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[Download] Psychology Mains 2013 Paper 1 & Paper 2 for UPSC Civil Service IAS IPS Exam Optional Subject Paper with analysis, strategy, studyplan

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What's New?नया क्या है?
  1. Working on Budget,Eco. survey summaries
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Question paper given in the appendix. First the analysis of 2013’s psychology optional Paper By Ms.Swagata Tarafdar

  1. Analysis: Paper 1
  2. Analysis Paper-2
  3. Appendix: Question paper of 2013
    1. Psychology Paper 1: Section A
    2. Psychology Paper I: Section B
    3. Psychology Paper 2 Section A
    4. Psychology Paper II Section B

Psychology for UPSC Mains,

Analysis: Paper 1

Similar structure of the question paper like last year. Question no. 1 and 5 compulsory, 5 questions in Question no. 1 and 5 each, each will have to be answered in not more than 150 words. Three are to be attempted choosing at least one from each section. Here also, each question will have to be answered either in not more than 250×3=750 words, or in not more than 400×2=800 words, just like previous year’s Question paper.

One question is of similar nature compared to the question paper of 2012:

In 2012, UPSC asked: “Evaluate various factors which influence intrinsic motivation.”

In 2013, UPSC asked: “What is intrinsic motivation? Why it gets reduced if the person gets external rewind for undertaking a task that he or she loves?”

Now, a topic-wise comparison of the question paper with the previous year’s question paper:

2013 2012
Few questions from the topics “Methods of Psychology” and “Research Methods”:

Ethnocentrism, ‘effect size’ and ‘statistical power’, observation and dimensions of participation in observational research.

Too many questions from these seemingly difficult topics:

Question writing in survey research, sampling error and error in sampling, t-test, IRT, McCrary Hunter invariance hypothesis.

Few straight questions from the topic “Development of Human Behaviour”.

How do genes affect development?

developmental challenges faced by adolescents in the cognitive and social domains, which is very much similar to the question asked in 2011, role of parenting style, peer group and media in identity formation during adolescence.

Bowlby and Anisworth researches, which requires in-depth study of the topic.

Vygotsky asked for the first time in UPSC.

Epigenetic model only in short questions.
From the topic “Learning”,

Reinforcement schedules

Reinforcement topic was asked in 2012 too:

Primary and secondary reinforcements.

From the topic “Memory”,

Factor that contribute to the encoding of information into LTM, like the question asked in 2011, “How the principles of encoding help enhancing the use of mnemonic devices?”

Modal model of STM.

Comparison of Sterling’s and Neisser’s experiments in sensory memory.
From the topic “Emotion”,

Role of left and right hemispheres in emotion asked for the first time in UPSC.

Direct questions from the same topic,

Measurement of emotion, effect of emotion on behavior, facial expression of emotion.

Now, the lists of books, materials and websites that will help in Psychology Paper-1:

  1. NCERT Psychology Textbooks of classes XI and XII.
  2. Introduction to Psychology: Morgan & King
  3. Psychology: Robert A. Baron
  4. Introduction to Psychology: Hilgard, Atkinson, Atkinson
  5. General Psychology: S K Mangal
  6. Psychology: The Study of Human Behaviour: B K Mishra
  7. E-gyankosh
  8. www.numerons.in
  9. List of important topics in Psychology by Ghamshyam Thori, IAS: http://www.scribd.com/doc/181922844/Chapterwise-Important-Topics-in-Psychology-pdf

Next, I have done a detailed question-wise analysis of the question paper and the relevant references that need to be followed to answer the questions.

Question 1: Answer the following, each in not more than 150 words. 10×5=50 marks

  1. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to the study of psychological phenomena.

Can be answered from NCERT’s class XI textbook of Psychology. The first chapter “What is Psychology?” discusses this topic under the headings of The Cognitive Revolution and Cognitive Approach. Sufficient content to write 150 words. Present in Morgan & King’s book also in the first chapter What Psychology is Like.

  1. What is ethnocentrism? How is it reflected in psychological research?

Haven’t found satisfactory answer to this question in any standard book of psychology. However, you can follow the following link to get an answer to this question:

www.cambridge.org/us/download_file/158730

jocelynwells.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/ethnocentrism-worksheet.doc

  1. What factors contribute to the encoding of information into LTM?

Can be answered by a thorough reading of Morgan & King’s chapter on Memory.

  1. How do genes affect development?

Can be answered from S K Mangal’s book. This topic is present in the chapter on Heredity and Environment under the heading The role of genes in sufficient detail to write 150 words on the topic.

  1. Describe different reinforcement schedules and indicate their effects on the strength of learning.

Discussed in Baron’s Psychology in detail with diagrams.

Question 2: Answer each in not more than 250 words :15+20+15

  1. What do you understand by ‘effect size’ and ‘statistical power’? Explain their significance.

Haven’t found in standard book on psychology. You can listen to the lecture on this topic by clicking the following link:

http://www.nyu.edu/academics/open-education/coursesnew/stats-behavior-science/Stats-Behav-Science-lecture10.html

This link is also very useful:

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ShmNdm0bwJsC&pg=PT215&lpg=PT215&dq=effect+size+and+statistical+power+in+psychology+statistics&source=bl&ots=erxGptLFld&sig=8Ty8TyivhfUXVIAEhRG16ihSG20&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Ku-2UqHDH8bMrQex5oCQBg&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=effect%20size%20and%20statistical%20power%20in%20psychology%20statistics&f=false

  1. Discuss the importance of early relationship for developmental outcomes in the light of researches by Bowlby and Anisworth.

Topic mentioned in Morgan & King’s book in the chapter Development During Infancy and Childhood under the heading Social Development, sub-heading Attachment. Although it talks of researches by Bowlby and his colleagues. Baron’s book also mentions research by Bowlby. Ainsworth’s name is mentioned for just one time under Attachment in the chapter Social and Emotional Development: Forming Relationships with Others.

  1. Compare template matching and feature detection accounts of pattern recognition.

Pattern detection is there in Baron’s book in the chapter on perception.

Question 3: Answer the following, each in not more than 400 words. 25+25

  1. The discipline of psychology has grown and developed through debate between those who held that it should be modelled on natural science and those who subscribed to the view that it has to follow the model of social science. What arguments you envision for or against these views? What position you would like to endorse and why?

Topic directly from NCERT’s Psychology textbook of class XI. Sufficient content to write 400 words.

  1. Bring out the key developmental challenges faced by adolescents in the cognitive and social domains.

Present in standard Psychology book. Can be answered following NCERT, Morgan & King or Baron.

Question 4: Answer the following, each in not more than 250 words: 15+20+15

  1. Why our representations of the external world are not entirely accurate?

Can be found in any standard book on psychology, the chapter is perception.

  1. Describe and evaluate the modal model of short-term memory.

Atkinson and Shiffrin is called the modal model. Though Atkinson and Shiffrin model is elaborately discussed in Morgan & King’s book, it is nowhere mentioned that it is called the modal model.

  1. Describe the basic elements of observation and bring out the implications of the dimension of participation in observational research.

There is an entire chapter devoted to Observation Method in e-gyankosh. It has sufficient content on Participant observation to write 250 words on the topic.

Question 5: Answer each in 150 words. 10 x 5 =50

  1. What is the situational critique of trait psychology?

Can be answered from Mishra’s book on Psychology. Copy-pasting from the chapter on “Personality”…

“Our situations are dynamic in nature, and, therefore, if the situation varies the consistency of behavioural characteristics may also change. Such variations make the behavioural traits unstable or inconsistent.”

  1. Explain Sternberg’s view of intelligence and bring out its implication for schooling.

Discussed in NCERT’s textbook of Class XII.

  1. Every function in the child’s development appears twice : first on social level and later. on the individual level.” Vygotsky. Discuss the above statement and indicate your own position on this proposition.

Have been discussed in NCERT’s textbook of Class XI.

  1. What are the process of language production?

Discussed in NCERT’s textbook of Class XI.

  1. How do novices differ from experts?

The difference with respect to language production can be answered from NCERT’s textbook of Class XI.

Question 6: Answer the following, each in not more than 250 words :15+20+15

  1. Bring out the role of left and right hemispheres in emotional experience.

Discussed in detail in Baron’s book on psychology. The topic is directly from syllabus: Physiological basis of emotion.

  1. What is intrinsic motivation? Why it gets reduced if the person gets external rewind for undertaking a task that he or she loves?

Discussed in detail in Mishra’s book on psychology in the chapter on “Motivation” under the heading of “Intrinsic and Extrinsic framework of Motivation”.

  1. Explain correspondence bias. Is it universal or culturally variable?

Directly from Baron’s book on psychology. The topic is mentioned explicitly in the syllabus: “Theories of Attribution”.

Question 7: Answer the following each in more than 400 words :25+25

  1. What is the role of social categorization in the formation of prejudice? Suggest some strategies to reduce prejudice.

Social categorization in the origin of prejudice have been discussed in Baron’s book on psychology. The strategies to reduce prejudice is also there in the same chapter “Social Thought and Social Behaviour”.

  1. How the psychoanalytic view differs from physiological or cognitive view of dream?

Psychoanalytic, physiological and cognitive views on sleep are discussed in Baron’s book on psychology in the chapter “States of Consciousness”.

Question 8: Answer the following. each in not more than 250 words: 15+20+15

  1. What are the requirements to be met by psychological assessment tools for offering accurate and useful measure of psychological constructs?
  2. What makes a persuasive attempt effective? Discuss.

From Baron’s book, the chapter is “Social Thought and Social Behaviour”.

  1. Describe the Indian approach to personality as reflected in the principle of three Gunas.

Trigunas discussed in NCERT’s textbook on psychology of class XII, in the chapter “Self and Personality”, under type approaches. “The Indian approach to personality” is explicitly mentioned in the syllabus.

Analysis: PAPER-II

Again, similar structure like last year.

Now, the lists of books, materials and websites that will help in Psychology Paper-1:

  1. NCERT Psychology Textbooks of classes XII.
  2. Abnormal Psychology: Coleman
  3. Educational Psychology: Mangal
  4. Applied Psychology: Smarak Swain
  5. E-gyankosh
  6. www.numerons.in
  7. List of important topics in Psychology by Ghamshyam Thori, IAS: http://www.scribd.com/doc/181922844/Chapterwise-Important-Topics-in-Psychology-pdf

Applied Psychology by Smarak Swain is the best book for Paper-II. All the topics are covered in sufficient detail. You can consult other books and materials as and when needed. Though personally I think this one book will suffice.

All the questions asked in this year’s question can be answered from this one book. So I am not doing a question-wise analysis here.

Wish you all the best for your endeavour!

-Swagata Tarafdar

Appendix: Question paper of Psychology Mains 2013

  • skeleton remains same as earlier: two sections, attempt five out of eight questions, question #1 and #5 compulsory
  • And out of the remaining, any three are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each section.
  • 250 marks, 3 hours for each paper.

Psychology Paper 1: Section A

Question 1: Answer the following, each in not more than 150 words. 10×5=50 marks

  1. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to the study of psychological phenomena.
  2. What is ethnocentrism? Bow is it reflected in psychological research?
  3. What factors contribute to the encoding of information into LTM?
  4. How flow of genes affect development?
  5. Describe different reinforcement schedules and indicate their effects on the strength of learning.

Question 2: Answer each in not more than 250 words :15+20+15

  1. What do you understand by ‘effect size’ and ‘statistical power’? Explain their significance.
  2. Discuss the importance of early relationship l’or developmental outcomes in the light of researches by Bowlby and Anisworth.
  3. Compare template matching and feature detection accounts of pattern recognition.

Question 3: Answer the following, each in not more than 400 words. 25+25

  1. The discipline of psychology has grown and developed through debate between those who held that it should be modelled on natural science and those who subscribed to the view that it has to follow the model of social science. What arguments you envision for or against these views? What position you would like to endorse and why?
  2. Bring out the key developmental challenges faced by adolescents in the cognitive and social domains.

Question 4: Answer the following, each in not more than 250 words: 15+20+15

  1. Why our representations of the external world are not entirely accurate?
  2. Describe and evaluate the modal model of short-term memory.
  3. Describe the basic elements of observation and bring out the implications of the dimension of participation in observational research.

Psychology Paper I: Section B

Question 5: Answer each in 150 words. 10 x 5 =50

  1. What is the situational critique of trait psychology?
  2. Explain Sternberg’s view of intelligence and bring out its implication for schooling.
  3. Every function in the child’s development appears twice : first on social level and later. on the individual level.” Vygotsky. Discuss the above statement and indicate your own position on this proposition.
  4. What are the process of language production?
  5. How do novices differ from experts?

Question 6: Answer the following, each in not more than 250 words :15+20+15

  1. Bring out the role of left and right hemispheres in emotional experience.
  2. What is intrinsic motivation? Why it gets reduced if the person gets external rewind for undertaking a task that he or she loves?
  3. Explain correspondents’ bias. Is it universal or culturally variable?

Question 7: Answer the following each in more than 400 words :25+25

  1. What is the role of social categorization in the formation of prejudice? Suggest some strategies to reduce prejudice.
  2. How the psychoanalytic view differs from physiological or cognitive view of dream?

Question 8: Answer the following. each in not more than 250 words: 15+20+15

  1. What are the requirements to be met by psychological assessment tools for offering accurate and useful measure of psychological constructs?
  2. What makes a persuasive attempt effective? Discuss.
  3. Describe the Indian approach to personality as reflected in the principle of three Gunas.

Psychology Paper 2 Section A

Question 1: Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 10 x 5 =50m

  1. How will you ensure that a newly constructed personnel selection test measures that it purports to measure and predicts what it intends to predict? Explain.
  2. Reflect on the major issues and contradictions related to the understanding of well-being. Discuss with reference to current social trends.
  3. How would you identify gifted children? Explain with examples.
  4. Discuss the steps that can be taken to improve the quality of group decision-making.
  5. India rates very high on carbon emission. What use can be made of psychological knowledge to reduce the level of carbon emission in India?

Question 2: Answer the following questions in about 200 words each: 15+15+20

  1. What is your understanding of organizational politics? Discuss how it impacts decision-making processes in bureaucratic organizations.
  2. Discuss the psychological implications of the ‘glass ceiling’ effect from the perspective of an administrator.
  3. Reflecting on the status of education in India, state whether it can help in reducing the gap which has been experienced due to social inequality.

Question 3: Answer the following questions in about 200 words each.15+20+15

  1. Discuss the relative efficacy of psycho-social and community-based rehabilitation models in case of the physically challenged.
  2. Identify relevant indices for understanding the emergence of ingroup and outgroup processes. Discuss with the help of a suitable theoretical framework.
  3. Discuss the key determinants of consumer behaviour in India. How do cultural values influence it?

Question 4: Answer the following questions in about 200 words each. 15+20+15

  1. What psychological approach/approaches can be used to persuade those who oppose family planning on religious grounds?
  2. Identify the factors in arousal of community consciousness and also the
  3. strategies for handling social problems keeping in view some of the recent protest movements in India.
  4. What are the necessary conditions required in client-centred therapy? Discuss the therapeutic process involved in it.

Psychology Paper II Section B

Question 5: Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 10 x 5 =50

  1. Discuss how the psychological training given to sports persons can be useful for administrators with reference to maintaining team spirit and group morale.
  2. How can psychological resilience of the personnel of the armed forces be enhanced? Discuss.
  3. Discuss how cognitive and motivational factors influence entrepreneurial behaviour.
  4. How can psychological principles be used to conserve water? Develop a plan.
  5. Define ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’. Can it affect the students’ performance belonging to special categories?

Question 6: Answer the following questions in about 200 words each: 20+15+15

  1. Discuss the relative significance of group factors versus personality factors in explaining the behaviour of terrorists.
  2. Identify the ethical and non-ethical uses of psychological tests especially measuring individual differences. Provide suitable examples.
  3. What bases of power are used by successful leaders to exercise influence within organizations? Discuss.

Question 7: Answer the following questions in about 200 words each: 15 + 20+15

  1. What lessons can be drawn from psychological research to promote gender equality in the workplace?
  2. What explanations are offered by psychological theories about the manner in which media influences antisocial behavior?
  3. Discuss the influences of information technology in modifying the career perspectives of young adults with special reference to the values of life.

Question 8: Answer the following questions in about 200 words each: 20+15+15

  1. Reflect on the possibility of fostering positive mental health through indigenous therapies along with cultural practices.
  2. Is religion in India at the root of social conflicts? Discuss and provide suitable ways to deal with such conflicts.
  3. “Poverty alleviation is a dream spread with ulterior motives.” Do you agree? Justify your views.

Mrunal’s Recommended Booklist

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अब तक 43 कमेंट्स लिखी गयी

  1. Bipin says:

    Sir,
    Waiting for Mathematics paper..

  2. khushboo says:

    Sir,maims pprs r concluded in how many days?

  3. gaurav says:

    Sir, plese give the detail analysis of history optional.It will be very helpful.

  4. upsccse says:

    sir pls upload sociology papers

  5. pawan says:

    sir kindly provide chemistry papers thanks

  6. Alpesh says:

    Please provide mechanical optional papers too…

  7. sandip says:

    pl give detail analysis of psychology paper and preparation for suitable textbook and journal.

    • Devangi says:

      Hey do you have psychology as your optional?

      • Ameesh says:

        I am preparing with psychology as optional. pls put a detailed analysis of Psychology paper

        • Vinuth says:

          i’m confused with psychology and Pub.ad. Which one to choose? can anyone help me.I heard that psycho optional has very less syllabus. So if that is the case then i can give more time on GS which is the game changer. Pls advice us on this.

          • steve says:

            I feel that anyone should choose optional based on your interest and ability…. I personally read basic NCERT’s and an introductory book to know which optional was suitable for me…

            Moreover, I think Optional will be a game changer… I think with the kind of GS papers UPSC has set this year, everyone will receive average marks in GS….

            As for Psychology, it is a scientific subject.. Perspective is usually scientific. I found it interesting because you understand so much about yourself and others behaviour… You should read basic books like NCERT first… then go into Morgan&King and other books….

            Any optional requires in-depth study.. So you may as well end-up giving equal importance to both GS and Optional….

        • dca says:

          u cn begin with NCERTs first, then go for Baron….read it religiously as many times as u can, for 2nd paper smarak swain is gud n adequate if u ask me, besides Google out the residual topics….this i wd say is optimum package to get through if u develop a good understanding of the subject coupled with a good writing skill….enough to make a dent.

  8. aspirant says:

    hey guys,
    how did psychology exam went?I felt little difficulty in 1st paper.2nd paper was more of a general one..

    • dca says:

      buddy both paper ws easy, comparatively 2nd one ws easier.

      • aspirant_1 says:

        I could attempt only 190 in 1st paper,

        • dca says:

          Dear I attempted 240 in first, n 250 in 2nd..bt smwhere i compromised with the quality of the answers a little, as no writing practice hv i done earlier so time management posed a challenge..

          • Anonymous says:

            Hi. How much supportive were Mukul Pathak Sir’s notes this time round? If anyone can tell me here.

    • vinn says:

      HI…
      KITNA MARKS AAYA IN PSYCHOLOGY?

  9. indrajeet says:

    dear sir please ask any aspirant have civil engg paper

  10. AYAJ ALI says:

    HELLO SIR THANX A LOT FOR HELP…BT PLZ POST MAINS 2013 SOCIOLOGY PAPER 1 ND PAPER2

  11. Devangi says:

    Thankyou so much Sir!!

  12. Rohit says:

    Friends psychology optional buddies let’s connect/share resources at this facebook group
    https://www.facebook.com/groups/upsciaspsychology/
    Kindly comment if other such ‘self-help groups’ are there with their URLs..thanks

  13. sandip says:

    yes . i have psychology optional
    .

    is it good or bad..?

  14. Zia says:

    Economics Please :(

  15. Abhinav says:

    Does anyone have any idea about which coaching institute to join for psychology??
    Also please suggest about the books that I need for proper studies.
    I am a newbie, please help in this regard

  16. Abhinav says:

    Just forgot to mention that I want info. about Delhi institutes

  17. Om Prakash says:

    What does it mean by —- “Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order.” ?
    Does it mean that I have to answer the questions serially as 1,2,3,4,5 in stead of 2,3,1,4,5 or 3,2,4,5,1 ?

  18. indrajeet says:

    i have psychology as my optional,appeared for mains 2013….anyone with the same optional would like to discuss and form an online mutual help group kindly comment here…i seriously need help on this.

  19. Anju says:

    Hi Mrunal,
    I am an Engineering graduate and preparing for 2014. Is it okay to take Psychology as optional? Please suggest some study materials other than NCERT
    Thanks in advance

  20. sandip says:

    pl send question and answer of psychology paper of upsc.

  21. rajat says:

    hi, thx for psycho paper analysis
    but i m more concerned about paper 2. Since i found it difficult to put in psychological perspectives in some questions like-
    -Discuss the influences of information technology in modifying the career perspectives of young adults special reference to the values of life
    “Poverty alleviation is a dream spread with ulterior motives.” Do you agree? Justify your views.
    Reflecting on the status of education in India, state whether it can help in reducing the gap which has been experienced due to social inequality.

    can some1 putin their point of view??

  22. vinn says:

    friends.
    as marks are out…

    psychology mei kitne kitne aaye ?

    please share.

  23. vinn says:

    @ Swagata Tarafdar

    NICE WORK.
    Did you also write the mains exam?

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