[Science] No Touch Breastscan, Chemin, TLS, CFL vs Tubelight choke etc from The Hindu S&T, Nov 2012

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  1. No Touch BreastScan (NTBS)
  2. CheMin
  3. Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS)
  4. Gale Crater
  5. Volcanic Activity in New Zealand
  6. Step-Throat and Salt water gargaling
  7. Why no Choke needed in CFL?

No Touch BreastScan (NTBS)

  • Imaging device, based on thermography, to detect brast cancer.
  • Increased metabolism in cancer cells leads to increase in temperature.
  • The NTBS device looks for temperature hot spots at the surface of breast and detects breast cancer.
  • However, US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has found no evidence to support the claim that thermography is a replacement for mammography.

CheMin

  • Name of device in NASA’s Curiosity rover.
  • Full name=Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument
  • It is used for soil analysis on Mars.
  • CheMin uses X-ray diffraction, the standard practice for geologists on Earth using much larger laboratory instruments.
  • This method provides more accurate identifications of minerals than any method previously used on Mars.
  • CheMin found that minerals on the Red Planet are similar to those found in  volcanic soils in Hawaii.

Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS)

  • Name of device on Curiosity Rover.
  • The presence of methane is an important sign to indicate that life may have existed in the planet’s past.
  • TLS analysed a small sample of Martian air to come to the conclusion, had actually detected a few parts per billion of methane.
  • However, recognising that the reading was too low to be significant, it sounded a “No”.

Gale Crater

  • Located on Mars planet.
  • Curiosity rover found signs that water may have flowed in the past through Gale Crater.

Volcanic Activity in New Zealand

  • New Zealand lies on the ‘Pacific Ring of Fire,’ where the Earth’s tectonic plates collide, making it a hotspot for volcanic and earthquake activity.
  • In the late 1800s, Mount Ruapehu, Mount Tarawera of New Zeland had erupted, caused destruction of life and property.
  • Recently Mt. Tongariro erupted in New Zealand. This Volcanic mountain was used as a backdrop in famous Hollywood movie “Lord of the Rings”

Step-Throat and Salt water gargaling

  • Why do we feel relief when we gargle with salt in hot water when suffering from throat pain?
  • Soreness of throat is generally due to the infection of the bacterium called Streptococcus .
  • So it is called strep throat.
  • A strep throat is usually inflamed due to bacteria making widespread damage on our soft tissues or mucosa.
  • These inflammations (known as edemas) are usually filled with water.
  • When we gargle with warm salt water that is saltier than our body fluids (hypertonic solution), through osmosis the salt draws out the edema fluid.
  • Moreover gargling with salt water does not actually help to heal the strep throat like a medicine would, but it does provide temporary relief.
  • If we do not experience relief as a result of the salt water gargling and if the pain persists we must consult a doctor to get proper antibiotic treatment.

Why no Choke needed in CFL?

Why is a choke required in a tube light and not in a CFL?

  • Both tubelights and CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) are low pressure mercury vapour discharge lamps.
  • When electrical discharge could strike the column of the tube, lot of invisible UV radiation having is generated.
  • This UV radiation when strikes the white coating inside the tube made of fluorescent material- phosphors gets converted to visible light through the process of fluorescence. Thus we see the white light.
  • For a conventional a tubelight, a choke is required, to initiate the electrical discharge process.
  • But CFLs, being smaller in dimensions offering much lower electrical resistance do not require such bulky chokes.
  • Instead the discharge in CFLs is initiated by much compact electronic circuits integrated into the CFL holder.

Mock Questions

Q1. We feel relief when we gargle with salt in hot water when suffering from throat pain, because

  1. Hot Salt water kills the bacteria responsible for throat pain
  2. Hot Salt water works as muscle relaxant
  3. Hot salt water salt draws out the edema fluid from the throat.
  4. None of Above

Q2. Find correct statement

  1. Tubelight is a low pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp
  2. CFL is a high pressure mercury vapor discharge lamp.
  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both
  4. None

Q3. Which of the following is/are incorrect regarding devices of Curiosity rover?

  1. Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) analysed the soil of Mars
  2. CheMin analysed the presence of methane in the atmospere of Mars
  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both
  4. None

Ref

These terms are from The Hindu S&T, Nov-2012. For previous collections, visit www.Mrunal.org/snt

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
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  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

34 Comments on “[Science] No Touch Breastscan, Chemin, TLS, CFL vs Tubelight choke etc from The Hindu S&T, Nov 2012”

  1. Q.1 -3
    Q.2 -a
    Q.3 -c

  2. The correct answers are
    1.c
    2.a
    3.c

  3. plz correct me Mrunal if i am wrong..and i have one request plz provide me the list of books for the preparation of IFS Zoology and Animal husbandary…Your effort is worth appreciable..thanx

    1. better show the syllabus and old papers of those subjects to some Government college professor and seek his opinion.

  4. Sir awesome work …..is it sufficient material for nov month for S&T ?

    1. List is not exhaustive, besides these are taken from only “S&T” section of Hindu, and it is quite possible many other science, environment, public health related topics/terms/current affairs would have been given in other sections of Hindu during that Month.

  5. mrunal bhai parnaam ,
    sunday dec2,2012 ,in open page i was readin d article “FDI in retail?, say a big no ”
    bhai in that article wrter classified forein exchange into 2 categories
    1.asset
    2. liability
    n dn he defined them bt that definition couldn’t defined much to me so .plz educate me bout these to classification

  6. thanks mrunal bhai.

  7. How does thermography based NTBS differ from conventional mammography

    1. conventional mammography involves radiation (X-ray).

      1. So conventional mammography is more expensive and harmful.thank you sir
        I request you to focus on the Nepal issue.plzzzz

  8. Correct answers are
    1.c
    2.a
    3.c (it is asked which is incorrect, TLS analysed martian air to find the presence of methane and used CheMin to analyse soil thru x ray defraction)

  9. How can it is possible, if there is any Methane then there might be a possibility of life existed in the past onthat particular planet. Can you please elaborate. Thank u.

    1. Methane is produced in environments with little or no oxygen by bacteria that feast on decomposing organic matter.

      Organic matter = life

    2. Methane is CH4.carbon is the basic component of organic compounds.dna,rna and other life supporting molecules are made up of carbon.so presence of methane serves as an indicator of life

  10. respected sir,
    can u tell me difference between NTBS and MAMOGRAPHY ? WHY THE THERMOGRAPHY IS NOT REPLACEMNET FOR MEMOGRAPHY ?

  11. @chandan, NTBS uses thermography while Mommography uses X-Rays. Mommography is painful while other is not. As per the studies conducted by USFDA, NTBS is not credible enough to give accurate results as the memmography give. In 50 % of the cases NTBS give wrong results during the study.

    1. On April 4, 2012, results from a large-scale clinical trial involving 21 centers and 7,473
      mammograms were published to show the accuracy of mammogram in women with dense
      breasts as only 52%. The accuracy of ultrasound in the same study was only 45%. In a 2005
      study of nearly 50,000 women in the USA found the accuracy of film mammogram to be 55% for
      women with dense breasts and women under the age of 50.

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22474203
      http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/qa/2005/dmistqandA

  12. @Mrunal:Just thought this would also b helpful 2 others please share if u find it useful (term similar to BRENT Crude oil question):-

    TERM: Mean of Platts Arab Gulf:(MOPAG)
    “The mean of the high and low components of a Platts assessment for oil cargoes loading from the Persian Gulf (Arab Gulf). Often used as a component in floating price deals.”

    Ref:- the hindu
    following article taken from THE HINDU:

    ATF prices in India were several times higher than countries in the neighbourhood, including those in Southeast and the Gulf.

    In a bid to bring down the cost of air operations , Civil Aviation and Petroleum ministries would make a joint representation to the Finance Ministry to notify jet fuel as a ‘declared good’, enabling levying of a flat 4 per cent tax on it.

    The cost of jet fuel accounts for about 40 per cent of the operating cost of Indian carriers, most of which are facing financial trouble.

    It was also said that foreign airlines operating to India picked up jet fuel at concessional rates due to international agreements, rates which are far below those paid by Indian airlines for the same amount of fuel. The two ministers also agreed on a proposal to put ATF under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB), in a bid to check cartelisation amongst oil companies.
    Charging the oil firms with indulging in cartelisation in ATF pricing , Mr. Singh said placing jet fuel under the PNGRB would mean that the board could monitor prices and take corrective measures if it felt that cartelisation was taking place.

    “The aviation minister also suggested moving to the Mean of Platts Arab Gulf (MoPAG) pricing mechanism for jet fuel, instead of the import parity pricing that oil firms followed presently. “

    1. Nice! Was informative! Thanks. :)

  13. Sorry!!!! I forgot to close the “Bold” tag (i.e. add ) ……need 2 practice HTML once again from scratch.

  14. Mural sir plz guide me I have completed my Bsc IT from Kuvempu university through lateral entry scheme in 2010, am i eligible to sit in civil service exam with degree under lateral scheme.

    1. Yes you can. With the final degree yo are eligible for civ serv xm !

      1. only if you’re going to get a provision marksheet or degree before September 2013 to attach with your mains application form.

  15. ans is
    1.C
    2.A
    3.C

  16. Sir, is minimum score required in general ability test in IES. Please give Last five cutt off for IES in Electrial Branch for Orthopedically handicapped. how to clear General Ability Test in IES, please give some stratedy.

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