[Download] Public Administration Mains 2013 Paper 1 & Paper 2 for UPSC Civil Service IAS IPS Exam

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  1. Prologue
  2. PubAd.Paper 1: Section A
    1. Questions 1 (Compulsory)
    2. Question 2
    3. Question 3
    4. Question 4
  3. PubAd Paper I: Section B (Question 5 to 8)
    1. Question 5 (Compulsory)
    2. Question 6
    3. Question 7
    4. Question 8
  4. PubAd.Paper II Section A
    1. Question 1 (Compulsory)
    2. Question 2
    3. Question 3
    4. Question 4
  5. PubAd.Paper 2: Section B
    1. Question 5 (Compulsory)
    2. Question 6
    3. Question 7
    4. Question 8

Prologue

  • UPSC comes with new word limits here: 10 marks = 150 words and 20 marks = 250 words. There is one question worth 30 marks- but word limit not mentioned.
  • Gandhi Prem continues here also. (in paper II)

The Question Paper ‘skeleton’ remains same like earlier i.e.

  • Eight Questions in two sections (A and B)
  • Candidate has to attempt five questions.
  • Question #1 and #5 are compulsory.
  • Out of the remaining, pick any three- but choose at least one from each section.

Detailed analyses later, Let’s check papers: each with 250 marks and 3 hours’ time limit.

PubAd.Paper 1: Section A

Questions 1 (Compulsory)

Answer the following, questions in not more than 150 words each. 5 questions x 10 marks each.

  1. How did the traditional Public Administration resolve the fundamentally irresolvable problem- creating an administration strong enough to be effect but not strong enough to endanger accountability?
  2. The theory of organizational incompetence has two separate and distinct faces. Examine Chris Argyris’ views on this
  3. In the globalized Public Administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves. Comment
  4. Public Administration in the neo-liberal era is government less by the instruments of accountability and more by those of external accountability Elaborate
  5. Discuss the views that “tribunals should have the same degree of independence from the  Executive as that enjoyed by the supreme court and high courts, especially for those tribunals that look over the functions of high courts.

Question 2

  1. New Public Administration may have neither been the savior its enthusiasts promised, nor the devil its critics worried it would be. Discuss. (25 marks | word limit not mentioned)
  2. “The design of physical structures, the anatomy of the organization came first, and was indeed the principle consideration.” “An organization is a system of interrelated social behaviors of participants” Analyses these statements and evaluate the contribution of the respective approach to Administrative theory. (25 marks | word limit not mentioned)

Question 3

  1. Decisions are not made by organizations, but by human beings behaving as the members of organizations. How do Bernard and Herbert A. Simon conceptualize the relation between decision of the individual employee and the organizational authority? 20 marks
  2. A variety of different organizational arrangement can be used to provide different public goods and services. Example the theory underlying this proposition and its potential contribution. 15 marks.
  3. What is the nature of psychological contract persued by organizational management through authority and employees through exertion of upward influence? 15

Question 4

  1. Structure theory is by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. Explain. 25 marks
  2. Public interest is still inadequate as a ground concept to evaluate public policy. Discuss. 25 marks.

PubAd Paper I: Section B (Question 5 to 8)

Question 5 (Compulsory)

Answer all five, in not more than 150 words each. 10 marks x 5 = 50 marks.

  1. Comparative Public Administration both resembles and differs from modern organization theory. elaborate
  2. In organizational analysis, there is always gender around (Gouldner). Argue
  3. What is Administrative elitism? How does it evolve in Public Administration? elaborate your response with reference to historical examples
  4. The success of e-government projects in most developing countries s is state to be rather low. Assess the reason.
  5. What new models of budgetary capacity and incapacity have emerged after the decline of planning programming budgeting and zero based budgeting?

Question 6

  1. “For those who use the euphemism of ‘shared power’ for participation, the appropriate literature for guidance is practical politics and not organization and Management.” “Stronger state and strong civil society are the need to develop both participatory democracy and responsive government as mutually reinforcing and supportive.” Bring out the myths and realities associate with public participation. 20 marks
  2. “….in most cases….newly independent states, of the nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America, despite their differences…are in transition.” (Ferrel Heady). What common features are indicative of characteristics of their Administrative patterns (cultures)? 15m
  3. “To talk about the regulatory framework is to talk about short governance.” Analyze the statement in the context of public private partnership and identify the elements of regulation. 15m

Question 7

  1. Economic reforms are a work in progress, with the state reluctant to fully relinquish its reins. Discussion the statement with regard to implementation of economic reforms in India . 15
  2. “the policy process was not structured in the way required by bureaucratic planning.”  “Arguably, instrumentalism now stands most in contrast to neo liberal nationality  that impose market against both gradual change and democratic liberalism.” analyses these two statements. 20 marks.
  3. Budget allocations involves series of tensions between actors with different backgrounds, orientations and interests and between the short term goals and long term institutional requirements. Discuss. 15 marks

Question 8

Q8a. Read following instances carefully and suggest what specific perspectives on organizational psychology of motivation would help the concerned organization to reconcile the needs of the following four persons with the needs of organization:  30m

  1. Mr.A comes to his office with clocklike punctuality; does his work with impeccable honesty and integrity; takes orders from above gladly; responds well to overtures by peers; but neither mixes with anyone himself nor seeks anyone’s company. what is more, he seem quite happy in his isolation.
  2. Mr.B is an efficient charge hand at the welding shop. He is very outgoing and makes friends fast, but falls out with them very fast too. He is, however, easily pacified when anyone asks him to calm down in the name of the organization.
  3. Mr.C is completely happy and absorbed when he is teaching in the classes, and doesn’t at all mind when is workload gets heavier and covers new areas. But he gets angry when the finance section raises objection about his medical bills; and is furious that the higher administration is yet to give him full tenure.
  4. Mr.D is a metallurgist in the forge shop of the steel plan, and has received honors for his innovativeness in modifying conventional alloys. He also paints well and values his painting skills far more than his metallurgy and is extremely unhappy that company house journal did not finally carry his water sketch on its front cover.

Q8b. Suppose the government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley girded by forests and inhibited by ethnic communities. What rational techniques of policy analysis should it resorts to for coping with likely uncertainties and unforeseen contingencies.

End of paper 1, here comes paper 2

Same instructions for Paper two i.e. 5 out of 8, Q1 and 5 compulsory, attempt remaining three from any section but atleast one from each section.

PubAd.Paper II Section A

Question 1 (Compulsory)

Attempt following about 150 words each. 10 marks x 5 = 50m

  1. The charter act of 1853 marked the beginning of parliamentary system in India. Explain
  2. Civil service neutrality is founded on the application of the principles of rule of law. Comment
  3. The second generation reforms in Panchayati Raj institution have changed Panchayats from an agency of Development at local level into a political institution. comment
  4. Finance commission in India performs the job of statistics aggregation. comment
  5. Planning enables comprehensive and scientific understanding of problems. Examine the statement in context of planning methodology.

Question 2

  1. Bureaucratic agencies, characterized by established procedures, specialization, leadership, clean objectives, are not ideal to handle disaster Management. examine with reference to the need for Administrative flexibility in managing disasters. (20 marks | 250 words)
  2. The liberal -democratic ideology of the west influenced in shaping of value premises of the Indian Constitution. Discuss.  (20 marks | 250 words)
  3. Autonomy to public sector undertakings is a myth. Analyze in the context of the use of government Expenditure by politicians to control governments at different levels. (10 marks | 150 words)

Question 3

  1. Laws are enacted without involving police in the conception stage, with the result implementation of these laws leaves much to be desired. Examine the role of police in protection of children. (10 marks | 150 words)
  2. Central Secretariat is the nodal agency for administering the union subjects and establishing coordination among the various activities of government discuss. (20 marks | 250 words)
  3. Is there is need to dispense with the office of the governor? Examine in the context of coalition governments. (10m | 150w)

Question 4

  1. “There is a tendency of centralism in Indian federalism, but it is not because of its institutional framework but because of its socialist goals and centrally devised plan development.”  explain the statement in the context of union-state relationships (20m|250w)
  2. Use of information and communication technology in Panchayat’s function enhances efficiency, transparency and accountability and also induces mass ICT culture. Examine (20m|250w)
  3. Judicial review of administrative tribunal’s decision defeats the very objective of establishing tribunals. Comment with reference to central Administrative tribunal. (10m|150w)

PubAd.Paper 2: Section B

Question 5 (Compulsory)

Attempt following about 150 words each. 10 marks x 5 = 50m

  1. Public Administration today tends to be less of public in quantitative terms, but more responsive to public needs than before in qualitative terms. Examine with reference to citizen centric administration
  2. Performance budgeting failed because it was applied to sectors/ programs where quantitative evaluation was not feasible. Examine the principles underlying performance budgeting techniques.
  3. The design of the Indian police was to subjugate the India n people in the aftermath of 1857. Analyze in the context of Indian police Act of 1861.
  4. Reducing the size (geographical area) of the district will provide relief to the overburdnened and overworked collector. comment
  5. The concept of social audit is more comprehensive than that of traditional audit. comment

Question 6

  1. Gandhian model of decentralization is similar to the process of reinventing governance. Analyze in the context of good governance. (20m|250 words)
  2. Accounting is the essence of producing promptly and clearly the facts relating to financial conditions and operations that are required as a basis of management. Substantiate the statement in the context of accounting methods and techniques in government (20m|250 words)
  3. Explain the important recommendations of VT Krishanamachary Committee (1952) on the Indian and State Administrative services and problems of district administration. (10m|150w)

Question 7

  1. The 73rd amendment, it is felt, may accentuate fiscal indiscipline by establishing between states and local governments a system of transfers, similar to the one in place between central and state government (world d bank) Comment (20m|250w)
  2. Municipal administration in India  faces both structural and operational challenges. examine in context of the post 74th amendment act (20m|250w)
  3. Self-help groups (SHG) have contributed to a change in the role of rural women in development from symbolic participation of empowerment (10m|150w)

Question 8

  1. There is both criminalization of politics and politicization of criminals in India . Examine and identify the challenges they cause for law and order administration. (20m|250w)
  2. The basic ethical problem of an administrator is to determine how he/she can use discretionary power in a way that is consistent with democratic values. comment with reference to corruption in administration (20m|250w)
  3. Justify the Constitutional provisions to treat certain expenditure as charged upon Consolidate fund of India  (10m|150w)

click me if you want last 34 years’ Public Administration papers (1979 to 2012).





So far 104 Comments posted

  1. Sprinkle

    I am planning to take pub ad for 2014. Thought I will see 2013 mains paper and decide to opt or not. So people who have given 2014 pub ad mains can u please tell me if this paper is considered tough or doable?
    Thanks in advance

    1. anubhav mishra

      though pub ad paper 2 is easy compared to paper 1.
      will suggest to try considering any literature subject as UPSC is hell bent on discouraging the students from taking pubad or geography as an optional.
      not good marks obtained in the mains by candidates..Also pls checklast 2 years toppers (1-20 rank)choice of optionals and u will get an idea…..
      however this opinion is particularly individualistic but request you to atlest consider it… afterall its your career…

    2. deejay

      I would advice you to seriously consider Pub ad as an optional.
      Pros.
      Pub Ad has huge overlap with GS papers.
      It is the most relevant topic for an administrator.
      It has comparatively short syllabus.
      Reading newspaper daily would cover a substantial portion for pub ad.
      Enough study material is available

      Cons.
      highest percentage of candidates opt for pub ad(though the percentage has declined from this year) and so you have to stand out to score more
      Low marks obtained (strict evaluation?) for the past 2-3 years.

      And regarding this years paper, it was definitely far far better than last years killer qns.
      It was doable provided you have enough conceptual clarity and could manage time properly.
      the paper was basically a subjective one and of general nature, so no idea about how the evaluation is goin to be.

      1. anubhav mishra

        Thats exactly how coaching people talk before submitting the fees…

        however we are not here for doing academic research in any subject or studying just for the sake of fun or knowledge…
        talking idealistic language (nothing is impossible…) and understanding practical realities of life are two completely different things..
        Also, merely attempting the questions does not convert them into good marks, specially in UPSC.

        Regards,

        1. aditya

          thanks for your detached opinion… your’re right, the coaching propaganda does get to your head inevitably…

        2. deejay

          Well, its true that coaching institutes wont give you the complete picture. But as a future administrator we should be able to comprehend what is best for our interests and disregard the bogus propaganda. You cannot blame the institutes by saying that they fooled you, the cajoled you, they pressurized you. They didn’t point any gun to your head as asked you to pay the fees. It is we who made the decision to pay those exorbitant prices and played along. And after mugging up all those rubbish facts and figures from the famous yellow or pink notes and finding UPSC paper difficult to hard to crack is no justification or consolation of our mistakes.

          You are not doing any research on any of these papers is exactly the advice that I got from one of the ‘prestigious, successful’ coaching institute from Delhi. So I did exactly the same and mugged up all the facts and data about which thinker said what, what article is what and so on. But with my experience, I can assure the other aspirants that UPSC is changing the style and format of questions. earlier you could crack this exam with enough material from those coaching institutes. But now UPSC is looking for in depth knowledge and understanding of concepts. And by in-depth knowledge I dint mean doing research on each and every point in syllabus. Instead its the conceptual clarity.
          For eg(in pure layman’s language): “Coaching institutes would teach you that India has a parliamentary form of Govt adopted from UK” and with conceptual clarity what I mean is, answers to: What is parliamentary system? Why India went for that? and why from UK? (brief answers being- In parliamentary system-executive is a part of legislature unlike the presidential system of US where executive is separated from legislature. Our constitution makers opted for accountability rather than stability, and also we were familiar with British system)

          Now a quick delve into the advantage of having this basic understanding of parliamentary system. UPSC asked “The charter act of 1853 marked the beginning of parliamentary system in India. Explain”. some may have no idea about what the charter act of 1853 is all about. But the clue to the answer is within the qn itself. You could easily write a few points like the charter act envisaged a parliamentary system where there was no strict separation of powers between executive and legislature. The Viceroy’s executive council and a system of legislature was established that gave the impetus for the future Indian nationalists demands for more elected representation in legislatures at centre and provinces and so on. (the answer may not be perfect and would fetch you the maximum marks, but still you could get 2 or 3 marks out of 10 which is far better that getting zero and leaving the qn unattempted.) These are the ways through which you can maximise your score in exams.

          Now it is true that merely attempting the qns wont fetch you any marks. the problem with 50-60% of the candidates is that they write whatever they know about the words asked in qn(especially the engineers)
          For eg: “Civil service neutrality is founded on the application of the principles of rule of law. Comment”
          The question is not about civil service neutrality nor about rule of law. One wont get any marks for writing what civil service neutrality means or what Dicey said about rule of law. Instead your approach should be to establish a link between these two concepts (if any) and substantiate it with suitable arguments or points. I’m pretty sure that 30-40% of the candidates start writing what they know about civil service neutrality or rule of law and on half way they might realise their mistake of correlating these two aspects. Some may even write exemplary answers about these two concepts and finally when the marks come they wonder what went wrong and will blame UPSC.So always decode the qn correctly and stick to what is being asked. This is the most difficult part in the CSM exam- to keep your calm and think carefully about what the qn demands and write accordingly, well within the stipulated time and space provided. And the only solution for that is to keep practicing answer writing with time check and get it evaluated.
          Regards

          1. aditya

            well, sure i agree with you but you shouldn’t discount the vulnerabilities of the candidates.
            i just went through several of the optional papers and realized that the sole criterion should be one’s eagerness to study the subject, i know i’m stating the obvious here, but in reality the decision does get marred by the prospect of ‘overlapping with GS’, ‘coaching availability’ and other ‘trends’ in the paper, the people at upsc are obviously very good at what they do (outdone us time and again), so a new comer’s sole criterion should just be ‘being good in the subject’ and nothing else.

            (personal opinion)

          2. deejay

            @ Aditya
            Exactly.. The first and foremost criterion should be your interest in the subject and your belief that you can continue the zeal of keeping the subject interesting till your name figures in the final list.

            Candidates merely think about the prospect of considering pub as an optional over maths or management or malayalam is bcoz of their intrinsic desire to opt for something related to administration (in addition to a myriad of other factors like u mentioned.)
            UPSC style qns can be solved only if you have a genuine interest in the subject. That interest would keep you wanting to know more about the subject matter, would urge you to read different books, would help you understand the concepts in relation to ground realities and help you tackle the qns effortlessly.

    3. Iron_Horse

      going by what people are saying and the way UPSC is treating Pub Ad, let me put my two cents too.I believe that one should opt for a subject in which one is most comfortable, that way you dont lose focus during the preparation and prepare upto the level UPSC expects you to. I too went for Pub Ad based on my own interest, similarities with my previous course of study, its relevance in both UPSC GS syllabus as well as its relevance later in our administrative career. And I believe UPSC is trying to send a message to everyone that it wont let coaching become the deciding factor in final selection. UPSC is asking more relevant and analytical questions. and who knows they might even scrap optionals, with people protesting for inclusion of some optional subjects ( by the way this has been suggested by the reforms committee too). So if Pub Ad interests you and you believe you can do well, go for it. The same people at one point of time used to consider certain subjects not good for optionals as their selection rate or marking was tough, but some of those subjects are giving a good number of selections in recent past. so think and choose wisely. listen to others views but do what you feel right.

  2. rohit

    guys how was pol science pper hope it was gud…planning to take for 2014..please give suggestion senior players!!

    1. integrity

      #mrunal sir what is scaling in upsc for optionals kindly explain. some papers paper 1 with history, pub adm was comparatively tough but for sociology, geography, could be attempted. kindly sir, please discuss.

      1. rohit

        but madeshan seniors are saying very tough paper…not a scoring..blah blah..plz enlighten me from these comments

  3. rakhtar

    Everything was right till today’s public administration exam. Below average first paper made me lost the second as well… How about you all?

  4. sonu kumar

    Mrunal sir, please enlighten. it seems upsc doesnot wants us to opt to PUB ad and geo(pub ad specifically). what should we do now. just stated preparation. utterly confused. need advice from everyone on this blog. Hi all please comment and guide.

  5. abhishek

    Q 7 Part 2 in paper 1 should contain the word “incrementalism” instead of “instrumentalism”….

  6. BIDHAN RAY CHAUDHURY

    Respected Sir…….
    You have done amazing work till date….I hope You will continue to do so. Sir,please upload Mathematics Optional Question Papers…..if possible.

  7. loser

    I think it takes more than half an hour to understand question paper itself.. donno how much needed to write answers without thinking. I have to look other options once..

  8. Mirror

    I feel I am doing pub ad by compulsion just cuz I took coaching and wasted my parents money. I’ll select a more science oriented optional which I love rather than doing this. Even after coaching I couldn’t answer many of the questions here, coaching is useless. I shall do everything on my own, just like I did for gs.

    1. deejay

      Hey dude…do not be disheartened. Pub ad is a fun subject to study and quite a relevant one if you are preparing for CSE. Do not rely on coaching classes. they only load you with factual content. What you need is conceptual clarity. Try to understand what each thinker says about each concept. Understand the basics of each topic and try relating it practically. for eg: accountability- Citizen charter- seen in Post office. Or Functional Foremanship- concept of supervision and so on.
      If you are clear about the concepts then paper 1 was a cakewalk. There was nothing greek or latin about the paper. From my perspective you could attend about 85% of the questions if you had thorough conceptual clarity, for which any standard books like that of Mohit Bhattacharya is more than enough. Finally, people says that these papers were tough, because the qns are very subjective in nature and hence individual answers and view points differ. It is difficult to reach a consensus on any topic other than factual qns. Look at the qns carefully. they basically ask you to comment or discuss about any given statement. What you need to do is to write down your perspective and substantiate it thoroughly. This is where you should quote the various thinkers stance or ue their ideas to your advantage.
      After a cursory reading of the coaching material, try reading various reliable books and get your concepts stronger.
      Believe in yourself and aim high..

      1. Mirror

        Deejay. Thank you for the insight :) It’s been quite a long time and I am still not confident about the paper. So having a panic attack. It’s not for the love of the subject but for convenience of materials etc. even though being from a hardcore engineering cum science background. I will think about it again. Your suggestion is right about the correlation part. Paper 2 has always been a breather for me, but the one one… Hmm. It is really critical to have a good and manageable and love for the optional paper. I hope I start loving it. Will try once managing , or else will have to take some decision.
        Thanks and Regards once again!
        Not a dude.

        1. deejay

          @ Not @ dude ;)
          The key to avoid panic attack is to forget about the other high scoring subjects, atleast for the time being (but its a fact, and we cant help worrying about it). Think about other successful candidates who made it to top with Pub Ad as their optional.If they could score high marks, why cant we? So try to think out of the box and bring in some sort of innovativeness in your answer writing (like diagrams, sub headings etc) and also by incorporating current relevant topics in your answer. For eg: In organizational analysis, there is always gender around (Gouldner). For this qn you could take points from gender budgeting,provision of Woman directors as per companies bill- 2013, Visakha Guidelines and subsequent prevention of sexual harassment at workplace bill, Women’s complaint cell in organisations, gender sensitivity training, womens bank and so on. Without relating theory to practical aspects and beating around the bush wont fetch you any marks. And finally i would suggest you to view yourself as a future administrator/bureaucrat while studying and view the stuff that you study as relevant or useful in your career. For eg: Chester Barnard- Communication: it is important for you to give attention to formal and informal mode of communication if you are the posted as a collector. Likert have told you to follow a style of participative management while managing an office by incorporating suggestions, feedback, support from workers. and so on..;)

          1. Mirror

            Deejay,
            We sure can :) As long as there is conceptual clarity, we can tackle any kind of question as upsc asks anything that is of relevance and of practical importance. I still haven’t appeared for the mains and maybe that’s the problem and the cause of skepticism after hearing that anyone takes this subject. I genuinely did have a lot of interest in public administration without knowing that people were already opting for it as I started preparing kind of far away from Delhi. It does not depend on the current overlap that everyone is talking about. The thing is whether you take any subject, whether it is anthropology, sociology, political science, philosophy or geography, the questions have elements from all of them. Leaving aside the gs part, you are right. Pub ad demands correlation and yours was good. Thanks for the help. Shall mail you if I have more queries.
            Regards !

    2. integrity

      change it man its just giving all your efforts in vain. it seems our esteemed rejection board is hell bent to select direct ias from pub adm people. this year 2 case studies (full application of theories) fundamentals. i bet even the so called gurus (hanty and thew)in the temple of dooms (TOD) {#copyright integrity} cant solve it in 3 hours. if you have craze for dont go with this optional youll land with irs irts. experience. i also didnt learn from my past mistakes. #humility required. your life your ways your optional.

  9. rahul p

    mrunal sir plz tell smthng abt liturature as a optional subjct……while lukng @ pub ad I m totally demoralized(though I was sincerely praprng for 3 months)…..plz help me to come out of this…..

    1. deejay

      because, the marks given are very low and also the questions are tougher as compared to other subjects.

        1. deejay

          @ Ankit
          Yes. There is supposed to be some sort of scaling/moderation that is used by UPSC. That is how they equalize high scoring maths and science subjects with the arts papers. But I have no idea about how they calculate this. Lets pray and hope that the normalization process is a fair one so that papers such as pub ad or socio is on the equal footing with medicine or engineering subjects.

  10. Sunny Verma

    @mrunal.. Kindly upload 2013 paper in pdf format so that we can print that in actual format.Thanks in advance.

  11. jude_lucy

    After the end of ppr 1 I felt good. it was real fun to write. marks aaye ya naa aaye, I just felt nice.

    paper 2 I could attempt only 4 questions properly the fifth question that I did was so so. kuch khaas nahi.

    paper was more public oriented than last year. It was more practical. For people who are still deciding the subject I’ll just give you one advise.

    the paper seems general. you can write on it without studying even. but that’ll not get you marks. coaching wala’s have made pud ad seem as if it’s a chaltu ppr, le lo as an optional aur khuch bhi likh dena.

    ex

    Q) Give recommendations on how should Govt. so about with LPG and how do you feel Indian companies are doing against mnc?

    A) You can write so many general stuff. And I don’t know what marks it will get. Make be you get 10 on 10. You can say they are doing very good. GDP very good, jobs created bla bla bla

    or

    you can give the streeten model, then compare Indian giants with mnc’s. Say how bajaj is doing good in Africa and tata has bought Jaguar. This is how I wrote it. Sharma and Divedi also gave about 6 or 7 points for LPG in India.

    ab marks kya aate hai I don’t know. May be I get 2 out of 10. But I would rather not give a general simple answer.

    the psychology questions were easy, I am from h.r background so I may have a biased opinion. If you know the basics of Roger’s therapy model you can do it. It would take not more than an hour to do. The problem was, lakshmikant is considered sacred and he only names the leadership theories and motivation theories,while prasad is more theory than practical application.

    #freekagyan#
    Take this as an optional,but dnt take it lightly. & most importantly take a subject that you.like. love what u do and never work another day in your.life! ( I wish I was doing what I loved :-) :-(

  12. jude_lucy

    one more thing. Although it seemed that Pub Ad optional will make ppr 3 or 4 very easy,but as you can see,there was not a very close relation. So even if ppl say pub ad le lo, g.s mein kaam aayega, then just look at the pprs and decide for.your self. “dikhwe par na jao, apni akal lagao”

  13. ravish

    i also feel that by taking Pub Ad as optional for the benefit in GS papers is not of any help, or very minuscule if any. Instead people who have taken History or Geo have surely got Straight 150 marks question in GS 1. Rest is equal for all.

    It is better to find synergy in Static GS and Optional like History or Geography rather than a dynamic subject like Pub Ad and Polity….

  14. nitesh mehta

    i m a new aspirant and confused in pud ad , pol sc & sociology …..but analysing current trend of questions and approach i think pol sc is rather interesting …… but still i m not clear …plz comment and help in pros and cons of these subs …….

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