material creativity, which has endured for three millennia and more, is necessarily a subject of great fascination. Yet over and above its longevity, Indian civilization is also characterized by some other features which deserve to be highlighted in any review of its past. The ability of this civilization to absorb alien cultures without losing its distinctive identity has intrigued scholars over the centuries; and this capacity for creative absorption is as much in evidence today, when India is undergoing a seminal transformation into a modern industrial community, as it was in the centuries past, when alien communities with novel ways of life migrated into the subcontinent, to be drawn into the living matrix of Indian society; The continuity of Indian civilization rests very substantially upon social institutions and upon the dissemination of a common corpus of religious values among different classes and communities in the subcontinent.

This civilization was also geared to a cycle of agricultural activity which substantially determined the total ordering of society. Hence, the fact that the great epicentres of Indian civilization were located in the plains of the Indus and the Ganga in the north; and those of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery in the south. Over the centuries the people living in these riverine regions had conjured into existence a round of economic activity and a set of social institutions, which were designed to produce the agricultural wealth which sustained life. Indeed, the structure of rural society; with a central place occupied by the cultivating classes, which were linked by ties of patronage and prescription to numerous artisanal and menial groups; and the fabric of caste society; with the interlocking institutions of Varna and Jati has to be looked upon as the historical answer of the Indian genius to the needs of sustaining production in a rural society; The striking feature of this social organization was the premium which it put on self-sufficiency and survival within the framework of an agrarian civilization.

(a) What is the most distinctive feature of Indian civilization?
(b) Which section of the society occupied a central place in Indian civilization?
(c) Identify the great epicentres of Indian civilization as narrated in the passage.
(d) On what did the Indian social organization lay emphasis?
(e) What does the phrase “conjured into existence” mean?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will be deduced if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

There is some similarity between Italy and India. Both are ancient countries with long raditions of culture behind them, though Italy is a newcomer compared to India, and India is a much more vast country Both are split up politically, and yet the conception of Italia, like that of India, never died, and in all their diversity the unity was predominant. In Italy the unity was largely a Roman unity, for that great city had dominated the country and been the fount and symbol of unity. In India there was no such single centre or dominant city, although Benares might well be called the Eternal City of the East, not only for India, but also for Eastern Asia. But, unlike Rome, Benares never dabbled in empire or thought of temporal power. Indian culture was so widespread all over India that no part of the country could be called the heart of that culture. From Kanyakumari to Amarnath and Badrinath in the Himalayas, from Dwarka to Pun, the same ideas coursed, and if there was a clash of ideas in one place, the noise of it soon reached distant parts of the country. Just as Italy gave the gift of culture and religion to Western Europe, India did so to Eastern Asia though China was as old and venerable as India. And even when Italy was lying prostrate politically, her life coursed through the veins of Europe. It was Metternich who called Italy a “geographical expression”, and many a would-be Metternich has used that phrase for India, and, strangely enough, there is a similarity even in their geographical positions in the two continents.

More interesting is the comparison of England with Austria, for has not England of the twentieth century been compared to Austria of the nineteenth, proud and haughty and imposing still, but with the roots that gave strength shriveling up and decay eating its way into the mighty fabric. It is curious how one cannot resist the tendency to give an anthropomorphic form to a country. Such is the force of habit and early associations. India becomes Bharat Mata, Mother India, a beautiful lady, very old but ever youthful in appearance, sad-eyed and forlorn, cruelly treated by aliens and outsiders, and calling upon her children to protect her. Some such picture rouses the emotions of hundreds of thousands and drives them to action and sacrifice. And yet India is in the main, the peasant and the worker, not beautiful to look at, for poverty is not beautiful.

Does the beautiful lady of our imaginations represent the bare-bodied and bent workers in the fields and factories? Or the small group of those who have from ages past crushed the masses and exploited them, imposed cruel customs on them and made many of them even untouchable ? We seek to cover truth by the creatures of our imaginations and endeavour to escape from reality to a world of dreams. And yet, despite these different classes and their mutual conflicts there was a common bond which united them in India, and one is amazed at its persistence and tenacity and enduring vitality. What was this strength due to? Nor merely the passive strength and weight of inertia and tradition, great as these always are. There was an active sustaining principle, for it resisted successfully powerful outside influences and absorbed internal forces that rose to combat it.

And yet with all its strength it could not preserve political freedom or endeavour to bring about political unity. These latter do not appear to have been considered worth much trouble; their importance was very foolishly ignored, and we have suffered for this neglect. Right through history the old Indian ideal did not glorify political and military triumph, and it looked down upon money and the professional moneymaking class. Honour and wealth did not go together, and honour was meant to go, at least in theory, to the men who served the community with little in the shape of financial reward. The old culture managed to live through many a fierce storm and tempest, but though it kept its outer form, it lost its real content. Today it is fighting silently and desperately against a new and all-powerful opponent — the bania civilization of the capitalist West. It will succumb to this newcomer, for the West brings science, and science brings food for the hungry millions. But the West also brings an antidote to the evils of this cut-throat civilization — the principles of socialism, of cooperation, and service to the community for the common good.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below: (10)
burn, near, harm, perfect, invite, create, join, administer, spendthrift, skill

(i) I did not accept the ……………….because I was angry
(ii) An honest man is the noblest …………….of God.
(iii) His father prevented him from ……………….a dance school.
(iv) A judge should ……………..equal justice to all.
(v) He looks gentle enough, but he can be …………………at times.
(vi) He has ………………his case to my satisfaction.
(vii) Your opponent is too …………………to cope with.
(viii) Despite suggestions to the contrary, he continued to be a ……………
(ix) The ………………..sun made the traveller thirsty.
(x) Bombay is the seaport ……………to Europe.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) present
(ii) move
(iii) issue
(iv) pain
(v) crowd

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed within brackets: (5)

(i) He had to sign or be executed.
(Turn into a complex sentence)

(ii) Given the order.
(Use the passive form)

(iii) I was doubtful whether it was you.
(Turn into a negative sentence)

(iv) He was disgraced his family.
(Use the noun form of “disgraced”)

(v) He was so tired that he could not stand.
(Turn into a simple sentence replacing “so” by “too”)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) The rain was accompanied by hail and storm.
(ii) I cannot help but think that he is a fool.
(iii) I have never seen a clever man at engineering than him.
(iv) It is all the more better if he marries your daughter.
(v) Objections to this proposal can be stated as thus.
(vi) He travelled from one corner of India to the other.
(vii) She could not make up the mind.
(viii) They tried to wipe out the poor widow’s tears.
(ix) It is the best ideal each person may aspire for.
(x) You are not entitled for admission

(b) Choose the appropriate words from those given in the brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences:10

(i) She has a ………………….appearance.
(gracious, graceful)

(ii) Out principal is a man of kind and ………………nature
(judicious, judicial)

(iii) He is ………………to both praise and blame.
(sensible, sensitive)

(iv) Gandhiji was the ………………head of the Congress party
(virtuous, virtual)

(v) I do not regard his scheme as ………………
(practicable, practical)

(vi) The Equator is an ……………… line round the world.
(imaginative, imaginary)

(vii) The ship sailed ashore in spite of ……………… difficulties.
(elemental, elementary)

(viii) Acts of ……………… negligence are punishable by law.
(willing, wilful)

(ix) He was offered a ………………job.
(temporal, temporary)

(x) I am the ………………owner of the house.
(rightful, righteous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) to call forth
(ii) to fall through
(iii) to get along
(iv) to lay bare
(v) to put up with

2005

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Environment and Conservation
(b) Role of Women in Social Transformation
(c) Nuclear Energy in War and Peace
(d) India’s Foreign Policy and World Power
(e) Television and its Impact on Youth

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
It is wrong to believe that science has totally eclipsed literature with its inspiring zeal. That  literature plays a subordinate role to science is equally untrue. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that  science has comparatively a wider range for its impact on the physical world than literature. But that  does not mean that literature has been incorporated in the realm of science to the extent that it loses  its distinct individuality. The reality is that both co-exist without the one overshadowing the other,  Those who think that science has pushed literature into shade reducing it to a non-entity seem to be  simply imaginative and illogical in the comparisons of their respective merits. It is no doubt unquestionable that products of science are of greater material value than those which make an   emotional appeal, e.g., a bridge is of greater use to the public than a poem. But thereby one should  not ignore the importance of a poem which will continue to appeal to human mind for time to come.  It is indisputable that a scientific theory like the one propounded by Einstein is not without its  philosophical import as it lays its impress on the future growth of literature. But to be effective in  this respect, science should unfold its principles by appealing to human emotions and not through  crude and concrete material facts. Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection in its exposition of the  evolution of man by appeal to emotions and imagination of men has been conducive to the growth of  nineteenth century literature. Mans emotional attitudes to life and vicissitudes of his fortune are  colored not only by his inherited instincts and faith in his fate but also by his hope in point of  longevity of life and betterment of future prospects. Oriented by a scientific theory, they give a  colour to literature.

Literature feeds the emotional and imaginative hunger of man in this perspective science will  not oust literature but enrich it by its impact on human life. Science can provide amenities of life for  human comfort but fails to lend or impart spiritual pleasure Delight that literature instills in man far  transcends the comforts which science provides.

(a) What is the basic contribution of science to humankind?
(b) What aspect of human life is fulfilled by works of literature?
(c) How have Darwin’s and Einstein’s theories proved conducive to the growth of literature?
(d) How is science friendly and not hostile to the growth of literature?
(e) Briefly enumerate the key ideas in the passage.

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will he deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or  shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and  securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Gautama, the Buddha, has suffered as much as anyone from critics without a sense of history.  He has been cried up, and cried down, with an equal lack of historical imagination”. Buddhism came  to be widely known in the west in the latter part of the 19th century when a wave of scepticism  spread over the world as a result of the growth of science and enlightenment. Positivism, agnosticism  atheism and ethical humanism found wide support. In much of the literature of doubt and disbelief,  the name of Buddha is mentioned with respect. The humanists honour him as one of the earliest  protagonists of their cause- the happiness the dignity, and the mental integrity of mankind.

Those  who declare that man cannot know reality and others who affirm that there is no reality to know, use  his name. Agnostics quote his example. Social idealists, ethical mystic’s rationalist prophets are all  attracted by his teaching.  Great as is the value of the Buddha’s teaching for our age, we cannot hope to understand its  true significance without reference to the environment in which he lived. This effort of historical  imagination is not easy. To view the Buddha as a thinker of the sixth century B.C., living, moving  and teaching in its peculiar conditions, is a task of extreme difficulty and delicacy; and the work of  reconstruction can never be complete. But we may be reasonably certain that it yields a picture  which in its main outlines, at least, must correspond fairly well to the reality.  The supremacy of the ethical is the clue to the teaching of the Buddha. His conceptions of life  and the universe are derived from his severely practical outlook. The existence of everything  depends on a cause. If we remove the cause, the effect will disappear. If the source of all suffering is  destroyed, suffering will disappear. The only way in which we can remove the cause of suffering is  by purifying the heart and following the moral law. Man is not divine but is to become divine. His  divine status is something to be built up by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. The ego  consists of the feelings that burn us, of the passions we brood over, of the desires that hunt us and of  the decisions we make. These are the things that give life its dramatic character. There is nothing  absolute and permanent in them.

That is why we can become something different from what we are.  The reality of the person is the creative will. When we deny the clamour of emotions, stay the stream  of things, silence the appetites of body, we feel the power of self within our own being.  For the Buddha, the impulse to dharma, to justice and kindliness is operative in things, and its  efficient activity will mean the reduction of disorder, cruelty and oppression. Dharma is organic to  existence and its implication of karma or right action is the builder of the world. There is not in the  Buddha’s teaching that deep personal loyalty, passion of love, and intimate dialogue between soul  and soul resembling closely in its expression of earthly love. And yet the essence of religion, the  vision of a reality which stands beyond and within the passing flux of immediate things, the intuitive  loyalty to something larger than and beyond oneself, and absolute active in the world, is in him.  We find in Gautama, the Buddha, in powerful combination, spiritual profundity and moral  strength of the highest order and a discreet intellectual reserve.

He is one of those rare spirits who  bring to men a realization of their own divinity and make the spiritual life seem adventurous and  attractive, so that they may go forth into the world with a new interest and a new joy of heart. While  his great intellect and wisdom gave him comprehension of the highest truth, his warm heart led him  to devote his life to save from sorrow suffering humanity. The greatness of his personality, his  prophetic zeal, and burning love for suffering humanity made a deep impression on those with whom  he lived; but his true greatness stands out clearer and brighter as the ages pass, and even the sceptical  minded are turning to him with a more real appreciations a deeper reverence and a truer worship. He  is one of those few heroes of humanity who have made epochs in the history of our race, with a  message for other times as well as their own.

4. (a) Correct the following sentences:  (10)
(i) Too great a variety of studies destruct the mind.
(ii) The whole fleet of their ships were captured
(iii) Each of these students have done their work.
(iv) None but fools has ever believed it.
(v) He is one of the cleverest boys that has passed through the school.
(vi) My friend, philosopher and guide have come.
(vii) The majority are opposed to this proposal.
(viii) He told me that he saw his father last month.
(ix) If he would have worked hard, he would have passed the examination.
(x) Unless he will be more careful, he will not recover.

(b) Add the suffix ‘able’ or ‘ible’ to each of the following words making necessary changes in spelling. Write out the “new” words. (10)
(i) Advice
(ii) Contempt
(iii) Force
(iv) Access
(v) Value
(vi) Reduce
(vii) Discern
(viii) Agree
(ix) Detach
(x) Reverse

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) Apple of discord
(ii) A bolt from the blue
(iii) A feather in one’s cap
(iv) Achilles’ heel
(v) A man of letters

5. (a) Which of the two words within brackets in the following sentences is correct in the context? (10)
(i) Poets often (sore, soar) to great heights of imagination.
(ii) Knowledge (proceeds, proceeds) from the Goddess of Learning.
(iii) The tower was struck by (lightning, lightening) and fell down.
(iv) Kanpur lies on the air (rout, route) to Calcutta.
(v) Everyone is (jealous, zealous) of him.
(vi) The crocodile emerged from the river and (seized, ceased) a goat.
(vii) He was found in (collusion, collision) with the plotters.
(viii) Wicked persons are not (illegible, eligible) for responsible posts.
(ix) He is a man of (lose, loose) character.
(x) The Emperor is staying at the royal (mansion, mention).

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) Book
(ii) Bare
(iii) Clam
(iv) Drive
(v) Face

(c) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (10)
(i) He said, “I am too ill to speak now.”
(ii) The policeman said to the man, “Where are you going?”
(iii) She said to her children, “Let me work undisturbed.”
(iv) He said to the students, “Do not sit here.”
(v) He said, “May god pardon the sinner.”

2006

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Social Impact of Black Money
(b) Women Combat Forces
(c) Internet as Virtual Library
(d) Fashion Boom in India
(e) Are we Aggressive and Rude People?

2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language (5 x 15 = 75)
There is no reason to believe that there are fundamental differences between the East and the West. Human beings are everywhere human and hold the same deepest values. The differences which are, no doubt, significant, are related to external, temporary social conditions and are alterable with them. East and West are relative terms. They are geographical expressions and not cultural types. The differences among countries like China, Japan and India are quite as significant as those among European or American countries. Specific cultural patterns with distinctive beliefs and habits developed in different regions in relative isolation from one another. There were periods when China and India were pre-eminent in cultural affairs, others when Western nations became dominant. For the last four centuries Western nations aided by scientific development have dominated the East. The world has now reached a state of inter-communication. All societies are fast becoming industrialized and new sets of values are springing up. We are called upon to participate in the painful birth of a new civilization. If we are to live together in peace we must develop international cooperation and understanding.

It is for the political leaders to determine the practical steps by which the sources of power and communication now available to us can be used for closer cooperation and friendliness among the people of the world. No political understanding can be made permanent without understanding at the cultural level. Apart from its intrinsic importance, such understanding contributes to the enrichment of human experience. Facile generalizations are made by philosophers of history which are highly misleading. Hegel in his Lectures on the philosophy of History says that ‘Persia is the land of light; Greece the land of grace; India the land of dream; Rome the land of Empire,’

(a) What does the passage say about cultural differences in different regions?
(b) What comments does the author make about the similarities and dissimilarities between the East and the West?
(c) What, according to the passage, is the role of communication in building up a new civilization?
(d) How will cultural understanding at the international level benefit human societies?
(e) Why does the author call the statements of Hegel ‘facile generalization’?

3. Make a precis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on the separate precis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. Clearly state the number of words in the precis at the end. (75)

We all show our feelings on issues by the way we look and react. This has been referred to as body language. We tend to lean forward, hand on chin when we are interested, or turn away when disinterested. Our hands and arms can indicate we are open to what is being said by being relaxed, or show that we are not by being clenched or crossed. We are, therefore, making body pictures of what we feel and think all the time. Indeed people who are taking to us can often get as much information from our body posture as from what we say of how we say it. We might calmly but show we are anxious by moving from foot to foot or by blushing. It is hard to control one’s behavioural reactions, for it is more of a stimulus response reaction than the words we use.

Nevertheless through training it is feasible to portray the image you want to others. With the advent of television as a major political medium there is a lot of effort going into grooming representatives of organizations and particularly chief executives to control their gestures and gesticulations. All this may sound as if you need to be a good actor in order to be successful at conversation control. The answer is, in one sense you do. There is no use in saying one thing and doing another. The actual visual behaviour of shaking your head, for example while saying yes will deafen the words. Those who are effective at conversation control act in a congruent way. Their behaviour matches their words. You can see they mean what they say. They present an authentic picture because their visuals match their verbals.  With practice it is possible to improve performance in conversation without adding any more words. The improvement can come because you improve your visual gestures and gesticulations. For example, you can encourage another person by smiling when he/she says something that pleases you. Indeed the smile is a very powerful gesture. It can switch people ‘on and off’ if done at the appropriate time.

Psychologists refer to the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. To be skilled in conversation control you need to know and apply these laws. Conditioning means having an effect on someone’s behaviour by introducing a condition that either encourages or discourages that behaviour. For example, we have all been conditioned to stop when we see a red light at a traffic intersection, and to proceed if we see a green light. People can be conditioned in conversation by such visual cues. For example if you want someone to continue talking, smile and nod at regular intervals. The smile sets up the green light permission as a condition for the other person to speak. The nod reinforces what is being said and gives the unspoken permission to continue. People are very sensitive to such permission cues and clues. If you stop smiling and head nodding, they will usually stop and you can then contribute. Likewise you can influence the attention of people with whom you are talking by the way you use your eyes and hands, particularly when you are addressing a group. To exercise control it is important to make eye contact with one or more people. If it is a group, move your eye contact from time to time so that each person is being conditioned to the fact that it could be their turn next for you to speak to them.

Body language and the gestures and gesticulations you make are key aspects of conversation control. Many books have been written on the subject of how our body very often tells others what we are thinking before we have spoken. The visual clues get through much more quickly than the verbal ones. Also use your hands to emphasize a point or get them to direct the listener’s gaze where you want it to concentrate. The pointed finger or the open palm tells the story. Our task is to line up what we say with what we do and vice versa, if you do clench your fist and are angry, then your words should reflect this. If you are relaxed, happy and smiling, they say no. (words: 705)

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10)
(i) Neither percept nor dscipline are so forceful as example.
(ii) Do you know if there is a house for letting in the neighbourhood.
(iii) Who you said was coming to see me in the morning?
(iv) He was finding it increasingly difficult to mike his two ends meet.
(v) The poor people of the village buy neither vegetables nor grow them,
(vi) On entering the hail, the humber of visitors surprised me
(vii) The short story should not exceed more than two hundred words.
(viii) Before giving the mixture to the child shake it thoroughly.
(ix) Nothing has or could be more tragic than his death.
(x) The reason that the students these days are so undisciplined is that they do not get any guidance from their parents.

(b) Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition/particle and rewrite the completed sentences: (5)
(i) I told him that he could not catch a big fish __________ a small rod.
(ii) He was taken __________ task for shortage in cash balance.
(iii) The father pulled ___________ his son for his extravagant habits.
(iv) He is so clever, it is difficult to see __________ his tricks.
(v) I have been invited by my friend __________ tea.

(c) Choose the appropriate verb form to fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences: (5)
(i) The efficiency of a plant ________ by the load it can take.
(A) knows (B) is known
(C) has been known (D) has known

(ii) Everyday last week my aunt _______ a plate.
(A) breaks (B) was broken
(C) broke (D) has broken

(iii) If I _________ one more question, I would have passed.
(A) had answered (B) would have answered
(C) would answer (D) has broken

(iv) He promised _______________ me a post in his department.
(A) to have given (B) having given
(C) have given (D) to give

(v) Please don’t ______________ when you go out.
(A) leave opening the door (B) leave the door open
(C) Leave the door opened (D) leave open the door

(d) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (5)
(i) He said, “I will not approve of such a behaviour in future.”
(ii) He said on the telephone, “We kept on doing our work till late night.”
(iii) She said, “As your mother is ill, you must go home at once.”
(iv) Ram said to Sita, “Do you intend to come with me to the forest?”
(v) The child said to the Sherpa, “Why didn’t you choose to climb to the Moon?”

5. (a) Fill in the blank with an appropriate derivative of the word given within brackets & rewrite the sentences: (10)
For example: It has been raining (continue) continuously for two days.
(i) She had few rights but all the (responsible) _______ of her work.
(ii) Women chose not to vote (machine) ____________ at the bidding of their men folk.
(iii) In South Africa, certain areas are (exclude) __________ meant for white people.
(iv) The Pathans of the Frontier are (descend) __________ of Genghis Khan.
(v) The court ordered him a heavy fine and (prison) ____________ of 3 years.
(vi) India lodged a complaint with Pakistan for (courage) ________ terrorism in Kashmir.
(vii) Candidates with Graduate degrees in (Human) _________and Arts prefer office jobs.
(viii) Despite ne call for ceasefire, the war continued (abate) __________.
(ix) A creative person is known for his (source) ___________ and flexibility.
(x) The police could not control the situation as the protesters (number) _________ them manifold.

(b) Make sentences using the following words as directed so as to bring out the meaning: 10
(i) Pitch (as noun and verb)
(ii) Mirror (as noun and verb)
(iii) Humble (as adjective and verb)
(iv) In (as adverb and preposition)

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5)
(i) bell the cat
(ii) thank one’s stars
(iii) be on tenterhooks
(iv) true to one’s salt colours
(v) come ant with flying

2007

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Heritage Tourism is Good for Us
(b) Importance of a Work-Ethic
(c) Should Mercy-Killing be Legalized for Terminally ill Patients?
(d) The Culture of Modesty
(e) “Eternal Vigilance is the Price of Liberty”.

2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language: (5 x 15 = 75)
An educated man should know what is first-rate in those activities which spring from the creative and intellectual faculties of human nature, such as literature, art, architecture and music. I should like to add science and philosophy, but in these two subjects it is difficult for any but the expert to estimate quality, and many educated people have not the close knowledge necessary to judge their real worth. On the other hand everyone has close and daily contact with the other four. Architecture surrounds him in every city, literature meets him on every book-stall, music assails his ears on his radio set and from every juke-box; and art in its protean aspects of form and colour is a part of daily life. The architecture may often be bad, the literature and music often puerile, the art often undeserving of the name; but that is all the more reason why we should be able, in all of them, to distinguish good from bad.

To judge by the literature offered us in hotel book-stands, and by most of the music played on the radio and by jukeboxes we might be more discriminating in these fields than we are if it be said that music and art and literature are not essentials of life but. its frills, I would reply that if so, it is curious that they are among the few immortal things in the world, and that should a man wish to be remembered two thousand years hence, the only certain way is to write a great poem or book, compose a great symphony, paint a great picture, carve a great sculpture, or build a great building.

(a) What is it that is necessary for an educated person to know?
(b) Why does the author exclude science and philosophy from it?
(c) What makes it practically easy for an educated man to be able to know literature, art, architecture and music?
(d) How does exposure to ordinary literature and music help us?
(e) What is the author’s argument to prove that music, art and literature are essentials of life?

3. Make a précis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The précis must be written on the separate précis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. (75)

What part should reading play in our lives? It should certainly not be a substitute for action, not for independent thinking, nor for conversation; but it may be a help and stimulant to action; thought and talk; and it is capable of providing almost infinite pleasure. There on our bookshelves or on summons from a library are wits, wisdom, adventure, romance from all ages and from all over the world. Is there any wonder that our eyes sometimes stray wistfully to the bookshelves and away from a dull visitor, or that we shirk a tiresome duty for an exciting book?

Books or people? Reading or conversation, listening in to a broadcast or watching a television programme? Which is the better way to gain knowledge or to spend your leisure? Some fortunate people seem always to find time for both and to enjoy both almost equally. My great friend, Arthur Wanchope, a fine soldier, an able administrator and a very gifted personality, was a constant reader; yet always ready to lay aside a book for talk.

The advantages of reading over talk are, of course, many. We can select the book that suits our mood, can go at our own pace, skip or turn back whereas we cannot turn over two pages of a tedious companion or close him or her, with a bang. But reading too has its own drawbacks. It lacks the human touch, the salt of life, and is therefore a dangerous substitute for thought or action. Bacon in one of his essays observes that reading maketh a full man; conference (that is talking) a ready man; and writing an exact man. One would like to be full of knowledge, ready in speech and exact by training. What short of books have impressed me and what books have found a permanent place  on my bookshelves?

To begin with my profession-soldiering. I do not believe that soldiering, a practical business,  in which human nature is the main element, can be learnt from text-books. But for those who have  grasped the principles of war and have understood that the human factor is the most important element in it. There is military reading that is quite fascinating and valuable. Real and re-read the campaigns of the great commanders, said Napoleon. I would venture to put it differently and would say that the lives and characters of the great commanders are what students of war should examine, since their campaigns are only incidents in them; and that the behaviour of leaders and of their men in the field is the real subject for study.

In my general reading history, biography and travel occupy a prominent place; and since I have spent a considerable proportion of my life in the East there are a good number of volumes on India and the Middle East. There is plenty of poetry on my shelves and a good deal of it is in my head. Poetry should dance in the mind, and blow one a kiss; or gallop to adventure with a cheer; or whisper gently of things past; not shuffle or slouch past with dark incomprehensible mutterings. Perhaps I am getting old, anyway I prefer the old poets.

Lastly comes what is sometimes called ‘escapist literature, the books we read with no other aim, than to rest or amuse the mind; to forget the day’s chores and the morrow’s anxieties. This is perhaps the most pleasant form of reading for most, and I suspect the only form of reading for many. The volume chosen may either be a thriller or soother — a thriller to bring sense of adventure into the dull daily routine or a soother to rest tired nerves. Our grandfathers in their leisurely days were content with the stately, comfortable three volume novel, but that had passed before the beginning of this century.

You will choose your books as you choose your friends, with taste and discrimination; I hope; because they can tell you something of your profession and interests, because they are wise and helpful, because they can stir your blood with tales of adventure, or because they are gay and witty. I can only wish you will get as much pleasure from them as I get from my books.  (Words: 703)

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10)
(i) The Greeks were brave peoples.
(ii) His hat was blown off by the strong air.
(iii) I am the one who am to blame.
(iv) We should sympathies with blind.
(v) I’d rather play cricket and not swim.
(vi) Walking through the front door a wasp stung him.
(vii) Two plus nine are eleven.
(viii) I have built the house in 1960.
(ix) Their wedding has not been a very happy one.
(x) Choose only such friends whom you can trust.

(b) Rewrite the following sentences, inserting suitable articles where necessary: (5)
(i) What kind of ______ animals is it?
(ii) He will return in _____ hour.
(iii) He is ______ richest man in our street.
(iv) Gold is not ______ useful metal.
(v) While there is ______ life there is hope.

(c) Form Verbs from the following Nouns: (5)
(i) Courage
(ii) Memory
(iii) Prison
(iv) Class
(v) Friend

(d) Put the verbs in bracket in the correct tense and rewrite the following: (5)
India (have) many calendars which Indians (use) since very early times. More than thirty (be) still in use. One difficulty about having so many calendars (be) that the same date (fall) on different days according to each.

5. (a) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a Noun and then as a Verb: (10)
(i) Bank
(ii) Battle
(iii) Bite
(iv) Brave
(v) Brush

(b) Change the following sentences into their corresponding (a) Negatives and (b) Questions: (10)
(i) Ram resembles his father.
(ii) Raju studies French.
(iii) The bicycle costs Rs. 500.
(iv) The thief broke the window open.
(v) My mother has a beautiful umbrella.

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5)
(i) The Lion’s share
(ii) Close shave
(iii) At daggers drawn
(iv) (To) die in harness
(v) (To) eat one’s words

2008

Not available in TXT/HTML form. Although you can download the scanned question paper by right clicking me >Save as

2009

Q 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following:  (100 Marks)
(a)    Why are our farmers committing suicide?
(b)   Ragging: should it be distinguished from brutality or criminality?
(c)     “Sweet are the uses of adversity.”
(d)   Reforms of sports bodies in our country
(e)   Alternative sources of energy for our country

Q 2. Read carefully the passage below and write your answers to the questions that follow, in clear, correct and concise language: (5×15=75 Marks)

The altogether new thing in the world then was the scientific method of research, which in that period of Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Harvey and Francis Bacon was advancing with enormous strides. All walls, all the limitations, all the certainties of the ages were in dissolution, tottering. In fact this epoch, in which we are participating still, with continually opening vistas, can be compared in magnitude and promise only to that of the 8th to the 4th millenniums B.C. : of the birth of civilization in the Near East, when the inventions of food production, grain agriculture and stockbreeding, released mankind from the primitive condition or foraging and so made possible an establishment of soundly grounded communities: first villages, then towns, then cities, kingdoms, and empires. Leo Frobenius wrote of that age as the Monumental Age, and of the age now dawning as the Global :

“In all previous ages, only restricted portions of the surface of the earth were known. Men looked out from the narrowest, upon a somewhat larger neighbourhood, and beyond that, a great unknown. They were all, so to say, insular: bound in. Whereas our view is confined no longer to a spot of space on the surface of this earth. It surveys the whole of the planet. And this fact, this lack of horizon, is something new.”

“It is chiefly to the scientific method of research that this release of mankind is due, and every developed individual has been freed from the once protective but now dissolved horizons of the local land, local moral code, local modes of group thought and sentiment. Not only in the sciences but in every department of life the will and courage to credit one’s own senses and to honor one’s own decisions, to name one’s own virtues and to claim one’s own vision of truth, have been the generative forces of the new age. There is a growing realization even in the moral field that all Judgments are (to use Nietzsche’s words) “human, all too human,”

1. What is the “epoch in which we are participating still”?
2. In what way is it comparable to the period of the 8th to the 4th millenniums B.C.?
3. What is meant by the new “lack of horizon”?
4. What do you think is implied by “all the certainties of the ages” that were “in dissolution” during the period of Galileo and his fellow scientists?
5. What is the new freedom we have found, and why does it require courage?

Q 3. Make a précis of the following passage in about 235 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The précis must be written on the separate précis sheets provided, which must then be fastened securely inside the answer book. (75 Marks)

There are, of course, many motivating factors in human behaviour, but we would claim that nationalism is particularly worthy of study. Why is it particularly significant? Its significance lies in its power to arouse passionate loyalties and hatreds that motivate acts of extreme violence and courage; people kill and die for their nations. Of course it is not alone in this: people are driven to similar extremes to protect their families, their extended families or ‘tribes’, their home areas with their populations; and their religious groups and the holy places and symbols of their religions. However, these other loyalties are often rather easier to understand than nationalism. Parents making supreme sacrifices for their children can be seen as obeying a universal imperative in life forms, the instinct to protect one’s own genetic material. This instinct can also be seen at work in the urge to protect one’s extended family; but then the extended family, or on a slightly larger scale the ‘tribe’, can also be seen, in perhaps the majority of circumstances in which human beings have existed, as essential for the survival of the individual and the nuclear family. The nation is not generally essential to survival in this way. Of course, if the entire nation were to be wiped out, the individuals and their families would die, but the disappearance of the nation as a social unit would not in itself pose a threat to individual or family survival: only if it were to be accompanied by ethnic violence or severe economic collapse would it be life-threatening, and such cataclysmic events are not an inevitable consequence of the loss of political independence. Conversely, there is no logical connection between the gaining of political independence by a subject nation and increased life chances for its citizens. In many, perhaps the vast majority, of modern nations there is likewise no evidence that in defending the nation one is defending one’s own genetic material; the notion that the citizens of modem nations are kinsfolk, while the citizens of (potentially) hostile neighbours are aliens, makes no sense in view of the highly varied genetic make-up of most modern populations,’

Devotion to one’s religious group, like support for one’s nation, is much less obviously to the individual’s advantage than is defence of the family, but we would maintain that it can be more comprehensible than nationalism. It can be seen in ideological terms as the defence of a world view and its symbols, against rival world views, which are considered to be fundamentally erroneous and which, if successful, would force the conquered to act in ways abhorrent to their beliefs. While the defence of one’s nation has often been seen as the defence of one’s religion, and while modern hostilities between nations frequently do have a religious dimension, there are many serious national conflicts that have no clear religious element; the two world wars were fought in Europe with Catholic France, Protestant Britain, and Orthodox Russia opposing Germany with its mixed Catholic and Protestant population. Thus, while modern nationalisms may be linked to religion, many cases can be found without any clear religious dimension. Not only do modern nationalisms lack a religious element: there is often (to outsiders) no obvious ideological difference between rival nations. Hence, while defence of one’s religion can be seen as defence of an entire system of beliefs, a world view, it is difficult in many cases to claim that this is true of the defence of one’s nation. There is in fact a good case for seeing nations as ‘imagined communities’, and such would be the view of some commentators.

Such imagined communities could not, of course, exist unless they fulfilled a need. We can postulate that the need to belong to a community of some kind is a fundamental human characteristic, and that nations have arisen to fulfil this need, as earlier more primary communities – local, ‘tribal’, and religious – have lost their significance through economic and social change. But why should this need be fulfilled by nations, rather than some other type of unit? There is strong support in the literature for a view of nations as products of particular social and economic conditions operating from around the mid-eighteenth century, as products of ‘modernization’.

Q 4. Answer as directed: (25 Marks)

(a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections: (10 Marks)
1. The bear had a ring on it’s nose.
2. This shirt is too lose for me.
3. This coat looks a bit small – l’d like to try on it.
4. Let’s listen the music.
5. Do you know what is the answer?
6. The weather today is too good.
7. I saw him yesterday only.
8. Who you want to see?
9. The ice cream’s good – may I please have little more?
10. His office is quite opposite to my house.

(b) Supply the missing words: (5 Marks)
1. The shopkeeper refused to bargain————- the customer.
2. He did not be believe ————– bargaining.
3. He had already decided ———–a fair price.
4. The customer was looking ———— a bargain.
5. They argued —————- the price for a long time.

(c) Use the correct form of the verb in brackets: (5 Marks)
1. I do not usually————– an umbrella but today I’m————- one. (CARRY)
2. She never ————- about her children. (WORRY)
3. That child always ————when he has a bath. Listen, he’s———– now. (CRY)

(d) Form the opposites of these words by adding a prefix: (5 Marks)
1. do                                        —————-
2. credible                                —————-
3. ambiguous                           —————-
4. lawful                                  —————-
5. legal                                     —————-

Q 5. Answer as directed: (25 Marks)
(a) Combine the following sentences using too——to (5 Marks)
1. The coffee was hot.
We could not drink it.

2. You are now old.
You cannot continue to work.

3. The child was very small.
It could not walk.

4. This book is heavy.
I cannot carry it.

5. She was shocked.
She did not react.

(b) Rewrite these sentences so that they begin with the word it. (5 Marks)
1. To talk like that is silly.
2. To hear your voice was good.
3. To tell the truth is essential.
4. To have friends is better than money.
5. To think for yourself is difficult.

(c) Combine these sentences using one of the words although, but, yet, so or because. Use each word once. (5 Marks)
1. They were tired. They worked late into the night.
2. He slept early. He woke up late.
3. He was on medication. He felt drowsy.
4. She was very angry. She said nothing.
5. The engine stopped. It had heated up.

(d) Combine the following sentences using enough to. (5 Marks)
1. The wind was strong. It could blow people away.
2. The print was clear. We could read it easily.
3. It was hot. We could cook food with the sun’s rays.
4. You are old. You should know better.
5. The essay was good. It earned full marks.

(e) Rewrite these sentences, using a form of the word get and a suitable preposition or prepositions instead of the word(s) underlined.  (5 Marks)
1. Has the company recovered from its losses?
2. I’d like to continue with my cooking now, if I may.
3. How do you manage with so little to eat?
4. Did you establish a connection with New York on the telephone?
5. Put the milk away where the cat can’t reach it.

2010

write an essay in about 300 words any 1 of the following. 100 mks.

increasing consumerism in the middle class in India
are traditional forms of protest no longer effective?
The nuclear civil liability bill
To feed our increasing population , forest areas need to be cleared to increase land area available for cultivation. Do you agree?
Need to check politicization of sports bodies in India

2. read the following passage carefully & based on it, answer the questions given below it in clear , correct & concise language. 5×15 = 75

according to the findings of recent government survey there are an estimated of 3.3 million registered NGOs working in the country – one for every 400 Indians . not only has the number of NGOs in India risen dramatically but so has their influence. In some of India’s flagship development efforts – the national rural employment guarantee act, the national rural health mission, the right to education or even the draft right to food act – NGOs have been at forefront both in formulating in these laws & policies & in implementing them. NGOs have helped voice the concerns of some of the India’s most vulnerable groups & focus the attention of the government on critical, social & development issues. They have also spearheaded efforts to expose corruption & maladministration in government bringing in much needed transparency.

But despite the growing influence of NGOs in India today, we know very little about them, their structure, activities, sources of funding & more importantly, how accountable they are to the people they represent. This is alarming given the crores of rupees in development aid that NGOs  receive from the government & from donors every year. Ironically, though NGOs have been watchdogs of the government for many years there has been little regulation or monitoring of their own activities. Leading many to ask a very fundamental question : who watches the watchers?

Interestingly , although India has probably the world’s highest NGOs population , the debate on NGO accountability is still in its nascent stages. Across the world NGOs have been experimenting with different ways of addressing the issue of accountability ; Indian NGOs would do well by learning from these efforts . for example , NGOs in Kenya are legally required to comply with code of conduct for NGOs developed by the national council of NGOs a self regulatory body set up under the NGO coordination act in 1990. the code ensures that NGOs comply with basic ethical & governance standards. Similarly in Uganda, the NGO quality assurance mechanism (QuAM) certifies NGO against a set of quality standards designed to ensure NGO credibility. In chile, chile transparent has developed transparency standards for NGOs which require organizations to establish online information about their mission , vision, activities, staff, details of funding etc.

  1. what are India’s important development schemes?
  2. how do NGOs help ‘vulnerable groups’ in India?
  3. what do we know about structure , activities & sources of funding of NGOs in India?
  4. whom does authors describes as watchers? Why?
  5. how do the NGOs in other nations deal with the issue of accountability?

3. make a precise of the following passage in about 210 – 230 words .

failure to write within the stipulated word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precise must be written on the separate precise sheets provided which must be then fastened securely inside the answer book.  75 mks.

In many respects sakuntala is comparable to the more idyllic comedies of Shakespeare, & kanva’s hermitage is surely not far from the forest of arden. The plot of the play, like many of the Shakespeare plot, depends much on happy chances & on the super-natural , which, of course, was quite acceptable to the audience for which kalidasa wrote. Its characters , even to the minor ones , are happily delineated individuals . kalidasa makes no pretence to realism, but his dialogue is fresh & vigorous . in fact the dialogue of the better Sanskrit plays generally seems based on vernacular, & is full of idiomatic expressions. Indian playgoers did not demand the conflict of feelings & emotions which is the chief substance of serious European drama , but kalidasa was quite capable of portraying such conflict effectively. His beauties & merits are tarnished by any translation, but few who can read him in the original would doubt that, both as poet & dramatist , he was one of the great men of the world.

There were many other dramatist . sudraka , probably kalidasa’s approximate contemporary , has left only one play “the little clay cart” (Mricchakatika) . this is the most realistic of Indian dramas , unraveling a complicated story , rich in humor & pathos & crowded with action , of the love of  a poor Brahman , carudutta, for the virtuous courtesan vasantasena; this story is interwoven with one of political intrigue, leading up to the overthrow of the wicked king palaka, & the play contains a vivid trial scene, after which the hero is saved from execution at the last moment. It is notable for its realistic depiction of city life , & for its host of minor characters, all of whom are drawn with skill & individuality. It has more than once been performed in translation on the European stage, &, to a western audience, is certainly the most easily appreciated of Indian plays.

Vishakadutta was the dramatist of politics. His only complete surviving play, “the ministers signet ring” (mudrarakshasa) deals with the schemes of the wily chanakya to foil the plots of rakshasa, the minister of the last of the nandas, & to place chandragupta maurya firmly on the throne. The plot is exceedingly complicated , but is worked out with great skill , & play is beautifully constructed to lead up, like “the little clay cart” , to a pathetic scene where one of the chief characters is saved from death by impalement at the last movement .

Second only to kalidasa in the esteem of the critics was bhavabhuti , who lived at kanyakubja in the early 8th c. three of his plays – malati & madhava , deeds of the great hero (mahaviracharita) & the later deeds of rama (uttararamacharita). The first is the love story with the pseudo-realistic background , full of incident of an exciting or horrific type, in which the heroine is more than one rescued from death , while the two latter plays tell the story of rama . by western standards as a dramatist bhavabhuti falls short of those we have mentioned earlier . his plots are weakly constructed & his characters lack individuality. His greatness rests on his deep understanding of sorrow; in his treatment of the pathetic & the terrible he perhaps excels kalidasa.

4.a. rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections , if any: 10 .

  1. I live half of a mile from here.
  2. do you like music? I like.
  3. do you like some more coffee
  4. he worked like a waiter for two years.
  5. like what does she look?
  6. I know him since 1960.
  7. I wasn’t use to drive big car.
  8. he suggested me to try the main car park
  9. I have never met so nice person
  10. too many mathematics is taught in schools.

b. rewrite the following sentences inserting suitable article(s) , wherever necessary. 5 mks

i. my grandfather has hard life
ii. she hit him in stomach
iii. queen had dinner with president
vi. my friend is in hospital.

c. rewrite the following sentences inserting suitable prepositions in the blank spaces. 5

i. I am angry ________ her _______ lying.
ii. I was red ________ at his remarks
iii. could you explain this rule ________ me please?
vi. people have always been kind ________ me.

d. give the antonyms of the following adjectives. 5

i. common
ii. loyal
iii. formal
iv. mature
v. sensitive.

5.answer as directed.

a. rewrite the following using passive structure. 5
i. she gave her sister the car
ii. I had already shown the suspect’s photograph to the policewomen
iii. they believe him to be dangerous
iv. they made him tell them everything
v. they elected me president.

b. change the following sentence into indirect speech. 5

i. he wrote in his letter , “ I saw poonam at the theater a couple of days ago”.
ii. the forecast says , “it will rain tomorrow”
iii. he said to me , “it would be nice if I could see you again”.
iv. I said, “if I had any money I’d buy you a drink “
v. the teacher said, “why don’t you work harder?”.

c. rewrite the following sentences , changing them into simple ones. 5

i. I wonder who I should invite
ii show him what he should do
iii she couldn’t decide whether she should answer his letter.
iv he dint know where he should park his car.
v. tell me why I should pay

d. add a question tag at the end of each of the following sentences. 5.

i pooja can speak french
ii the meeting is at ten
iii you dint speak to mohan
iv she wouldn’t like a pet
v harish gave you a cheque

e. rewrite the following sentences using ‘it’ in the beginning as a preparatory subject. 5

i to make mistakes is easy
ii to wait for people who were late made him angry
iii my ambition was to retire at thirty
iv your task is to get across the river without being seen
v for you to ask ramesh would be a big mistake.

2011

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100

(a) The predicaments of Democracy.
(b) In India when inflation rises govenance stalls.
(c) Modern world’s fears about nuclear energy.
(d) Information Technology transforming the Indian Society.
(e) Inventions generate necessity.

2. Read carefully the passage below and write your answers to the questions that follow in clear, correct and concise language:

‘Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and every plant contains a substantial proportion of free or combined water in its body, and no kind of physiological activity is possible in which the fluid does not play an essential part. Water is, of course, necessary for animal life. While moisture in the soil is equally imperative for the life and growth of plants and trees. Though the quantity necessary varies enormously with the species. The conservation and utilisation of water is thus fundamental for human welfare. Apart from artesian water the ulimate source in all cases is rain or snowfall. Much of Indian Agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and is therefore very sensitive to any failure or irregularity of the same. It is clear that the adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would also help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted. In other words, on and in the soil, and such techniques therefore serve a double purpose. Its is evident, however that in a country having only a seasonal rainfall an immense quantity of rain-water must be necessarily run off the ground. The collection and utilization of water is therefore of vital importance. Much of it flows down into the streams and rivers and ultimately finds its way to the sea. The harnessing of our rivers. the waters of which now mostly run to waste is a great national problem which must be considered and dealt with on national lines. Closely connected with the conservation of water supplies is the problem of afforestation. The systematic planning of suitable trees in every possible or even in impossible areas and the developement of what one can call civilized forests as distinguished from wild and untamed jungle is one the most urgent needs of India. Such plantation would directly and indirectly prove a source of untold wealth to the country. They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and would provide the necessary supplies of cheap fuel and thus stop unnecessary waste of farmyard manure.

Questions:

1. Where does the world get water from ?
2. What is the national problem relating to our rivers ?
3. What are the benefits of afforestation ?
4. What is fundamental for human welfare ?
5. What are the advantages of preventing soil erosion ?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in about 204 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on seprate precis sheets provided, which must then be fastened securely inside the answer book.  75

‘While all the religious teachers tell us that compassion gives us a motive for existence, a guide for action and a reason for courage and help us to diminish the sum of human suffering, in the very name of God, who is all compassion, abominable crimes have been committed in the world. It is not enough to believe in God of love but we must love. The rains that makes the lower plains fertile are formed in the upper layers of the atmosphere.

The saints are the masters who are not stained-glass figures, remote and ethereal in their sancity. There is nothing in them, which we would like to spread everywhere in the world. It is there but what it is, we cannot say. It is there in their blood and bones, in the breath of their speech, in the lights and shades of their speech, in the lights and shades of their personalities, a mystery that can be lived but no spoken in words.

On the rock of moral law and not on the shifting sands of political or economic expediency can be built a civilized society with individual freedom, social justice and political equality. Truth, freedom and righteousness are essential to peace. The Evangelist tells us how ‘the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them. And saith unto him, ‘All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me’. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship thy Lord, Thy God and Him alone shalt thou serve’.

In the new society we need a new universal religion. By it we mean not a uniform religion but a religion of awareness and love of wisdom and compassion, prajna and karuna. of truth and love. Religion must be cured of their provincialism and made to reveal their universality. This does not mean spiritual vagueness or ambiguity.

Tolerance implies an elementary right belonging to the dignity of every man. The right to believe like the right to live a free, unfettered —-is fundamental to the concept of both—-we have had in our country peaceful co-existence of different religions. It is not passive co-existence but an active fellowship, a close inter-relation of the best of different religions.
Co-existence is the first step and fraternity is the goal. We have not adhered steadfastly to these ideals and have suffered often. Yet the ideal has been kept in view and support by great leaders like Ram Mohan Roy, Ramakrishna, Tagore and Gandhiji.

The view of tolerance is based on the conviction that all transcendental use of the logical categories, all attempt to submit the transcendent to the finite are wrong. Nature and history announce God’s presence but do not disclose his whole nature. Religions are cut off from one another by mutual incomprehensiveness. We are born or trained in certain traditions of religion.
Loyalty to tradition does not mean imprisonment within it. We adopt different symbolic representations of the supreme determined by our age, circumstances, upbringing and by narrower loyalties of caste, class, race or nation. Whatever progress we make at the expense of those values is morally wrong.

The seers of all religions affirm that the various peoples of the world form a community with a common purpose and a common destiny. It is said that the whole world is the fatherland of a noble soul. The application of this universality of spirit requires us to look upon our common enemies not as monsters of evil but as misled by their obsessions and as capable of change.

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary corrections :  10

1. Saints desire nothing________the society.
2. I regret at the delay in doing this.
3. I congratulate you for your success.
4. Ram as well as Mohan have gone.
5. He has passed order on my application.
6. He is more intelligent than any boy.
7. What will be ensued on this.
8. This is high time that we should change the bike.
9. I did nothing but laughed.
10. I informed him, “Leave the room.”

(b) Supply the missing words :

1. The wages of sin ______death.  5
2. I trust______God.
3. I have no fondness_____music.
4. I have no doubt_____your honesty.
5. I am Conscious______my duties.

(c) Use the correct forms of the verbs in brackets :  5

1. I remember ______her when she was a little girl. (SEE)
2. You will ______twenty-four hours to consider your decision. (GIVE)
3. Can you hear what he_____? (SAY)

(d) Write the opposites of the following :  5

1. Notorious
2. Legitimate
3. Responsible
4. Satisfaction
5. Promotion

5. Answer as directed :

(a) Rewrite the following sentences removing ‘too……..to’.   5

1. He is too honest to steal.
2. He is too weak to run.
3. She is too shy to sing.
4. He was too shocked to speak.
5. The matter will be too complicated to resolve.

(b) Rewrite the following sentences using ‘It’ in the beginning as a subject.

1. To scold the boys would be foolish.
2. Smoking is bad for him.
3. To call after ten was unusual for him.
4. Keeping the windows open on the roadside does not look decent.
5. To play games on sundays is not allowed.

Mrunal recommends

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  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

18 Comments on “[Download] Last 15 years Compulsory English Papers for UPSC (Mains) IAS IPS Examination”

  1. i’m not able to see the link for pdf of compulsory english papers

  2. RESPECTED SIR,

    THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR THIS PHILANTHROPY WORK . NEEDLESS TO SAY THAT YOUR EFFORT HAS PROVIDED MUCH SOUGHT GUIDANCE TO ALL ICS ASPIRANTS . IN A TIME WHEN COACHING INSTITUTIONS HAVE MADE IT A GRAND BUSINESS YOUR INVALUABLE HELP IS NO LESS THAN A LIGHTHOUSE IN TROUBLED SEA.

  3. sir i would like to ask u one thing that sir my optinal subjects are = zoology and botany so can i use scientific terminology in english while my exam medium is hindi .?
    thanks

  4. pls send judicial law papers

  5. sir, could you please let me know if i can find the answers to these question papers as well, that will be really helpful.

  6. Sir.. I want last ten to fifteen years papers for civil engineering mains exam…if u have or know any link where I can find those, please inform..
    Thank you in advance.

  7. Can you please provide a sample for the comprehension or give an idea of approaching it. Even 1 answer would help.

  8. thank you sirrrrrrrr……..solve paper plzzzzzz

  9. plz.send to q.paper ias 2001 to 2014

  10. sir,what can u provide meterial in hindi,bcg we can not save time.so plz sir

  11. Sir my optional subject is punjabi literature so plz give me advice and suggest books……thnxxxxx

  12. Sir please give previous IPS preliminary exam question peppers in 2011,2010,2009,2008,2007 and 2006

  13. Wish me goodluck plzzzz m preparing for csat

  14. TMH’S COMPULSORY ENGLISH WRITTEN BY A P BHARDWAJ is virtually unbeatable and irreplaceable book in market . That is the first and only & exclusive book written with specificity for CIVIL AND JUDICIAL SERVICES ASPIRANTS. NOW recently launched UPSC IAS MAINS COMPULSORY ENGLISH SOLVED PAPERS really complements and supplements this book by the same renowned author A P BHARDWAJ. Having gone through these 2 books once , qualifying COMPULSORY ENGLISH PAPER OF CENTRAL AND STATE CIVIL & STATE JUDICIAL SERVICES WILL be just a cake walk .

  15. Sir I am in class 11 how can I start my ias preparation from here.

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