[Diplomacy] Indian Ocean Rim Association (IOR-ARC): 12th Summit, Gurgaon Communique, Highlights

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IAS Mock Interviews
  1. What is IOR-ARC?
  2. Members of Indian Ocean Rim?
  3. Why IOA-ARC is important?
  4. Gurgaon Communiqué /Declaration (2012)
  5. 6- Priority areas
  6. What is blue economy?
  7. Mock questions

What is IOR-ARC?

  • Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation
  • Established in 1997

Importance of Indian Ocean rim?

  • Indian Ocean is vital for the transportation of oil and conduct of other forms of global trade.
  • >97 per cent of India’s international trade by volume passes through Indian Ocean.
  • Indian Ocean rim region = rich precious minerals, metals and other natural resources, marine resources and energy.

Members of Indian Ocean Rim association?

map Indian ocean rim association

20 full time Members6 Dialogue partners
  1. Australia
  2. Bangladesh
  3. India
  4. Indonesia
  5. Iran
  6. Kenya
  7. Malaysia
  8. Madagascar
  9. Mauritius
  10. Mozambique
  11. Oman
  12. Seychelles
  13. Singapore
  14. South Africa
  15. Sri Lanka
  16. Tanzania
  17. Thailand
  18. UAE
  19. Yemen.
  20. Comoros (latest added in 2012)
  1. China
  2. Egypt
  3. France
  4. Japan
  5. UK
  6. USA (latest added 2012)
  • China is not a “member”, just dialogue partner. Although they’re interested in becoming full time member.
  • Some books mention Ocean Rim got only 19 members=outdated information. Because Comoros was recently added as 20th member.


  1. Economy
  • We want cooperation( =coordinate the “Stand” in WTO, Kyoto etc.)
  • Liberalize trade (=reduce customs duty)
  • Increase flow of goods, services, investment, and technology.
  1. Global issues
  • Take common positions in the international fora on issues of mutual interest (=Coordinate “stand” in UN, G20, Kyoto etc.)
  1. Human resources
  • coordinate Science-Tech research (via specialized universities, institutes of member countries)
  • cultural exchange programs and other boring stuff.

Why IOA-ARC is important?

  • Because it was established in 1997. Therefore, 2012 marks 15th anniversary year.
  • Whenever something/somebody’s birth/death anniversary is in ‘multiple’ of five, it is important for UPSC!
  • Secondly, their 12th summit was held in Gurgaon, India in Nov.2012.

Gurgaon Communiqué /Declaration (2012)

  • When a summit/conference is over, the official statement is issued that “we’ve agreed to do this, this and this…)
  • Such press statement is called Communiqué.
  • In Gurgaon summit, member nations agreed to work on following 6 priority areas

Indian Ocean rim cooperation areas

6- Priority areas
  1. maritime security -piracy
  • Freedom of navigation in Indian Ocean
  • Safety and security of sea lanes in Indian ocean
  • Share best practices in coastal security
  1. disaster reduction
  • Coordination search and rescue operation
  • Hold workshop to share experience on disaster  Management of cyclones, monsoon floods etc
  • Oil spills: joint training
  1. trade-investment
  • Working group on trade-investment
  • Will hold a workshop customs (duty) harmonization and trade policy
  • Closer interaction with other regional org. Such as African union
  • Strive for Blue-economy
  1. fisheries  Management
  • Regulation of fishing activates in coast waters
  • Harvest fish stocks in sustainable manner (=no fishing during breeding season etc.)
  • Combating illegal fishing and damaging fishing techniques. (e.g. Use of very fine nets)
  1. S&T-academic cooperation
  • Between universities and academies of member-states
  • Cross-fertilization of ideas between the Academic and Business Forums
  1. tourism-cultural exchanges

They also agreed that

  • We’ll continue economic cooperation @regional level
  • We’ll aim for sustained growth + balanced Development
  • We’are adding Comoros added as 20th member
  • We’are adding USA as our 6th dialogue partner
  • We’ll hold next meeting in Australia in 2013.

What is blue economy?

  • Blue Economy concept emerged at Rio+20 Conference.
  • seeks to integrate ocean-environment-ecology issues into economic frameworks. Sustainable use of marine and coastal resources.
  • Reducing over-fishing.
  • Stop destructive fishing practices.
  • Stop illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.
  • Protect coral reefs.
  • Combat climate change.
  • Combat ocean acidification.


  • Littoral= relating to a coastal or shore region
  • e.g. IOR-ARC is an organization of littoral countries in Indian ocean.

Mock questions

Q1. Which of the following is correct about Indian Ocean Rim association (IOA-ARC)?

  1. It has member-states from two continents only: Asia and Africa.
  2. 12th summit of IOA-ARC was held at New Delhi, India.
  3. Iran is not a member of Indian Ocean rim association.
  1. Only 3
  2. Only 1 and 2
  3. Onlly 1 and 3
  4. None of them.

Q2.find Wrong match

  1. Comoros
Island nation in Pacific ocean
  1. Mozambique Channel
Between Madagascar and Mozambique
  1. Oman
  1. Yemen

Q3. Correct order of islands from North to South in the atlas

  1. Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar
  2. Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles
  3. Comoros, Seychelles, Madagascar
  4. None of above.

Q4. Which of the following is correct about Blue Economy?

  1. It is a term associated with Socialist countries, having features of both red (communist) and green (capitalist) economies.
  2. It is a term associated with Economic unions and track blocs such as EU, NAFTA etc.
  3. It is a term associated with protection and sustainable use of maritime resources.
  4. None of above.


  1. Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (5 marks)
  2. Suggest measures to combat ocean acidification and coral reefs destruction. What are the measures initiated by Government in this regard?(10m)
  3. Discuss the 12th summit of Indian Ocean Rim association (12m).

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

53 Comments on “[Diplomacy] Indian Ocean Rim Association (IOR-ARC): 12th Summit, Gurgaon Communique, Highlights”

  1. hi mrunal can u come with article related to current president rule going to imposed in jharkhand,and why there is no party coming up with clear majority

  2. Respected Sir

    can you please explain the following concepts in your own way?



    1. hello anitha with respect to your questions:

      1.the crux of editorial was that underlying assumptions made by rangarajan committee to arrive at formula for fixing price of domestic gas are irrational (without any logic) he disapproved them as following:

      a)acc to rangarajan commitee price of gas rises exponentially with crude oil price unlike in other countries where price rise is linear, for example, if for rs 5 you are getting 10 candies ,then for rs 7 you must get 14 (linear relationship) but if you have to pay rs 10 for 14 candies (more money to pay!)that is exponential increase as said india is the only country to do so.

      b)The recommnded price is calculated by formula which includes price from other markets (it means if you are going to buy a t shirt its price depends upon the price of same t shirts in other markets not on damand/supply relationship)

      conclusion: he pleads for a approach focussed on sectoral competion (good for consumer) as there will be more competion consequenty less price .


      1. @anand
        well explained ..thanks!!

  3. Answers:
    1. (d)
    2. (a)
    3. (a)
    4. (c)

      1. Sir with all due respect. I think you could have added One more thing. i.e (rimland concept 1944) a famous politico geographer SPYKMAN has propounded a Rim land concept according to which who ever controls this rimland will control the world. Which explaines the dominance of US and other emerging super powers like china. Because according to Spykman world is a big island (asia + africa) if you hold on the rim of this world island you will be able to control the entire world. Thats the reason every country has marked its presence in indian ocean. And india is trying its best to integrate all the constituents of rimland.

        Sir you missed Chabahar Port in the diagram.

  4. Good work, precise and clear.
    Thank You. :)

  5. thanks mrunal for one more good article…

  6. sir , thanks a lot every time.
    but a question always conflict in mind that who u manages all these information. are there some specific sites which you used to be check regularly ..
    I means sir please !i request u to reveal strategies by which u find these “CHUPE RUSTUMS”.So we can also make a leak proof shield for upsc..

  7. why pakistan and myanmar are not the members???? be it full time or dialogue partners???????? any particular reason for that????

    1. Because india took the initiative to integrate these rimland constituents. At that time myanmar was in complete political mess and under sanctions and pakistan = evergreen enemy of india. And india has its major control over the arabian sea so no need to add porkis.

  8. Very good article
    Thank you
    Mrunal Sir any news about pattern change in 2013?
    or 2014?
    plz update

  9. thank you mrunal sr for the articles

  10. What about Maldives? Is it not a part of IOR-ARC…

    1. Its not a rim country its mid oceanic archipelago.

  11. good article. thank u sir.

  12. Thank you sir,for your good work

  13. q 1 ans d
    q 2 ans b
    q 3 ans d
    q 4 ans c

  14. sir, i would like to have your astute views about a dilemma i am facing regarding ssc general awarness section. in your post you had mentioned about the LUCENT GK while as i have already purchased ARIHANTS GK last year.what should i do? continue with same or buy LUCENT. plz reply.

  15. @anitha I second u on that hindu article…it deserves enlightment from MRUNAL…this i am saying after analyzing these points
    1.basis of deciding the price guaranted itself is flawed,cause there is no specification whether it is for dry gas or wet gas(because both dry as well as gas has their own economic and energy implication)
    2.claims are being made by Rangarajan committee that prices are not sufficiently rumenerative ..that is not profitable for sonia to get treatment abroad:-)
    3.but in reality the price has been fixed for all over india by taking kG basin as standard where the price is sufficiently profitable…even more than bidding pprice it got under bidding from international tender…so sonia can go even for wrinkle-lift to usa:-)
    4.the biggest issue although is determination of “well head” price which is average of certain random numbers..which are not conventional prices across world and it forgets the ground realities of indian domestic market and it’s cost of services
    5.one of the indexes used Henry Hub is flawed because the formula so mentioned takes into account very little natural gas trade as compared to the world trade
    6.in natural gas this method of averaging does not work because unlike oil gas prices are not uniform across world..so it is absurd to calculate diffrent averages from different parts of world
    7.structure of indian market is in doldrums ..ownership structure is such that value chain is not transparent…corruption at all levels…so many rajivs …so many sonias…so many rahuls yet to come;-)
    8.committee is full of beaurocrats who have mugged up datt and sundaram of 92 edition …so they have no knowledge of current economy situation…so technical experts in the field are required who study Ramesh Singh book and visit wikipedia and govt. Website

  16. Hi Ji,

    Is there any software for note making in Windows 7 Platform?

  17. Respected Sir
    Thank you very much for the explanation about gas pricing.Its really helpful.
    I went through mrunal sir’s currency swap deal notes.But it will be helpful if you explain the following related to that agreement.
    1. How does interest rate swap is different from currency swap?Types of currency swap.Recent India-SAARC CURRENCY Swap deal and its significance.Since it is initiated by India it has fixed some norms on LIBOR basis for currency swap,what are they?

    Thank you

    1. hello anitha
      answer to third question:

      what is digital signature?
      digital signature is digital variant of handwritten signature .It is a kind of stamp (SOURCE:YOJNA 2013 JAN)

      uses :
      it is difficult to forge and copy so used in digital transactions(exchanges) of documents

      1. What is a Digital Signature Certificate?
      Digital Signature Certificates (DSC) are the digital equivalent (that is electronic format) of physical or paper certificates. Examples of physical certificates are drivers’ licenses, passports or membership cards. Certificates serve as proof of identity of an individual for a certain purpose; for example, a driver’s license identifies someone who can legally drive in a particular country. Likewise, a digital certificate can be presented electronically to prove your identity, to access information or services on the Internet or to sign certain documents digitally.

      Who issues the Digital Signature Certificate?
      A licensed Certifying Authority (CA) issues the digital signature. Certifying Authority (CA) means a person who has been granted a license to issue a digital signature certificate under Section 24 of the Indian IT-Act 2000. ((I HAVE TAKEN THIS FROM MCA WEBSITE ))
      E.G: TCS,MTNL


  18. Hello Mrunal,
    Could you please brief us about the post preferences of SSC CGL exam, as we hardly know about the posts description as to which is at top preferred and how the job is..???


  19. Hi Mrunal,

    Can u enlighten on the issue of Srilankan CJ Shirani Bandaranayake’s Impeachment(Reasons and Implications of it)?

    Thanks in advance,

  20. sir,
    i am preparing for jnu ma politics (international relations) can you kindly provide some tips and core areas where one should focus. it would be of great help.
    thank you

  21. Whenever something/somebody’s birth/death anniversary is in ‘multiple’ of five, it is important for UPSC!

  22. thank yyou sir ….

  23. one more imp.topic. thanks
    ans 1-d

  24. @coreloss…good 4 nothing people like u can only give dumb advices…m contributing to blog by solving someone’s problem…what r u doin…so ****off

  25. @corelossss…tere jaise log sirf dusron ko gyan dene se jyada aur kuch nai kar pate…apne kaam se matlab rakhta to tujhe gali nai sunna parta

  26. D A A C

  27. Thank you Mrunal. it was very interesting article !!

  28. Thank you Mrunal. it was very interesting article.

  29. thanx for a nice article ..mrunal

  30. @anitha…here is the difference between two swaps u asked
    Interest swap is when one party exchanges it’s floating rate obligations with other party’s fixed rate obligation…now question is why would they do so…because floating rate believes rates will increase in short time while fixed rate party belives rate will decrease in long term…means both have an incentive to deal at same time…for one it is an incentive…for other is disincentive..now the difference
    1.currency swap is an agrement to exchange principal interest and fixed interst rate from one currency with another while interest rate swap is defined with respect to one currency only that is the parties own currency
    2.although both are long term hedging technique but currency swap deal also takes care of risk which gets created due to fluctuations in rates…while interest rate swap is an innocent by-stander like UPSC aspirants who don’t revise their notes:-P
    3 types of currency swap
    1.forward contract-only principal rates are swapped
    2.back to back loans-combination of principal loan with interst rate swap
    3.here only interest payment cash flow on loans are swapped called as cross currency swap…hope this helps…for saudi arabia and libor I will write soon…regards from a first timer in upsc rat race

    1. sir what’s for facebook adress, if i wud have to knw any explanation for any thing , whr shud i contact

  31. Thanks to everyone who cleared my doubts.

    It will be highly helpful if there is a compilation of all important bills,acts,commitees,commissions,plans of GOI of 2012 with updated information about them.

    Thank you

  32. Sit it is very interesting to read your articles.Very easy to understand.
    Sir please explain about Nigeria conflict.Why french troops are there.why not others.

  33. @corelos why are you disturbing others.

  34. Hi Mrunal Sir,
    Thanks for an another important article. Sir, can you please post an article on the various facets of Presidents’ power to grant pardon (of Article 72) in the context of UPSC because this issue is very much in news as, After the hanging of Ajmal kasab and now a 60 yr old man in karnataka challenged the rejection of his plea.

  35. Respected sir

    Can u enlighten us on how to read n comprehend the atlas and techniques to get along with.


  36. Hello sir,

    What is the difference between the dialogue partner and full time member?

  37. hi sir,
    you give us a better guideline for the competition prospective.

  38. good explanation sir…

  39. SIR,
    The topics which u post are so good & helps in easy understanding(as given under each heading)…applaude for ur work!!!!!IT HELPS A LOT!!!

  40. Can anybody suggest measures to combat ocean acudification


  42. sir, what is weighted factor in fuel pricing??

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