- Natural gas refining
- Fertilizer Industry: Location
- Mock Questions
In the previous article, we saw the geographical factors responsible for the location of Petroleum refinaries & synthetic textile industry. Let’s move to the next topic:
After the Second World War, United States was the first country to lay a comprehensive pipeline network for natural gas.
International Pipeline Projects
- Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI)
|INPUT||Natural gas from Bombay High|
|OUTPUT||the “sweet” natural gas is used in|
|Labor||Not the deciding factor. Because skilled labour=mobile. and Hazira has township for them.|
|TRANSPORT||Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline passes through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, U.P., Delhi and Haryana= all big markets are connected through pipeline.|
|JAMNAGAR LONI LPG PIPELINE|
Refining done @ Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh
|input||gas from offshore block in Krishna-Godawari Basin|
|refining||Onshore Gas Terminal at Gadimoga, about 30 Km south of Kakinada in the state of Andhra Pradesh.|
Urea/ Nitrogen Based industries are located near Natural gas source. Why?
- Natural Gas has Methane. (CH4)
- You mix it with Oxygen, Nitrogen and heat in presence of catalysts=> the Hydrogen part combines with Nitrogen, thus you get Ammonia (NH3). This is known as Haber process.
- This Ammonia (NH3) can be used for making nitrogen based fertilizers e.g. Urea.
- Therefore availability (and price) of Natural Gas, affects the location of Fertilizer industry.
- Similarly Neptha (obtained from crude oil) is also used in production of nitrogen based fertilizers. Hence proximity to oil refinery is also considered a favourable factor.
- Thanks to oil and gas from Bombay High, the Gujarat-Maharahstra region got fertilizer plants at Hazira, Mumbai, Trombay, Vadodara etc. (Nowadays they also source gas from Reliance KG basin).
- Similarly, Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdhishpur(HBJ) pipeline=> fertilizer industry in Bijapur, Sawai Madhopur, Shahjahanpur etc.
|PHOSPHATE||Near raw material Rock PhosphateUSA: Florida, North Carolina, Utah and Idaho.India: UP, MP, Rajasthan.|
|POTASH||Near raw material Potash.Canada: in the Prairie-Saskatchewan region.India: we don’t have potash reserve. We rely on imports. India Potash ltd. settingup port @Bhavnagar, Gujarat.|
|GUANO||Guano=excreta/dung of seabirds. Large deposits at Peru-Chili coasts.Problem: Ocean temperature/acidification affecting plankton=>fishes=>seabirds: hence Guano production declined.|
- Discuss the significance of the Forest rights act with special reference to Niyamgiri Bauxite Mining Issue.
- Give an account for the petroleum refineries in India with factors responsible for their particular location
- Examine the location and growth of fertilizer industry in India.
- Discuss the location characteristics of Aluminum Industry in India.
- Give a brief account of the copper smelting in India? What are the constrains faced by them.
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