- Fisheries: Scope/significance
- EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
- Fish Supply chain
- Government Policies/Schemes
- Mock Questions
|syllabus of UPSC Mains (GS)||topics in this article|
|(GS1) Distribution of key natural resources across the world and India||just a brief table on EEZ|
|(GS2) Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors||Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy, 2004|
|(GS2) Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population||Fishermen Welfare Scheme|
|(GS3) Food processing and related industries in India-scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.||Related to freshwater, saltwater and shrimps.|
later: we’ll see [Food processing] Poultry, meat, tea, coffee, wine, edible oil.
|Export (2011-12 data)|
|Gives employment to more than|
Top 5 fish producers
|Top-5 Countries (2009 data)||Top-5 States (2012 data)|
Some stupid numbers from economic survey
|Export (2011-12 data)||export (approx. Million dollar)||India’s share in world trade (approx.)|
|Coast Line||more than 8100 kms|
|Continental Shelf||~half million sq.km|
|Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)||more than 2 million sq.km|
+millions of hectares of ponds, tanks, rivers, reservoirs, canals, brackish water area.
The EEZ of India can be further divided into the following regions:
|WEST COAST=42% OF EEZ||North West||Gujarat & Maharashtra|
|South West||Goa, Karnataka & Kerala|
|EAST COAST=28% OF EEZ||Lower East||Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Pondicherry|
|Upper East||Orissa & West Bengal|
Remaining EEZ area under Andaman and the Nicobar Islands.
|6 lakhs sq km EEZ||4 lakh sq km EEZ|
There is immense potential for import of fish into India from neighboring countries in South Asia and South East Asia.
Indian fisheries sector classification
- Deep Sea Fishing
- Coastal Fishing
- Inland (Freshwater)
- Among all Desi food processing industries, Fish processing supply chain = shortest. Because in most of the cases, fishermen themselves sell their catch directly to consumers via local wet fish markets.
- Alternate channels for distribution: Fishermen=> commission agents=> Fish market.
- Arabian sea=broader continental shelf=fish production higher than Eastern coast.
- Despite government ban, fisherman use fine-sized net= even Juvenile fish are being caught.
- 30% to 40% of the catch is discarded by fishermen in high seas because juvenile fish who don’t fetch good prices in market= resource lost.
- During breeding season, fishing is banned in coastal waters. But the authorities don’t enforce it strictly.
- Lack of surveillance of territorial waters= even outsiders (Pakistani fishermen) do illegal fishing in our area.
- The EEZ around Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep confluences with international waters. This makes these Island territories vulnerable to illegal Fishing by foreign vessels.
- Most fishing vessels don’t have facility to freeze the fish onboard immediately after catching= quality deterioration before they reach the coast.
- unregulated fishing of highly migratory species just outside the EEZ=negative impact on Marine biodiversity.
- Most vessel don’t have special equipment to do deep water fishing beyond depth of 400m. Example yellow fin tuna found around Lakshadweep islands. They’re almost unexploited since the technology for deep long lining is not prevalent in the Islands.
- For inland fisheries, two big players= WB+Andhra.
- But even those state governments not enforcing fishing net size in rivers, lakes and reservoirs= juvenile fish caught and discarded.
- Fishing ban during breeding season not strictly enforced.
- Nellor District, AP= Shrimp Capital of India.
- Pink revolution=Shrimp/prawns. (as per some books/ PDF reports.)
- Pink revolution also means meat + poultry. (as per food processing ministry, FAO etc)
- anyways, let’s check the issues.
|Fish Supply:NOTABLE Indian PLAYERS|
|LOW VALUE ADDITION|
|Fish Supply Chain INVESTMENT|
More than 1/3rd of Indians eat fish but demand for “processed fish”=limited because
- Indian consumer prefer wet (fresh) fish rather than processed fish.
- Cost of processed fish product= 20-25% higher than fresh fish.(due to indirect taxes)
- Desi Consumers prefer to buy fresh fish from wet markets and process it at home
- Therefore, Indian fish processing segment=entirely export-oriented, due to lack of local/domestic demand
|Fish Supply: RETAILERS|
|Fish Supply: MARKETING RESEARCH|
|States||Marine fisheries within the territorial waters are the subject of maritime states|
|Centre||Fisheries beyond this limit within the EEZ fall in the jurisdiction of Central Government.|
By Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture
Three main objectives: 1) boost export 2)socio-economic welfare of fishermen 3) protect marine ecology/biodiversity
|ACTIVITY||policy will address following:|
|protection + welfare|
|technology transfer to small scale sector|
Salient Features of this policy
- ATTENTION TO CONSUMERS
- increase per capita (fish) protein intake
- Attention to consumer rights. Ensuring food safety, mandatory bar coding and packaging for sale of fish products.
- Ensure international quality and food safety in fish and fishery products.
- Ensure Hygiene in fishing harbor and processing centers.
- Protect consumers from fish contaminated with heavy metals and other hazardous chemicals discharged from industrial establishments.
- eco labeling of marine products
- ATTENTION TO FISHERMEN
- Each fisherman household would be given a card for easy identification.
- Strengthen Cooperative movement of fishermen
- Uniformity in central-state welfare schemes for fisherman.
- Greater participation of cooperatives, NGOs and local self-Governments
- Government to contribute towards Insurance scheme for only those fishermen who do not own a boat.
- Fishermen Housing Schemes will unified and implemented as a master plan through a national agency.
- ATTENTION TO ENVIRONMENT
- responsible and sustainable fishing practices to Preserve environment and biodiversity
- Strict ban on all types of destructive methods of fishing.
- Regulate Mesh sizes in different parts of the fishing gear. Penalties for violations of mesh regulations.
- Prohibit Catching of juveniles and non- targeted species=prohibited
- greater liaison between Central and State Pollution Control Board to control all industrial establishments discharging effluents in to the sea
- Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in effluent discharge systems will be made mandatory.
- Mangrove plantation in Coastal areas.
- ATTENTION TO FANCY THINGS:
- HRD, R&D, use of IT, strengthening marine database via satellites etc.
HQ: Hyderabad. For both inland and marine fish. Promotes following
- Accelerated development of the fisheries and aquaculture in a sustainable manner
- Hygienic development of wholesale and retail markets
- Mariculture (cultivation of marine organized in enclosed section of ocean / pond / tank etc. Example: prawn, pearls, agar etc)
- Training to fishermen/fish farmers
|National Mission for Protein Supplement (NMPS)|
|Development of Inland fisheries & Aquaculture|
|Development of Marine Fisheries, Infrastructure Post Harvest Operations.|
|Strengthening of Database & Geographic Information System for Fisheries Sector.|
In the 90s, there were multiple schemes for fishermen welfare but in mid-2000s, all of them combined into single “Centrally Sponsored National Scheme on Welfare of Fishermen” (duh, no catchy name/abbreviation, not named after you know who. but then again, scheme falls under Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying= under Sharad Pawar=not directly under you know who’s party.)
anyways, this scheme has:
Two pronged approach
four broad components
|CIBA IMMUNoDot||An immunodot blot test for early detection of WSS virus in shrimp. Patent pending.|
- Several international organizations, including the World Bank, UNDP , DANIDA, NORAD, ODA (UK and Japan) provide aid to India for the development of fisheries sector .
- (UK) has provided technical aid for the prevention of post-harvest losses in marine fisheries. Recently, FAO launched a scheme for providing technical assistance to implement Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) in seafood processing industries.
They need to do following:
- Enforce fishing holidays during breeding season.
- Awareness camps to educate the fishermen on importance of the breeding cycle of the fish to replenish the stock.
- Regulate fishing net size. 30 mm mesh size should be standardized for use.
- Announce specific financing schemes for purchase of requisite vessels and equipment
- Allow only a sustainable number of vessels to operate in the coastal waters. Don’t give license to everyone.
- Leasing of coastal zones – There is need to consider leasing of coastal zones on a long term basis (30 years) to private sector players, for introduction of advanced mariculture technologies such as cage culture, pen culture etc. for augmenting fish production.
- Correct Statement about EEZ of India
- Eastern Cost has larger area under EEZ than Western Cost
- Among Union Territories, Lakshadweep is surrounded by the maximum EEZ area.
- Correct statements about yellow fin tuna
- Found in the shallow coastal waters around Lakshadweep
- It is on verge of becoming extinct, because of destructive fishing in this region.
- Obstacles to Pink Revolution in India
- MODEL FISHERMEN VILLAGES
- National Mission for Protein Supplement (NMPS)
- National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB)
- Issues affecting supply chain of marine fisheries.
- Write a note on Centrally Sponsored National Scheme on Welfare of Fishermen.
- Enumerate the salient features of the Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy.
- Define Aquaculture and Mariculture. Discuss their significance in rural development in coastal areas.
- Although India is the second largest fish producer of the world, the share of fisheries sector in India’s GDP is negligible. Examine the reasons for this phenomenon and suggest remedies.
- Civilization is like a thin layer of ice upon a deep ocean of chaos and darkness.
- India is rich in people, rich in culture, rich in resources and rich in trouble.