[Food Processing] Poultry, Meat, Supply Chain, Upstream, Downstream, Avian influenza, government schemes

Economy27 Comments

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  1. Prologue
  2. Poultry: Scope/significance
    1. Locations- Poultry Business
    2. Poultry Supply chain & Backward Integration
    3. [email protected]
      1. Maize (Poultry-Feed)
      2. Avian Influenza
      3. Contract Farming
    4. @Processing
    5. @Downstream
      1. Poultry Hygiene
      2. Taxation and Smuggling
      3. Export
      4. Demand
    6. Govt. schemes for poultry
      1. #1: Poultry Development Scheme
      2. #2: Poultry Venture Capital Fund
      3. #3: Central Poultry Development organizations
      4. National Livestock Mission (NLM)
  3. Meat: Scope/Significance
    1. Meat [email protected]
      1. #1: Livestock markets
      2. #2: Buffalo Slaughter Policy
    2. @Processing Level
    3. @Downstream
    4. Government Schemes for meat/livestock
      1. Conservation of Threatened Breeds of Livestock
      2. Abattoir modernization
      3. National Mission for Protein Supplement (NMPS)
      4. Disease eradication schemes
      5. Token Schemes by NABARD
        1. #1: Salvaging and rearing of male buffalo calves
        2. #2: Slaughterhouses @small towns
        3. #3: Utilization of Fallen Animals
    5. Misc. Schemes
    6. Misc.Org
  4. Mock Questions

Prologue

Previous article was on fisheries, now comes meat/poultry.

UPSC syllabustopics in this article
prelims
  • avian influenza related MCQ under sci-tech
GS2: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.Veterinary council of India
GS2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectorsfodder points that

  1. lack of clear policy on buffalo meat hampers the growth of meat industries..
  2. Non implementation of GST hurts Kerala’s poultry sector.
GS2: Bilateral agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.fodder point that China has agreed to allow meat import from India. (earlier it was banned because of diseases)
GS2: Effect of policies and politics of developing countries on India’s interestsfodder point that Oman’s ban on Indian poultry has badly affected our business.
GS3: economics of animal-rearingPlenty of fodder points on poultry and buffalo meat.
GS3: Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.fodder point that Meat processing industry was de-licensed in the 90s and as a result, now India is 6th largest exporter of bovine meat, produces meat worth >Rs.60,000 crores.
GS3: Food processing and related industries in Indiafor poultry and buffalo meat

After this, only one and last article remains in [Food processing]: tea, coffee, wine, edible oil and confectionary.

Poultry: Scope/significance

Poultry business has potential to grow because:

  1. There is no religious sentiment associated with poultry.(unlike beef or pork)
  2. It takes far less feed to produce a kilo of chicken than the equivalent amount of pork or beef.
  3. Many youngsters becoming non-vegetarian under the influence of advertisements e.g. KFC, McDonalds etc.
  4. Consumer studies from other countries say “when vegetarians choose to convert to non-vegetarianism, they first experiment with poultry before trying other meat products.”
  5. Increasing prosperity in emerging markets= people can afford to put more meat on the table.

Contribution to economy:

  1. Meat: more than Rs.80,000 cr
  2. Eggs/Poultry: more than Rs.17,000 cr (and export ~450 crore)
  3. Backyard poultry provides cheap protein nutrition and side income to poor families.
  4. Per capita availability of eggs = ~ 55 per year

Locations- Poultry Business

REGIONcharacteristic
SOUTH
  • Contract farming for poultry= well-developed
  • Production concentrated around Coimbatore.
  • Fully integrated/organized players control over 95% market

Namakkal District in TN:

  • Largest egg production zone in the country
  • accounts for more than 95% egg exports from India
  • produces more than 3 crore eggs daily
  • (but recently hit hard by ban from Oman.)
NORTH
  • Contract farming for poultry= under-developed
  • Mostly unorganized players.
  • No concentration of production.
  • No full integrators.
EAST
  • No concentration of production
  • Only 1 integrated player- Arambagh
  • High cost of maize feed, transport problems =hampered the growth of organized poultry farming.
WEST
  • Production concentrated around Pune. E.g Venky’s
  • few integrated and semi – integrated players

Poultry Supply chain & Backward Integration

Fish & Poultry Supply Chain Management

click to enlarge

Big poultry companies have backward integration. Let’s observe the case study of Saguna Foods

UPSTREAM
  • Contract farming agreement with more than 20000 farmers in 16 states.
  1. MEDICINE
  • Company has  its own pharma division in TN. They provide are anti-bacterial, antibiotics, vitamins, mineral supplements etc. to those contract farmers.
  1. FEED
  • Company has India’s largest feedmill near  Bangalore. They supply their own scientifically manufactured feed to those contract farmers.
  1. TRAINING
  • Saguna’s experts make regular field trips and train the farmers on how to raise poultry in a scientific-efficient manner.

As a result of 1+2+3, all chicken/eggs are uniform in size, shape and quality.

  1. PROCESSING
  • HACCP certified, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) certified processing plant at Coimbatore.
  • Can process >35000 birds per day and export >1500 metric tonnes chicken per month.
  • Company has implemented Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, entire plan can be monitored from a single computer.
  • Another big player with similar backward integration is Venky’s (Pune based company): supplies Chicken to Indian outlets of McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, and Domino’s.
  • But just two Cinderella stories doesn’t mean everything is well and good with Indian Poultry business. Let’s observe the constrains-

[email protected]

Maize (Poultry-Feed)

  • Poultry Feed constitutes almost 60-70% of the total broiler cost.
  • Therefore, fluctuations in the prices of maize, soybeans/oilmeals significantly affect input cost in poultry business.
  • Maize consumption by the animal feed sector (which accounts for almost 50% of maize consumption) has been growing much faster than maize production.
  • Maize is primarily a rain-fed crop, the annual production level is dependent on monsoons= fluctuations in production level (and therefore fluctuation in price level).
  • Government offers better MSP for rice and wheat. Hence farmers prefer rice/wheat over Maize cultivation.
  • December-April period, maize is grown only in a small region in Eastern India = high feed prices for North East poultry business.
  • Adding insult to the injury: Indian exports of maize to Bangladesh, Nepal and other countries have been rising exponentially. These countries do not have significant domestic maize production, yet their poultry industry is growing rapidly. (Meaning, Bangleshi and Nepali are using Indian maize to improve their poultry business, while Indian poultry farmers are struggling.)
  • After the outbreak of bird flu, (+ inflation), desi customers decreased egg/chicken consumptions and foreign countries also imposed ban on Indian poultry. As a result, most poultry farmers are making losses.

Government needs to address this inconsistency in its policy on maize and poultry rearing.

Avian Influenza

  • Outbreak of Avian influence (commonly known as bird flu)= culling of poultry + fall in demand= hurt the business.
  • Since many poor families raise poultry in backyard don’t maintain hygiene standards=flu outbreak.
  • This not only hurts the family but also commercial players, because foreign countries will impose ban on import of Indian egg/chicken because of the bird flu news.

Influenza virus has two components

Haemagglutinin (H)Protein found on the surface of influenza viruses.which is responsible for binding the virus to the victim-cell
Neuraminidase (N)Enzyme found on the surface of influenza viruses.
  • There are multiple varieties of (H) and (N), and based on their combination in the given virus, scientists name it H5N1, H5N2 etc.
Avian fluSwine Flu
BirdPigs
H5N1h2N1

Two types of Avian influenza

LPAIHPAI
low capacity for causing disease (low pathogenic avian influenza or LPAI)causes disease very easily (highly pathogenic avian influenza or HPAI)

Species affected

Migratory water fowlOne type of wild ducks – constitute the natural reservoir of the virus. Wild birds may carry H5N1 from one area to another through the process of migration.
Poultry flocks (chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese)
  • virus can spread rapidly through contact between a sick bird and a healthy bird.
  • Unhygienic conditions at poultry-farms, rice paddy fields = mixing of sick and healthy birds=disease transfer.
  • this virus causes a high mortality rate. Even healthy birds have to be culled to prevent further spread of virus.
  • Over the years, H5N1 virus has infected numerous birds in Asia, Europe, America and Africa.
Cats, tigers, leopardsfound to be affected by Avian influenza, after eating raw infected birds
HumanDisease can also affect humans but only after eating poultry meat that has not been cooked properly or after very close contact between a person and an affected animal.first outbreak: Hongkong’97

Steps taken by our government so far:

  1. The Action Plan to combat Avian Influenza was revised in 2012 and circulated to the State/UT Governments for implementation.
  2. About 90% veterinary workforce of India has been trained to combat bird flu.
  3. Culling of entire poultry population in the affected zone of 0-1 Km
  4. Upgraded laboratories, stockpiled materials, medicines etc.
  5. Bio-Safety labs setup @Jalandhar, Kolkata, Bangalore & Bareilly.
  6. Education and Communication (IEC) campaigns to sensitize general public
  7. All the state governments have been alerted to be vigilant about the outbreak of the disease.
  8. Government has banned imports of poultry from bird flu positive countries. (and Oman banned our poultry exports, so tit for tat, the circle of karma is complete.)
  9. Government has alerted Border check posts with neighboring countries to stop transport of live-birds/eggs/chicken.

Contract Farming

  • Contract Farming prevalent in Southern India for poultry business. eg. Saguna Foods and Venky’s.
  • Farmers provided with feed, medicines and bird growing fee. Some companies have state of the art processing plants located close to cities.
  • But this contract farming model has still under developed in the remaining parts of India.

@Processing

  • Poultry processing capacity India ~ 25,000 birds per hour BUT, Average utilization is barely 30%. Because Several of the operating units are run by small and unorganized players.
  • The only “big” players in Indian Chicken business= Venky’s, Godrej, Arambagh and Suguna.

@Downstream

Poultry Hygiene

At “Retail” level, chicken are slaughtered on street side shops/hotels by untrained people. Result?

  1. Clean water not used for washing= contamination
  2. Poor hygiene practices in defeathering, chopping, removal of viscera etc. =contamination.
  3. Lack of chilling facilities= immediate bacterial attack.
  4. Lengthy farm-to-slaughter time + no cold storage= dehydration= shriveled/bad quality meat.
  5. Improper ventilation and space for storing live chicken = droppings / feed / feathers spread bacteria.

Slaughter waste generated per day in Mumbai alone is about 150 tons.

Solution= ban street side slaughter of all animals + rigorous food inspection of all such shops, just like in developed countries.

Taxation and Smuggling

  • Kerala imposes ~13% VAT on chicken
  • On the other hand Tamilnadu has exempted Meat, fish eggs, poultry and livestock from VAT.
  • Result: “Smuggling” of chicken from Tamilnadu to Kerala = revenue loss to government
  • Solution: uniform GST all over India.

Export

OCT 12WHO confirms bird flu outbreak in government-run turkey farm at Hesaraghatta, Karnataka,
NOV 12Oman, the biggest egg export market for India, bans import of eggs and chicken from India because of bird flu news.
JUN 13Oman has lifted the ban on importing poultry products from India, but with condition that an Indian company must get its premises and husbandry procedures verified by Omani officials first.But in during this ‘ban’ time, the Omani hotels, businessmen made import-contracts with Brazil and Holland for supply of eggs and chicken. So, even after the ban is lifted, we are not seeing much high demand from Oman.

Demand

High cost of feed, high food inflation, ban by Oman= Poultry business is deeply affected, Most poultry farmers are selling below production cost and making losses.

Govt. schemes for poultry

#1: Poultry Development Scheme

  • 100% centrally sponsored.
  • By Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) under Agro Ministry.
  • Has three components
  1. Assistance to State Poultry Farms
One time assistance is provided to strengthen poultry farms.e.g. for buying/upgrading  hatchery, brooding and rearing houses, laying houses for birds, in-house disease diagnostic facilities and feed analysis laboratory.
  1. Rural Backyard Poultry Development
Poultry given to BPL families= supplementary income + nutritional support.
  1. Poultry Estates
In these poultry estates, entrepreneurship skills given to educated, unemployed youth and small farmers, so they start poultry related business-activities.

#2: Poultry Venture Capital Fund

  • Scheme provides finance through NABARD.
  • To setup poultry breeding farms, feed godown, feed mill, marketing of poultry products, egg grading, packing and storage houses for export, egg and broiler carts for sale of poultry products etc.
  • Additional finance for SC/ST/North Eastern state.

#3: Central Poultry Development organizations

REGIONorg. located @
NORTHChandigarh
EASTBhubaneswar
WESTMumbai
SOUTHBangalore

They help farmers diversify poultry rearing by adding new species:

REGIONpoultry species introduced
SOUTHDuck, Emu, Turkey
NORTH, WESTJapanese Quail
EASTGuinea Fowl

They train farmers, women beneficiaries, various public and private sector poultry organizations, NGOs, Cooperatives and foreign trainees etc.

National Livestock Mission (NLM)

  • in the Union Budget 2013-14.
  • To support poultry, dairy farming and fisheries.
  • It’ll have sub-missions for
  • increasing availability of feed + fodder
  • Improving animal breeds to raise milk yields.

Misc.

Athulya chick
  • Heat tolerant hen breed by ICAR, Kerala.
  • Gives larger sized eggs
  • Bird is heat tolerant=mortality rate is low.
Kalamasi FowlsAlready covered under Hindu Sci-tech compilation. click me

Enough of eggs, chicken and poultry. Let’s move to

Meat: Scope/Significance

Indian buffalo meat is witnessing strong demand in international markets because

  1. Our main competitors (Aus+US) are on decline. (more under downstream=>Export )
  2. Indian buffalos have near organic nature (i.e. grown without use of drugs/antibiotics unlike American cattle=less harmful effect on human health).
India’s world rankingin
1livestock
2goats
3sheep
5Bovine meat export.

We’ve export demand in

BOVINE MEATSaudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Angola, Kuwait, Egypt, UAE, Jordan, Iran
SHEEPUAE, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Qatar , USA
CHICKENOman, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Kuwait

Meat [email protected]

#1: Livestock markets

  • Livestock market = where buying selling of animals done for dairy/meat.
  • Supervision falls within the purview of the local bodies (panchayats, municipalities or corporations).

Problems of Livestock markets:

  1. Markets are primitive in functioning. No facilities for weighbridges, ramp facilities for loading and unloading, feeding and watering animals.
  2. No veterinary doctors available in market to certify animal health before sale.
  3. No separate markets for different species of animals.
  4. No licensing/registration of merchants, brokers or suppliers= non-transparent pricing, margins/commissions almost 30% of the consumer prices.

#2: Buffalo Slaughter Policy

  • The global trend is “Contract farming” For animal rearing.
  • Meaning, the meat-processing companies pay advance money, veterinary services, fodder to the farmers and ask them to raise buffalos/sheep/pigs for slaughtering.
  • But in India, buffalo slaughter is allowed only when the buffalo outlives their useful life as a dairy or a draught animal.

Result:

  1. Male buffalo calves often slaughtered illegally (=revenue loss for government)
  2. They’re starved when farmers do not find them useful for draught purpose.(=resource loss, animal cruelty)
  3. Meat processing companies find it difficult to do “contract farming” for buffalo/sheep etc. Hind Agro is the only Indian player which has backward linkages with male buffalo calf rearing.
  4. No control over animal feed =meat quality is not uniform = doesn’t commend high prices abroad.
  5. inadequate veterinary care = various diseases= export rejected from US/EU
Meat yield
  • Jafarabadi breed in Gujarat and Maharashtra = known to be one of the heaviest buffalo breeds in the world but its meat yield is low.
  • Need for crossbreeding for buffalos that have higher meat yields.
  • Need to educate farmers on modern scientific methods to fatten male buffalo calves.
Disease
  • Some countries have banned Indian buffalo meat due to Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). We already discussed FMD in the dairy article click me
  • Lack infrastructure/facilities for disease diagnosis, reporting, epidemiology, surveillance and forecasting.
veterinary servicessame like previous article on milk/dairy business.
foddersame like previous article on milk/dairy business.

@Processing Level

There are two types of slaughter houses in India:

#1: MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTER HOUSES

  • Municipal slaughter houses are owned and operated by local and state governments.
  • Their infrastructure + facilities are (as you can guess) inadequate and outdated.
  • They charge fees but often money is not used for upgrading the infra/facility.
  • The animals are often kept in poor conditions (due to lack of adequate infrastructure)=unhygienic meat.

#2: PRIVATE SLAUGHTER HOUSES

  • meat processing was delicensed in 1991
  • Meat-export companies need to have private slaughter houses to meet the quality standards of US/EU.
  • But since meat is a highly controversial subject involving religious, social angles=> local authorities are reluctant to give land allocation for new private slaughter houses.
  • Result: Plenty unauthorized slaughterhouses: almost 50 percent of animals slaughtered here => unhygienic meat + revenue loss to government.
  • Since many of the slaughterhouses are unorganized and illegal- the byproducts of livestock slaughter are not utilized for additional income e.g. Meat-cum-Bone Meal (MBM), tallow, Bone Chips etc. could be sold as pet food. Viscera, waste could used for methane generation etc.

Since 9th Five year plan, Central government had come up with a scheme to upgrade municipal slaughter houses, but progress is unsatisfactory. Why?

Under this scheme, center: state will share cost burden equally (50:50) but state governments are reluctant to pay their 50% money, because of following reasons

  1. Frequent interference by animal rights activists
  2. Negative perception of meat eating and therefore limited proactive action by all concerned authorities.

Solution: Privatize the Municipal slaughter houses.

Notable private players in Meat industry

COMPANYBRANDPRODUCT
Hind Agro Industries LtdFast Prax (fast food outlets)Buffalo, sheep and goat meats
Allana sons LtdPremier, SaffaPremier (fruits and vegetables) Saffa (meat)
Al KabeerAl KabeerVegetables and fruits, snacks, meat and poultry, ready meals and sea food

@Downstream

PRICEIndian consumer = price sensitive. Chicken and Buffalo meat are more consumed than other varieties.
TAXATION
  • Currently , there are no taxes levied on wet market sales (i.e. fresh meat)
  • But branded/sealed meat attracts VAT/sales tax.
  • This creates a non-level playing field between wet markets and packaged meats.
  • We need zero excise and state-level taxes on value added and branded meat products.
SELF-BANEven non-vegetarian refrain from consuming meat on certain religious festivals
REGIONAL PREFERENCEEastern India and Coastal regions prefer marine products over poultry/animal.
FRESHIndian consumers prefer to buy freshly cut meat from the wet market, rather than processed or frozen meats.  Health concerns associated with red meats leading to preference for poultry.

Meat Export

Potential market in China

  • Till now, China did not allow import of Indian meat because of concerns about ‘Rinderpest’ and foot & mouth disease.
  • But in May 2013, India-China made agreement that’ll help in export of buffalo meat, fishery products and poultry feeds from India to China.

Decline of competitors

Indian buffalo meat exports =potential to grow, because some of our competitors are on decline:

COMPETITORWHY DECLINING?
AUSTRALIA
  • Significant exporter of bovine meat.
  • But its ‘production’ level has been affected by ongoing drought.
USA
  • Export capabilities have been affected by occurrences of BSE disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy).
  • US meat industry uses too much antibiotics, some health conscious elite customers from US/EU prefer Indian buffalo meat for its ‘organic’ nature.

Government Schemes for meat/livestock

Conservation of Threatened Breeds of Livestock

  • covers all livestock species except cattle and buffalo
  • To protecting threatened breeds of livestock whose population is about of 10,000 (for animal)) and 1000 (for poultry)
Example of breeds covered under this programstate
Bonpala sheepSikkim
Black Bengal goat+Haringhata Black FowlWest Bengal
YakJammu and Kashmir
Kachchhi camelGujarat
Chegu goatHimachal
Nilgiri sheepTamil Nadu
Muzzafarnagari sheepUttar Pradesh
Berari GoatMaharashtra

Abattoir modernization

(copy pasting from earlier article)…

Scheme by Ministry of food processing industries.

Abattoir= slaughterhouse/ butcher house. Food processing ministry runs a scheme for them. This scheme Under PPP mode with involvement of local bodies (Panchayats or municipalities) via

  1. build-own-operate (BOO)
  2. build-operate-transfer (BOT)
  3. Joint venture(JV) basis.

Features:

  1. establish new modern abattoirs
  2. modernize existing abattoirs
  3. promote scientific and hygienic slaughtering.
  4. Modern technology for waste management.
  5. better by product utilization (bones, skin etc.)
  6. provide chilling facility, retail cold chain management etc.

Financial assistance

areagrant for __ % of the project cost
General50
North East, Hill area, areas under integrated Tribal development plan75

Maximum grant: Rs.15 crore per project.

Ten slaughterhouse projects ongoing:

  1. Dimapur (Nagaland)
  2. Kolkata (West Bengal)
  3. Ranchi (Jharkhand)
  4. Shimla (Himachal Pradesh)
  5. Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)
  1. Patna (Bihar)
  2. Ahmednagar (Maharashtra)
  3. Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir)
  4. Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir)
  5. Shillong ( Meghalaya)

National Mission for Protein Supplement (NMPS)

  • Component of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana.
  • to promote production of animal based protein through livestock development, dairy farming, pig and goat rearing and fisheries

Disease eradication schemes

by Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries

National Project on Rinderpest Eradication
  • Rinderpest: viral disease, regularly devastated buffalo and cattle herds in Asia and Europe.
  • Recovery from rinderpest disease confers lifelong immunity, but only a few animals are known to survive. Most animals collapse and die within a few days after this viral fever.
  • 2011 FAO conference declared that Rinderpest eradicated from the world.
Foot & Mouth Disease Control Programme
  • viral disease, already covered under previous [Food processing] Article on milk/dairy.
National Control Programme of Peste des Petits
  • is a viral disease, causes mortality in sheep and goats.
National Control Programme on Brucellosis
  • Brucellosis, bacterial disease, causes abortions and infertility in animals=decline in milk production

Token Schemes by NABARD

The limitation of each of the following 3 schemes= government has allotted a “token sum” of only Rs.1 lakh for the given year.

#1: Salvaging and rearing of male buffalo calves

  • to rear male buffalo calves for meat production
  • to develop linkages with export oriented slaughterhouses in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and West Bengal.
  • is expected to generate substantial quantity of meat, hides and by-products
  • also provide direct part employment and indirect employment to people in feed, fodder, meat leather and various input services.

#2: Slaughterhouses @small towns

  • to be establish/ modernize slaughterhouses in rural areas and smaller towns
  • to produce wholesome and hygienic meat for supplying to the cities/towns.
  • This way, the loss in the meat sector due to transportation of live animals, shrinkage of meat and environmental pollution in the cities will be prevented
  • fresh hides and skins in the tanneries in vicinity of the slaughterhouses will boost production of quality leather.
  • pilot implementation in three states: Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya

#3: Utilization of Fallen Animals

More than Rs.900 cr are lost per year, due to non-recovery/ partial recovery of hides/skins and other by-products from the fallen animals.  Hence this scheme was launched with following objectives

  1. Provide opportunity of employment to rural poor engaged in carcass collection, flaying and by-product processing
  2. Produce better quality hides and skins through timely recovery, better handling and transport
  3. Prevent bird-hit hazards to civil and defence aircrafts

Misc. Schemes

rabbitsIntegrated Development of Small Ruminants & RabbitsNABARD. The scheme is aimed for women beneficiaries, poor and marginal farmers
Livestock Insurance
  • To protect farmers against eventual loss of their animals due to death.
  • Farmer pays 50% of the insurance premium, remaining 50% by Central  government.
  • Benefit of subsidy is to be restricted to two animals per beneficiary per household.
Livestock Census
  • first Livestock census was conducted during 1919-20 and since then it is being conducted quinquennially by all States/UTs in India
  • 19th Livestock census was done in 2012.
  • 100% cost bourne by Central  government
Animal Quarantine and Certification Service
  • under Directorate of Animal Health
  • to prevent ingress of livestock diseases into India by regulating the import of livestock and livestock related products, and providing export certification of International Standards for livestock and livestock products which are exported from India.
  • Quarantine stations in the country out of which four located at New Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata
  • The scheme helped to prevent the entry of exotic diseases like Mad-cow disease (BSE), African swine fever and contagious equine metritis.
Livestock Health & Disease Control programsupports the state Governments for animal immunization, strengthening of existing Laboratories and in-service training to Veterinarians
Pig Development
  • Particularly in North-Eastern States by rearing pigs
  • Encourage commercial rearing of pigs by adopting scientific methods and creation of infrastructure
  • Create supply chain for the meat industry

Misc.Org

Veterinary Council of India
  • Statuary body constituted under the provision of Indian Veterinary Council Act.
  • Regulates veterinary practices (just like MCI for doctors.)
  • maintains uniform standard of veterinary education across the country
National Institute of Animal Healthat Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh to undertake the testing of animal vaccines and drugs.
Central Sheep Breeding FarmHissar (Haryana). as the name suggests: sheep breeding research.
Central/Regional Disease Diagnostic LaboratoriesIzatnagar is functioning as Central Laboratory for surveillance and diagnosis of various livestock and poultry diseases including Avian Influenz

Mock Questions

MCQS

  1. Which of the following is a part of concurrent list under 7th Schedule?
    1. prevention of cattle trespass
    2. prevention of animal diseases
    3. infectious or contagious diseases or pests affecting animals or plants
    4. None of above
  2. Correct statement about Avian influenza
    1. It is caused by H1N1 virus
    2. Migratory water fowl is the natural reservoir of the virus
    3. Carnivore animals such as Cats, tigers, leopards are immune to avian influenza.
    4. None of Above
  3. Poultry Venture Capital Fund provides financial assistance through
    1. Central Poultry development Organization
    2. NABARD
    3. Department of Animal husbandry
    4. Ministry of food processing industries
  4. Find odd term
    1. Rinder pest
    2. Brucellosis
    3. Foot and mouth disease
    4. Peste des Petits
  5. Find correct match
    1. Chegu Goat: Kerala
    2. Haringhata Black Fowl: MP
    3. Bonpala Sheep: Sikkim
    4. None of above

Descriptive

  • 2 marks
    1. Veterinary Council of India
    2. Livestock Insurance
    3. Livestock Census
    4. National Project on Rinderpest Eradication
    5. Abattoir modernization scheme
  • 15 marks
    1. Discuss the negative impact of Avian influenza on Indian poultry business. Enumerate the steps taken by Indian government to combat this disease.
    2. Discuss the Upstream issues affecting Indian poultry business and suggest remedies.
    3. Lack of backward integration in the buffalo meat supply chain, has hampered the growth of meat processing industry in India. comment
    4. List the initiates taken by Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries for promotion of meat and poultry industry.
    5. Innovations that are guided by smallholder farmers, adapted to local circumstances, and sustainable for the economy and environment will be necessary to ensure food security in the future. Comment
    6. Factory farming is one of the biggest contributors to the most serious environmental problems.  comment
  • Essay
    1. Physical bravery is merely an animal instinct; moral bravery is much higher.
    2. Throughout the history, evil has survived through concealment.
    3. Man is the only animal for whom his own existence is a problem which he has to solve.
    4. Man-The only animal in the world to fear.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
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  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
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So far 27 Comments posted

  1. sankar

    thank you mrunal.

    would pls provide articles on Distribution of key natural resources across the world.

  2. Sachin

    Give him some time sankar till then u can read goh cheng leong,ncert 11th,12th geography

  3. chandu

    Very informative. Please include the source of material at the end of the article.
    Essay questions are very interesting.

      1. chandu

        Thank you Mehul.

  4. ravi

    fed up of food processing topics sir..plz stop writing epic on food processing and move to other one

    1. Mehul

      don’t worry. the end of food processing is very near:
      Mrunal said in the prologue itself: “After this, only one and last article remains in [Food processing]: tea, coffee, wine, edible oil and confectionery.”

  5. jude_lucy

    Respect. Nothing but Shear Respect.

  6. virendra

    thank you sir
    sir what do we understand by the term “investment models” and “development process and development industry” ?

  7. avinash

    i will keep saluting u mrunal..u are great..

    tere mehnat ka mai agar shukriya adaa karu to tere mehnat ki toouhin hogi..

  8. Pars

    Hail Mugambo…….Thank you sir ji…Sir ek-2 article Ethics par bhi likh dalo….Market mai bhaut confusion hai….

  9. priyanka

    anybody know when is the cabinet secretariat exam, 2013 result will be announced?

    1. yogesh

      sorryy,i dont.

  10. SUNNY

    Mrunal sir….could u tell something about TRANSFER PRICING? WHAT IS IT?

    1. G-FOX

      @sunny: Okay suppose you work for Nestle and the HR Division came up with a study which states that those employees who eat one packet of maggi everyday are more productive, make less mistakes and are more loyal to the company. now the radical new CEO loves this idea and thinks he can save/make more money by feeding maggi to every staff member of Nestle. He orders the finance department to make arrangements….

      Now, the VP finance must decide at what price must the maggi be sent “downstream”. Remember that nothing is free in this world so even if the CEO of Nestle wants a to eat a packet of maggi, there is a cost involved. To feed the entire nestle workforce with maggi = a problem of transfer pricing.

      Now the theory they’re working on (maggi-eaters=better employees) may very well be true but profits from its implementation will not start until every employee has eaten free maggi for a month. therefore VP finance now must decide where the money for the maggi is going to come from in the first month (assuming the later profits will more than compensate for the initial costs).

      So far so good, you think, it must be no trouble arranging ~30000 packets of maggi and you’re right, it isn’t until we reach the accounts department where things get tricky.

      See the “cost” of maggi must be shown in the books, and in a completely free market, the company is at freedom to put whatever cost it wants. however, there is a scope for cheating here as if the company puts high/low cost, it affects the balance sheets in a way that manipulating the final profit/loss figure becomes very easy. now this manipulated profit figure leads to a distorted tax amount and govt. revenues suffer.

      this also has larger implications for the economy since once news gets out that maggi is free for employes of nestle, it might lead to a distortion of maggi prices in markets at large.

      So the market is regulated by law which dictates what is known as the “arm’s length principle” which basically says that one division of the company must sell its good/services to another division of the company by keeping it at “arms length” = transacting as if they were different companies, not even related to one another.

      hope this helped!

      A transfer price is what one part of a company charges another part of the same company for goods or services. How exactly all this is worked is unimportant for a UPSC aspirant unless they have management as an optional. I hope my answer helped, though.

      1. RK

        Sir, with huge regard, the two line précis at the end was Super !

      2. SUNNY

        @FOX….thanx dude…I actually tried to read about this from net, but couldn’t explain to one of my friend when he asked me about the same…Thats the point…if u cant explain sumthing to somebody…it means u urself haven’t understand it…well, as I m writing this post, I gonna call that frnd of mine & explain him d way u did to me…

        thanx a ton buddy….

      3. raghupurimetla

        thank u very much pal

  11. Mithil

    Mrunal Sir
    Please also upload material on ‘ Comparison of Indian Constitutional scheme with other countries’

  12. Kartik

    @ g-fox

    Very simple n lucid explanation abt transfer pricing.

    Thanks dude !

  13. crysis

    @ mrunal…could you please tell me the sources/references for this article?

  14. Sawan

    Mrunal Bhai,
    What plans do you have of putting up articles regd “Ethics”, as there is hell lot of confusion in the market? Are u even planning to put up something or no scope?
    Another thing is “Important technological concepts and advancements” mentioned in RAS Mains-2013 syllabus. I am in a dilemma regd the whole topic. Need help.

  15. Mohit

    Mrunal Bhai , Thanks for the effort.”What I believe is”- I don’t think anybody is having such retention power to hold such a humongous information without revising it N number of times .”What I am doing is”-covering only the issues/bottlenecks related to food processing and skipping the rest.

  16. Sneha

    Awesome piece of information, let me tell you, your blog gives the best and the most interesting information. once again hats off to you! Thanks a ton once again, Regards
    SNEHA FRESH CHICKEN

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