- Healthcare/Drug/Medical related
- Good Lab practices (GLP)
- E-psychiatrist or virtual psychiatrist
- Health & Physical fitness monitor
- Blood Chemistry Analyser & Compact Portable Mobile Lab
- Electro-Active Sensor Fabrics
- Low Cost Wireless Polysomnograph
- AYURVEDA BIOLOGY
- Lab instruments
- Building/Construction related
- Metal related
- Textile related
- Gas related
- Electronics/IT Related
- Plasma research
- Nano Mission
I’m running the Summary of Department of Science and Technology (DST)’s Annual Report 2012-13. This report contains some good material UPSC General Studies Mains Paper 3 Topics:
- Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
- Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
Total four part article series:
- Agro, EnB, Solar and Water
- Medical/Healthcare, Building-construction, textile, metal, plasma, Nano etc. you’re here.
- Projects for benefit of SC, ST, Women, States and Human resource development
- Mapping, International relation (IR), awareness campaigns and awards.
Good Lab practices (GLP)
- Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) is a quality system by member nations of countries of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
- Concerned with monitoring of chemical/tests done in labs for industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, veterinary drugs, pesticides, cosmetic products, food additives, feed additives, etc.
- Because these drug/chemicals/tests may pose dangers to human/animal/environment.
- To comply with with this OECD’s GLP (Good lab practices), our government setup National Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Compliance Monitoring Authority in 2002
- this body falls under administrative control of DST (Department of Science and Technology)
- If you run a lab and get GLP certificate from this body=> your lab’s test data will be accepted in OCED countries.
- The Drug and Pharmaceutical Research Programme (DPRP)
- DST launched this in the mid 90s.
- for Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives in drug research.
- for promoting promoting Industry-Institutional collaboration
- for developing New Drugs in all systems of medicine
- for creating infrastructure, mechanisms and linkages to facilitate new drug development
E-psychiatrist or virtual psychiatrist
- for effective delivery of mental health care in remote areas.
- by Health Ministry + Tata consultancy services (TCS)
- net-based, logically linked clinical diagnostic and management decision support system
- in English + Hindi
- to help identifying and managing 18 human psychiatric disorders.
- Indigenously developed, First ever such system in the world.
- Pilot testing @HP, JK and Uttarakhand states.
Health & Physical fitness monitor
- Equipment capable of measuring parameters like electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, respiration rate etc.
- has sensors to measure, display and record physiological information about the patient
- use? rural/urban Hospitals – intensive care units, operation theaters, emergency and even in Ambulance.
- Under prototype stage. Currently, there is no indigenous manufactures of Multi-parameter monitors in India.
Blood Chemistry Analyser & Compact Portable Mobile Lab
- by Amit Bhanagar/IIT with funding from DST.
- This Analyser supports the analysis of 23 parameters including Haemoglobin count, Blood Glucose, Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine, Bilirubin, Cholesterol, etc
- testing cost: Rs. 120 per person.
- can test 4000 samples per day
- Costs ~80000 rupees.
- Rhodopsin=Fundamental photosynthetic protein in the retina of the eye for vision purposes.
- They can be produced using bacteria like the Halobacterium Salinarum.
- Photoactive biomolecules= in great demand for production of optical and electro-optical sensors.
- Hence Rhodopsins= commercial application. But very expensive at present. Developed countries running secret projects.
- DST Funding project to indigenously synthesize Bacterio-Rhodopsines from purple bacteria.
Electro-Active Sensor Fabrics
Wearable strain sensor to measure the kinematic movements of elbow angle / knee angle. Will help in following:
- Physiotherapist / rehabilitation centre to check elbow/knee angle bending over a period of time or after a critical injury.
- any research relating to arthritis.
- sports related injuries / treatment
- knee replacement surgeries.
- Biomolecular electronics = intergrates biomolecules with the electronics through a transducer.
- it uses fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, Organic electronics devices like Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) etc.
- Result?= the development of biosensors for non-invasive (surgery free) health care, artificial muscles etc.
Low Cost Wireless Polysomnograph
- Polysomnography=Method to evaluate sleep quality.
- Conventional methods use Electrodes, and Respiration belts to measure these parameters.= uncomfortable for the patient.
- This low cost wireless polysomnograph uses Thermal infrared imaging to detect sleep quality=no contact with patient’s body=comfortable.
- Ayurveda’s terms/principles/concepts are not effectively related to modern scientific biology and medicine.
- Therefore, DST promotes basic research to proof biological basis of Ayurvedic treatment and thus establish Ayurveda’s effects at international level.
- with help of full participation of scientists and Ayurvedic experts
- for use in children with clubfeet (who have been corrected by any surgical or casting method)
- for maintenance of correction of deformity.
- Allows greater degree of freedom+comfort to child while wearing the brace.
(became too clichéd)
- The Drug and Pharmaceutical Research Programme (DPRP)=for Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives in drug research.
- under this DRPA=> new anti malaterial drug Synriam developed by Ranbaxy via PPP route.
- Synriam contains
- Arterolane maleate 150mg
- Piperaquine phosphate 750 mg
- first of its kind, a New Chemical Entity, fully developed through indigenous R&D which has reached the market place
- The drug has been launched for global market
- Will decrease cost of treatment.
|Amphomul||by Bharat Serum for Kala Azar|
|Anaemia||DST supporting Directly Observed Home Based Daily Iron Therapy to reduce anemia among young women in rural india|
- can be used for artificial organ transplant.
- but very expensive.
- DST supporting project to manufacture biodegradable polymers using microbes, agricultural and forest resources.
- herbal supplement for blood sugar management using Cinnamon Extract (Dalchini)
- introduced in the international market in 2010.
|compact liquid nitrogen Plant|
- DST funding indigenous development of low cost liquid nitrogen plant ( 7 liter/hr. capacity)
- they can be used for Biological material preservation (e.g. sperm banks/ stem cells), food & nutrition, and a variety of small scale industrial application
- for arsenic detection in drinking water
|fungisome||for Kala Azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis)|
|Glycine Max||for diabetes|
- In Vitro Diagnostic devices (IVDD)=we mostly rely on imports.
- new project to get proteins regeants from human biological waste, with help of Monoclonal Antibodies.
- this will help manufacture Indigenous IVDD (In Vitro Diagnostic Device)=low cost, affordable.
- loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique
- for the detection of Chikungunya Viral Genome
|laparoscopy and hernia|
- EndoXS= “First Indian Disposable Laparoscopy Trocar”. Low cost and disposable.
- Easymesh= Hernia repair system. Low cost and disposable.
- Even potential for Export to other developing countries because of the cost advantage.
- DST formulated a multidisciplinary programme to address and understand the cognitive deficits of Learning Disabilities in 2012.
- DST also funds of Cognitive Science like Neuroscience, Psychology, Linguistics, Bio Engineering, Social Engineering, Education, Computer technology & Artificial Intelligence etc.
- wireless interface to a multichannel EEG recording
- Useful in remote diagnosis and monitoring in everyday situations-out of the lab or clinic.
- project for indigenous technology for plastic bi-aspheric lenses (PBLs)
- These are used for indirect ophthalmoscopy of powers 20 & 28 diopters.
- projects aims for cost-effective large scale production.
- Advanced Drug Delivery for cancer drugs.
- TeleOphthalmology solution on iPhone and iPAD.
|rodents and beagle dogs||They’re used for doing drug trials. DST funding housing, breeding facilities for them.|
|Savliv||patented folklore medicine, for hepatitic disorders|
- TECHNOLOGY INTERVENTIONS FOR DISABLED AND ELDERLY (TIDE)
- for using S&T to increase quality of life for old people. Examples:
- Locator and Communicative device for Dementia Patients. Uses RFID/GSM/GPS technologies for tracking Dementia patients. SMS alert arrived on the care taker’s mobile phone when clicked, gives the location in Google maps also.
- a new technique of denture retention using dental implants
- DST supporting projects for removal of arsenic, fluoride, salinity and iron from water.
- brackish water reverse osmosis membrane @Ichhamati in West Bengal.
- Silver nanoparticle-based systems for tannery contaminated waters.
- For detecting biological samples, bio-molecules (e.g. dopamic), toxic wastes (lead, cadmium etc), Industrial effluents in ground water etc.
- can detect samples even in ultra-low concentration.
- by IIT Madras
- this product is not readily available commercially even in foreign market=export potential.
- A state-of-the-art inert atmosphere glove box system
- for doing experiments on organic, inorganic and composite material.
- testing @IIT Guwahati (designated as Center for Organic Electronics)
|Magneto-optic current sensor|
- based on Faraday effect
- to convert optical power to electrical signal and pass on to a laptop for processing
- helps measuring magnetic flux density measurement in high EMI environment
|Long Pulse Gyrotron|
- this instrument has application in nuclear fusion and plasma experiments.
|3 aims||4 areas|
- energy efficient
- cost effective solutions
- Roads and Traffic Engineering,
- Bridges and Fly-overs
- Civil Construction Materials.
Let’s check some progress supported by DST (Department of Science and Technology)
- A new material in Civil Engineering
- energy efficient.
- From farm soils, using Charuzyme microbes.
- Semi-automated brick molding machine with capacity of 10,000 bricks per day.
- Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) panels/ IIT Madras.
- These panels made from processed phospho-gypsum (recycled industrial waste from fertilizer industries).=ecofriendly.
- Minimizes the use of cement, steel, river sand and water=sustainable Development.
- Cheap in price+helps rapid construction = Affordable Mass Housing.
- projects to upgrade glass quality to meet international standards.
- These Glasses have low thermal expansion, high durability, donot crack easily.
|KOTA STONE WASTE|
- Kota stone= in Rajasthan
- Kota Stone units generate huge amount of waste in the form of broken pieces, dust and slurry= pollution.
- project to use kota stone waste in Flooring and wall tiles.
- U.S.-India Joint Centre for Advanced HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) and lighting technologies, Thermal comfort etc.
- to monitor the physical parameters of building using wireless technology
- helps in disaster preparedness, testing structural strength of building.
- for rural artisans doing metal work.
- uses LPG instead of solid fuel (wood, coal etc)=>reduced emissions
- Better control of the heating rate through easy regulation of LPG and air flow.
- No need of electricity for operating the furnace except during start-up.
- tested by IIT Delhi.
- Continuous Induction Furnace (CONTIFUR) Technology
- Technology for Production of Steel
- Utilizes ore waste, non-coking coal for steel production =conservation of resources.
|EYE ON PELLET|
- Pelletization=process by which iron ore fines converted to spherical balls.
- usually human supervisor monitors this process by manually observing the size-shape of those balls=chances of error.
- Eye on Pellet= indigenously developed instrument with camera. It monitors the pellet size, helps the supervisor.
|Membrane separation system|
- for textile industry to reduce pollution by recycling developed at Synthetic & Art Silk Mills’ Research Association (SASMIRA)
|Table Top Light Fastness Testers|
- Light Fastness Tester = used to determine the color fastness and degradation of textiles and dyed material against sunlight.
- Table top light fastness testers =small, portable, handy and accurate.
- by Synthetic & Art Silk Mills’ Research Association (SASMIRA)
|E-pick Counter for powerloom|
- Normally, in any powerloom, the manufacturer will come to know about the production quality only after 2-3 days i.e. after removal of fabrics from the loom. = not good for quality control.
- The E-pick instrument will provide online details related to production of machine and defects in fabric to the user on real time basis
|Fabric Friction Tester|
- instrument is designed to simulate the movement of human fingers over fabric to sense the roughness/smoothness/slipperiness
- will help in textile quality control.
- by IIT Delhi + Department of Textile Technology
|Fungi-dye||dye production from selected micro fungi Curvularia, Phoma, Pestalotiopsis|
will help in industrial textile dyes.
- Handheld portable methanometer
- display the methane gas concentration
|Portable gas mixture analyser|
- portable sensor collects gas data, forwards to laboratory via internet=>chromatography machine at the lab, analyses the data and finds gas mixture composition.
- this will provide a reliable result within a few minutes whether any toxic gas is present or not inside the manhole and if so, it will alarm the workers.
|Next Gen Networks|
- joint collaboration between India and UK
- Phase 2 started from 2012 mainly concentrating on three broad areas i.e.
- Heterogenous Wireless Access Networks (HELNET)
- Application and Services
- Core Networks Systems
|Modular Tablet PC|
- by two young IITians- Sh. Rohan Pandey and Sh. Rohit Rathi.
- Their Tablet PC is differentiated from other similar product in the market as it integrates ZigBee along with WiFi, Bluetooth and 3G.
- designed like a book: and it has 2 displays, one in front like a Magazine and another on the spine to show secondary information.
- cost Rs.~12000
- Organic light-emitting devices (OELD)
- Use? next generation of flat panel displays. Wide viewing angles, high color contrast, and low power consumption as compared to LCD displays.
- waste from electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE)
- DST helping Life cycle analysis & strategies to reduce the environmental impact of electronic waste.
- Biometric Based Unique Key Generation for Authentic Digital Watermarking.
- Low temperature Co-fired Ceramic
- useful multilayer ceramic fabrication technology
- for compact multilayer circuits, 3D microwave circuit and packaging of such devices.
|Eko: Branchless banking|
- Branchless Banking
- Eko= low-cost payment infrastructure to enable instant small value financial transactions over a mobile phone.
- Eko uses existing retail shops, telecom connectivity and banking infrastructure to extend branchless banking services to the common man
- Virtual Reality based skills training SIMULATOR
- for skill development of maintenance technicians across industries, particularly aircraft and defense equipment.
- National Centre for Aerospace Innovation and Research (NCAIR)
- setup at IIT Bombay in collaboration with the Boeing Company.
- for design and development of commercial scale aviation technologies, alloys, materials.
following plasma processes are environment friendly, eliminate the use of hazardous chemical/machineries.
- eco-friendly plasma system to coat brass articles.
- eco-friendly protective coating for wood crafts using plasma treatment
|Tyre||Plasma tech for cutting machinery in tyre industry.|
|Wool||@Kullu, first industrial scale system is the world for Angora wool processing using plasmas.|
MISSION ON NANO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY by DST in 2007.
- promotes basic research
- develops infra
- HRD (M.Sc./M.Tech in Nano Science & Technology)
- collaborates with international agencies/foreign countries
- PETRA/FLASH projects with Germany
- Beamline project with Japan
- Nano drug delivery systems for
- Treating bone-disease in women.
- delivering anti-retroviral drugs to HIV infected cells;
- colon diseases
- cancer cells
- Jasad bhasma: Used as antiseptic. And Nanotech will increase its therapeutic effect.
- Gold nanoparticles can be used to catalyse organic reactions.
- FA-SPIONs: Folic Acid Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Help in cancer treatment.
- nano structured electrode materials for increasing life of lithium rechargeable batteries.
- Graphene based Nano composites=water purification.