- overview of factors
- Types of industries
- Timber Based industries
- Commercial fishing
- Mock Questions
UPSC has included certain topics of World Geography in the new syllabus of general studies (Mains) paper. So, let’s start with one of the less boring topic= the factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
In most geography related books (or webpages), the industrial location topic is finished around a few paragraphs, citing a few clichéd examples of raw material, transport, market and labor. But given UPSC’s backbreaking moveTM, such content is neither exhaustive nor sufficient for the Mains level questions. Therefore, I’m compiling some wisdom scattered in other books/sources viz.
|Economic Geography by Truman Hartshorn||4-18|
|Human and Economic geography by Goh Cheng Leong||3-15|
|World Geography by SA Qazi||8- 16|
|Economic and Social geography by R.Knowles (aka Rupa made easy series)||13-15|
|Indian Geography by Majid Hussain||11|
|Old NCERT Geography class 11||2-10|
|ICSE Geography textbook Class 10||8-11|
Total Seven articles on industrial location factors:
- (the present article) Intro, forest, timber, paper-pulp and fishing industry
- cotton, silk, wool, jute
- sugar, dairy, Pigs
- iron-steel, heavy engineering, major industrial regions of the world
- non-ferrous, petroleum, natural gas, refineries, chemical industries, synthetic fibers
- transport and labor
- market, government policies
- I claim no expertise in geography, these articles are mere compilation of some wisdom and (a few) examples given in those books. Lot of minor places and countries have been ignored. I haven’t bothered to dig internet much for doing ‘full coverage’ or finding who is the largest producer as per latest data. It is your job to fill up the details as and where you feel necessary. And Try to dig examples from your own state- that way it helps even during UPSC interviews or State PSC exams.
- Certain topics need to be separately prepared for other parts of syllabus hence, I haven’t put them here. For example
- Wheat, rice, tea, groundnut etc. in India. Because they need to be prepared for agro topic under paper 3.
- Mica, manganese and variety of minerals because they need to be prepared for “Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent)” for paper 1.
- Elaborate coverage not done on Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. for India because of paper 3.
We’ll examine these factors in detail for each industry, but here is some food for thought:
There are three places you can setup an industry
- near raw material site
- near market
- In between ^them two: depending on transport, energy and labour convenience.
|Nature of raw material||Bauxite=>alumina; Copper ore=>blister copper; Sugarcane=raw sugar. Weight loss is significant, during above processes. So, where should we setup these factories?|
|energy||Despite having no significant bauxite reserves, Canada and Norway have aluminum refineries, why?|
|transport||Why is Switzerland famous for wristwatches but not bulldozers?Why do port cities have lot of industries surrounding them?Inland water transport helped in the development of Great lakes-Pittsburg industrial area in US. Then on the same logic, why is Africa underdeveloped despite having so many rivers?|
|labor||Sierra Leone is famous for rough diamonds but not for jewelry, why?Largest assembly for iPhone is in China and not in US, why?|
|market demand||Australia is a major supplier of wool but not major supplier of finished woolen garments, why?|
|Government policy||Pharmaceutical industries that once had shifted from Gujarat/Maharashtra towards Hill states, are now returning back to the original states, why?|
|Capital||Even after local coal-iron resources are depleted, the steel and heavy engineering industry doesn’t frequently shift its location, why?|
|Physical geography||How does Canadian winter help in commercial exploitation of timber?Fishing industry more developed in Northern Hemisphere than in Southern Hemisphere, why?How can the dairy products of New Zealand compete in American / Europeans market despite additional transport cost?|
Other factors: entrepreneurship, availability of technology, location of competing firms etc. Each factor has different level of attractiveness for individual industry.
What are the geographical factors affecting location of this industry?
- When this wooden logs are processed in the sawmill, significant weight loss occurs. Barely 40% is used and rest discarded as waste.
- Therefore most pulp mill and saw-mills are located near the jungles to reduce the cost of transporting waste matter.
- Even in jungles, they’re located near rivers and streams because Logs=bulky and awkward to transport. Rivers provide cheap and convenient mode of transport. E.g. Myanmar, the teak logs are floated down the Irrawadi river upto Yangon and then exported.
- The paper/pulp mills require clean water free from chemical/pollutants. This is one the reason why they were setup in forest locations away from polluted rivers.
|towards market||away from market|
|US West Coast, Siberia|
|temperate: opportunities||tropical: challenges|
|trees of same species concentrated in a particular area=easy to exploit on commercial scale|
- Canada is one of the largest newsprint producer of the world.
- Its Québec and Ontario provinces= largest concentration of paper-pulp industries, Why?
|Raw material||Forest area is large enough to supply timber on a constant basis.|
|Transport||Ideal location for mill= riverside. It minimizes transportation problems.|
|Raw material||Its timber output is negligible but still a major paper-producer thanks to pulp-imports from Sweden and Canada..|
Norway, Sweden, Finland
Factors more or less the same:
- cheap hydro electrical power,
- mechanized operations to make do for lack of laborers,
- Rivers flow towards ports=easy for transport.
South East Asia
|Malaysia, Philippines||Forests found on islands/peninsulas @no point very distance from sea, Hence can be extracted easily.hardwood much in demand by Australia and Japan|
India: Timber industry
|near raw material||Dependent on bamboo, softwood. E.g. South Gujarat, Odisha, MP|
In the next article, we’ll see the location factors affecting fishing industry Click me and then simutelnously mock question related to both industries.