[Budget] Interim Budget 2014: highlights, Funds, Schemes, CSIS, UDAAN, Magnivisualizer, RDB Kit, NIMZ

Economy47 Comments

India Yearbook
  1. Prologue
  2. A: The Three Funds
    1. Fund #1: Nirbhaya Fund
    2. Fund #2: Innovation @Grassroot
    3. Fund #3: Venture Capital fund for SC Entrepreneurs
  3. B: Three Schemes
    1. HRD#1: Central Scheme for Interest Subsidy CSIS
    2. HRD#2: NSDC certificate
    3. HRD#3: UDAAN
    4. One Rank one pension
  4. C: Scheme Funding: flexibility to states
  5. D: Manufacturing Sector
    1. D1: National Manufacturing Policy
    2. D2: NIMZ (Infra for Manufacturing)
    3. D3: Khadi Mark
    4. D4: National Agro Forestry Policy 2014
    5. D5: Misc. Fodder points
  6. I: Infrastructure related
  7. Banking Finance Related
  8. [GS3] Health/Science tech related
    1. #1: AV Magnivisualizer 4 cervical cancer
    2. #2: RDB Kit 4 Thalassamia
    3. #3: JENVAC 4 Japanese Encephalitis
    4. #4: Mangalyaan
  9. [Polity] Bills/Act/Legal issues in Budget speech
  10. [Essay] statements from Interim Budget speech
  11. Appendix = Excuses, Excuses
    1. #1: Global Risks 2014 report
    2. #2: GDP down everywhere

In the past three articles, we saw the financial/technical aspects of the budget (tax rates, classification, receipt, Expenditure in ascending-descending order etc.) Now the remaining highlights of Interim Budget 2014.
Interim Budget highlights new schemes
by the way, you can download the Interim budget speech and documents from http://indiabudget.nic.in/#content

A: The Three Funds

In his budget speech, FM mentioned three funds

  1. Nirbhaya
  2. Innovation fund
  3. VC for SC

Let’s check them one by one

Fund #1: Nirbhaya Fund

  • This is not a brand new fund. It was Launched in Budget 2013 [Rs.1000 crore]
  • in response to the Delhi Gangrape of Dec 2012.

Money from Nirbhaya fund will support projects such as:

  1. CCTV @Public places
  2. GPS and emergency buttons in public buses, trains
  3. Toll free numbers
  4. self-defense lessons for women

Then what’s new in Interim Budget 2014?

  • Nirbhaya fund made non-lapsable (meaning, even if money is unspent, it’ll not go back in the consolidated fund of India.)
  • And FM announced additional Rs.1000 crore. [=1000 from 2013+1000 from 2014=2k in this fund]

Criticism:

According to an RTI filed in January 2014, not a single paisaa has been spent from Nirbhaya fund- on any scheme/project. So this is a mere ‘symbolic’ gesture.

Fund #2: Innovation @Grassroot

  • official name: India Inclusive Innovation Fund
  • under MSME ministry +National Innovation Council (NInC- head Sam Pitroda)
  • To promote grass root innovations- related to MSME sector. with main focus on focus on healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, education, energy, financial inclusion, environment, technology
  • Jan 2014: fund launched
  • Feb 2014: FM gave 100 crores in Interim budget 2014
  • another 400 will come from public sector banks, financial institutions, insurance companies, multilateral/bilateral development agencies, Indian & global corporates.
  • =total 500 cr.
  • This fund will operate for 9 years.

Fund #3: Venture Capital fund for SC Entrepreneurs

  • Under IFCI [Industrial Finance Corporation of India]
  • To promote entrepreneurship among SC – they’ll receive finance @concessional rates.
  • FM gave 200 crores in Interim budget 2014

In short,

FundLaunchcash allotted in Interim Budget (Cr.)
1. Nirbhaya: women security20131000
2. India inclusive innovation: grassroot/MSME2014100
3. Venture capital fund for SC (IFCI)2014200

B: Three Schemes

Three schemes related to Human resource development (HRD), mentioned in his speech. (The usual schemes- MNREGA, Indira Awas etc. nothing changed.)

HRD#1: Central Scheme for Interest Subsidy CSIS

  • not a brand new scheme.
  • already announced by FM Pranab in 2009’s budget
  • matter falls under HRD ministry.
BENEFICIARY:Student pursuing professional study (Engineering, medical etc) but his parents are earn less than 4.5 lakh per year)
FEATURE:IF such student has taken education loan after 1st April 2009, then government will pay thre loan interest rate on his behalf, during his study period (and few months after that).
PROBLEM:Many poor students had taken loans just few weeks/months before 1/4/2009, but they were not eligible. (Because of the deadline.)
SOLUTION:In the interim budget 2014, Chindu gives solution:

  • all such students will get loan interest relief. (even if they took loan before April 2009)
  • government will pay the interest for the period between 31/March/09 to 31/December/2013. (This money / interest will be refunded through Canara Bank.)
  • but the student will have to start repaying the loan from 1/Jan/2014 onwards
IMPACT:9 lakh students will benefitsubsidy Expenditure: ~2600 crore. Where will we put this? Ans. under Non-plan Revenue Expenditure (Because this is one type of subsidy)

HRD#2: NSDC certificate

  • under National Skill Development Corporation (Ownership: 51% private ; 49% FM)
  • NSDC’s target: give skill training to 150 million Indians by 2022.
  • Scheme: National Skill Certification and Monetary Reward Scheme (not a brand new scheme)
  • Under this Scheme NSDC gives training (welding, plumbing etc.) once you pass the exam, you get certificate PLUS 5000-10000 rupees depending on the “Rating” given in your certificate.
  • Chindu announce 1k crore in interim budget for this.

HRD#3: UDAAN

  • By Home ministry
  • To give employment to youth of J&K
  • NSDC trains the youth, ties up with private company to get them recruited.
  • Problem: barely 6000-15,000 salary per month. Hardly any takers.
  • This is not a brand new Scheme. Chindu gave no extra money here, but he mentioned this name, hence we have to prepare for the stupid sacred MCQs.

One Rank one pension

Although not really an HRD scheme, but let’s just continue it with the flow

  • 2006: Government changed the pension rules for defense forces.
  • As a result, soldier retired before 2006 = would get less pension than the soldier retired after 2006. Even if both soldiers had served in same rank (e.g Subedar) for same duration (e.g. 20 years.)
  • Result? Dissatisfaction, demoralization.
  • Subsequently in 2010 and 2013, government tried to tweak the rules but dissatisfaction continued. Soldiers kept demanding one rank-one pension.
  • Few days back Rahulbaba also demanded the same. And as any bookie can predict-Chindu accepted.
  • Interim budget allotted Rs.500 crore to implement the one rank one pension scheme.

so far we learned

3 funds
  1. Nirbhaya
  2. Grassroot innovation
  3. VC for SC
3 schemes
  1. Edu. loan scheme (CSIS)
  2. NSDC skill certificate
  3. UDAAN

+ One rank one pension.

now comes the major development:

C: Scheme Funding: flexibility to states

Until 2012

featureconsequence
140+ centrally sponsored schemeslack of coordination, lot of overlapping, leakages.
Funding: 100%, 90:10%, 80:20%, 75:25% etc.State government would not release their part of money (10/20/25%), as a result the scheme will not start @grassroots level.
in some of the scheme, money directly given to NGO/implementing agencies/Gram sabhaChief minister’s ego is hurt. Hence lack of cooperation, lack of synergy.

2013: To fix this mess, Government setup a Group of Ministers (GoM), took following steps

beforeafter
140+ centrally sponsored schemesjust ~66 schemes (merged lot of schemes)
some schemes directly gave money to NGO/implementing agencies/gram SabhaNow money directly sent to Consolidated fund of the State. From there, state government free to spend money as per its requirement.

Interim Budget 2014: FM made two big announcements/changes on how money is allotted to Schemes:

Change #1: money will be given as Central Assistance

From now on, we’ll allot money as “Central assistance to State plans” (rather than as funds under Central plans.) => States get greater authority and responsibility.

Observe:

Plan Expenditure (Revenue part)

Revenue Expenditure (Cr)BE 2013BE 2014
To Central’s own Five year Plan320038116641
Central Assistant to State/UT’s plan123222325632
Total (Plan) Revenue Expenditure443260442273

Observe there is hardly any difference in the total (Plan) Revenue Expenditure. At both places, total is nearly 4.4 lakh crores. But the internal breakup (or ratio) has changed- now Union allotting more money to State/UT’s plan rather than its own five year plan.

Consequences:

  1. lot of money will be transferred to State’s consolidated fund.
  2. State government can spend this cash, as per their plan requirements e.g.
  • A coastal state may spend more on maritime/fisheries Development
  • State with higher percentage of tribal population => more on forestry, healthcare, skill development related plans
  • State with high ratio of child population =>more on primary education
  • lot of teenagers=>focus vocational skill education and so on…

Their hands are no longer “tied” to align with Central Five year plan. Money is given to their consolidated fund. They now have greater autonomy.

Change #2: Requested CMs to allot more money

  • Chindu says, “Since I’ve given you freedom to spend money, (as explained above), therefore, from now you also all increase your own allocation for education, healthcare etc. (from your own revenues)”
  • That way, Union’s money is sparred, we can spend it for defense, railways, national highways and telecommunications. (All these matters fall under Union List.)

+ He gave additional funding to the hill states:North Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

-THE end of funds and schemes-. Moving to the next issue

D: Manufacturing Sector

Nothing new under the sun. Chindu merely listed the old achievements.

D1: National Manufacturing Policy

  • Falls under Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) under Commerce Ministry. (2011)
  • by 2022, this policy wants to have:
  1. Share of MFG sector in GDP=25%
  2. Create 100 million jobs

D2: NIMZ (Infra for Manufacturing)

  • National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZ)
  • they’re part of the National MFG. policy
  • these NIMZ are Industrial township with all the necessary infrastructure for mfg. industries.
  • these townships are created on ~5000 ht. uncultivated land. ( Management in the hands of an SPV company owned by State + Union + private players)
  • At present, 8 NIMZ, around Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) e.g. Ahmedabad-Dholera investment Region, Gujarat
  • In the interim budget, Chindu proposed 5 more NIMZs outside DMIC

Chindu also mentioned that similar to DMIC, three more corridors under progress:

  1. Chennai and Bengaluru
  2. Bengaluru and Mumbai
  3. Amritsar and Kolkata

If you visualize the map, almost entire India will be covered through these industrial corridors:

regionindustrial corridor
North, the “shoulder”Amritsar and Kolkata
North-Western StateDelhi Mumbai
South-Western States
  1. Bengaluru and Mumbai
  2. Chennai and Bengaluru

NIMZ vs SEZ: what’s the difference?

NIMZSEZ
originunder National MFG. policyunder SEZ Act
Minimum area5000 ht.10-1000 ht depending on sector. Smaller for gems/jewellary/IT
maximum areanot specific5000 ht.
EIA?State governmentthe project developer
Energy?Part of the electricity has to be procured from renewable sources. State Government will give subsidyno such requirement.
does government give special preference to these units in procurement? (e.g. papers/ballpens for sarkaari offices)yesnot specified
innovation/quality?
  • state government will pay 50% fees for international patent application
  • tax exemption on money spent to get ISO etc. desi certificates
not specified
single window clearance to filesyesyes

D3: Khadi Mark

Khadi Mark

  • Launched in 2013. (FM merely mentioned the name)
  • By Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) [statutory body]
  • Under Ministry of MSME.
  • Khadi Mark assures mark will pure hand-woven, hand spun khadi.

D4: National Agro Forestry Policy 2014

  • Chindu mentioned it in the speech. falls under Ministry of environment and forest.
  • originally announced @ World Congress on Agroforestry, held in Delhi. (few days before Interim budget)

Policy highlights:

  1. Increase tree cover (to 33%)
  2. Use agroforestry to meet country’s population demand for food, fodder, firewood and timber.
  3. coordinate among various ministries (e.g. MNREGA to increase timber plantation)
  4. simplify laws and regulations
  5. Will setup a new “Agroforestry Commission” to look after this matter.
  6. Will provide marketing opportunity to tribals- agroforestry produce – timber, fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants.
  7. Sustainable crop production, combating climate change, R&D, HRD and other fancy things.

D5: Misc. Fodder points

Mfg. Exports

  • for new Infrastructure projects, we should adopt PPP model- because it is tried and tested. (Besides government cannot spend lot of money here, we have to reduce the damn fiscal deficit).
  • In 2014-15, I hope world economy will bounce back, demand of desi export will increase, our mfg. export will bring ~325 billion $
  • But to help mfg. exporters, we need to waive/rebate all the Central and State imposed on the exported items.

FDI

  • we have liberalized the FDI policy to attract larger investments in telecommunication, pharmaceuticals, civil aviation, power trading exchanges and multi-brand retail.

I: Infrastructure related

Nothing major. He mostly talked about past achievements.

[Infra] Communication related:

gave funding for two projects: (1) Community radio stations (2) IT modernization in post offices

#1: Community radio stations

  • 2006: Government allowed NGOs and educational institutions to setup their own Community Radio Stations.
  • matter falls under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
  • 2014: interim budget Gave 100 crores to setup new Community radio stations.

#2: Postal IT modernization

  • Gave 5k crores to Postal department. For Information technology (IT) modernization.
  • By 2015, all the (1.5 lakh) post offices will have this modern IT infrastructure.

[Infra] Nuke Energy

Nothing new. He only cited past developments.

Powerplandevelopment
Kudankulam, TNstarted generating electricity
Kalpakkam, TNits fast breeder reactor work near completion

other Seven nuclear power reactors are under construction

[Infra] Solar Energy

  • Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission [under ministry of new and renewable energy]
  • launched in 2010, under National plan on climate change
PhaseTill March
First2013 (this has ended)
Second2017 (we are under second phase)
Third2022

2014: we’ll initiate four ultra-mega solar power projects (each ~500MW). or at least that’s what Interim budget claims.

[Infra] File clearance

Government had created Cabinet Committee on Investment and the Project Monitoring Group (under PMO). By the end of January, 2014, they helped clear ~300 projects files worth >6 lakh crore rupees.

CCI
  • Cabinet commission on Investment (Boss: PM)
  • Project worth Rs.1000 crore or more.
  • But cannot override decision of Environment ministry.
CCI (infra)Cabinet Committee on infrastructure. No longer exists. It is merged with Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA)
PMG
  • Project monitoring group. Attached with Cabinet Secretariat. (and not PMO)
  • For fast track clearance to the stalled investment projects.
  • Of 1000 crore or more.
  • Claimed to be India’s first completely “file-less government office”- works entirly via web-platform.
  • In news because: Has cleared 70000 MW worth coal projects in last few months.

Banking Finance Related

Nothing major, just lip service.

#1: Banking related

Highlights of Budget speech:

2013 (we did this)2014 (we hope this)
Public sector banks gave 7lakh crore as agri loans.Target: 8 lakh crores in agri loans
Interest subvention scheme for farmers (2%)Continued.
Public sector banks opened ~5k branches, with almost one ATM per branch.Their NPA will reduce as economy starts to improve
Bharatiya Mahila bank started in November 2013 (100% owned by Government of India)

#2: Finance Sector related

  1. We’ll create a single record for all financial assets of every individual (be it FD, mutual funds, Insurance whatever.=easy to monitor tax evasion.)
  2. We’ll reform the regulatory systems so that Indian companies can easily raise money/finance via
    1. via ADR/GDR from abroad
    2. via Rupee-denominated corporate bonds
  3. We’ll help international investors to invest in such Indian bonds.

[GS3] Health/Science tech related

FM mentioned some Sci-tech related terms in his interim budget speech. Thus, they automatically became important for GS3 (mains): Achievements of Indians in science & technology

#1: AV Magnivisualizer 4 cervical cancer

AV Magnivisualizer for cervical cancer

  • for detection of cervical cancer in women.
  • by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
  • until now, we relied on Foreign device (Cost 8-10 lakh rupees)
  • But this desi Magnivisualizer one costs just 10,000.
  • Runs on battery- good for rural areas without electricity.
  • Even a healthworker with basic training can use it.

#2: RDB Kit 4 Thalassemia

RDB kit thalassamia

  • Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization (RDB) Kit
  • For Thalassemia (=genetic disease)
  • Till now we relied on imported kits. But this desi kits cost just Rs.400
  • can detect Thalassemia in kids and even in prenatal diagnosis (of the foetus in pregnant woman)
  • Developed by:
    • Indian Council for Medical research (ICMR)
    • National Institute of Immunohaematolgoy (NIIH)

#3: JENVAC 4 Japanese Encephalitis

  • Viral disease, spread via mosquitoes. More theory click me
  • Until now, we relied on Chinese vaccine. But Now desi vaccine JENVAC by Indian scientists.
  • This is the first vaccine to be manufactured in the public-private partnership mode between the ICMR vs Bharat Biotech. (+ input from National Institute of Virology (Pune)
  • dual pricing strategy (=~150 rupees for private distributors and cheaper cost to sarkaari hospitals)

#4: Mangalyaan

He mentioned Mars orbiter mission, ISRO. Already covered in old article, click me

[Polity] Bills/Act/Legal issues in Budget speech

I’m only giving the list from his speech. You refer Prsindia.org to get the salient features of these bills/acts.

NameContext in the interim budget speech
  1. Forest rights act
>12 lakh land titles given to tribals
  1. Land acquisition Act
Notified in 2014, has replaced the colonial law of 1894
  1. National Food security act
Has been passed. Will give food security to 67% of juntaa. (+ I allotted ~88k crores to Food security Act.)
  1. Companies Act
Replaced old act of 1956
  1. PFRDA Act
Passed. Established Statutory regulator
  1. Insurance Laws amendment
Not passed
  1. Securities Law Amendment
Not passed
  1. Public Debt Management Agency Bill
Not passed. But until then, government will setup a non-statutory PDMA to start work in 2014-15.
  1. Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act
Need to amend it, so NSEL-like crisis doesn’t happen again.

Some burning issues:

Direct tax code and GSTNot yet passed. FM will release discussion paper on his site.
Financial Sector Legislative Reforms CommissionWe need to atleast implement some of its recommendations that donot require passing/amending any laws.

[Essay] statements from Interim Budget speech

FM made following essay-worthy statements in his speech. I suggest you write 2500 words essays on each of them under 3 hours timelimit @home.

  1. “India was the first non-Western country – and also the first poor country in the world – to commit itself to a resolutely democratic way of governance.”
  2. Democracy acknowledges diversity, respects dissent, encourages debate, and decides through elected representatives.
  3. Neither populism nor majoritarianism nor individualism is an alternative way of governance.
  4. Not the spear, but scepter swayed with equity alone gives the ruler victory.

These statements are even relevant for “blah blah blah…comment (200 words)” type questions under General studies (Mains). For example,

  • Statement #1 can be asked under GS1 (post-independence topic / Decolonization topic).
  • #3 can even be asked under GS2 (Important aspects of Governance) or GS4 (Probity in Governance).
  • #4 under GS4: (empathy, tolerance and compassion)

Appendix = Excuses, Excuses

Remaining filler material discussed by Chindu, in his speech

#1: Global Risks 2014 report

Chindu quoted this report in his speech.

  • World economic forum has made this report.
  • To show that global risk are interconnected. if something bad happens in one country – its aftershocks will be felt everywhere else as well.

They listed total 31 such “Global” risks given. Top ten are:

  1. fiscal crisis
  2. structurally high unemployment or underemployment
  3. income disparity
  4. water crisis
  5. climate change
  6. extreme weather events (Floods, storms, fires)
  7. food crisis
  8. governance failure
  9. failure of a major financial institution
  10. Political and social instability

Chindu: These are common to all Emerging market economies. (in other words, we are not the only loser, and we are not the losers by our own deeds only).

ya but what’s the point in learning?

  1. for MCQ: global risk report by World Economic forum (and not IPCC/UN/G20/ASEAN/OPEC.)
  2. for Essay topic revolving around globalization/IR: you can buildup points parallel to above “top-ten” global risks.

2: #GDP down everywhere

GDP growth in (%)20112013
World~43
Eurozone0.2%
China9.37.7
India7.54.9 (CSO)

With this data, FM tried to hint that GDP has declined everywhere (on the aftermath of Subprime crisis). In short we are not the only bad performers on GDP angle.

This concludes the 4 parts of Interim [Budget] 2014 article series. MCQs later.

Visit Mrunal.org/Economy For more on Money, Banking, Finance, Budget, Taxation and Economy.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha


So far 47 Comments posted

  1. Ravi

    सर, आपकी तारीफ के लिए मेरे पास शब्द नही, Great Job!

  2. Ravi

    Sir, I am waiting for IAS(Mains) 2013 Answer Key.

  3. Vanraj

    thank you sir…good job.

  4. hari

    down to earth explanations….. thank u sir .. v r greatful to u…

  5. parth

    sir too good …plz put some articles on india’s foreign policy , snt

  6. rahul

    please release remaining the answerkeys of cds 2014.

  7. Rinu

    Reading through the budget…
    Interest subsidy scheme..
    I recently went to an RRB from where I took my Education loan of just Rs.2.7Lakh.
    Ya, I remember I went to the bank the day after Mr.Finmin presented the interim Budget..
    My Btech period 2008 to 2012.
    Took the loan in 2009..
    Applied for subsidy in 2011 or 2012 ( a scheme was launched at that time..the bank itself suggested me to apply for that subsidy..hmmm strange)
    Then in 2013 I read in papers about another subsidy that would be beneficial to students who took loan on or after 2009..I went to the bank and asked about it…
    Manager-who was a hard faced woman-told me that I’ve already received the subsidy and So i need not have to apply for this new subsidy scheme..She also told that If I go next time to the bank, she will enter the subsidy amount to my loan Pass Book..
    Relieved, I returned.
    A few months passed..
    I again went to the bank after the presentation of Interim budget.
    After the clerks checked my account, they started entering the subsidies I got..
    Ya..I got some subsidy..
    But My loan which was 2.7 lakh when I applied has now become 4lakh 5 thousand rupees!!!
    GOD!! Is this something Govt is doing to ease
    students’ burdens!!
    the interest is 14%.
    subsidy wont be available for me from Jan 2014!!!
    and since I’ve completed my course in 2012 April, they said I should start repaying the loan..Otherwise they are going to take ‘actions’.
    They cant wait till I get a JOB!..Thats fair 😉

    This is an RRB!
    I would want all banks to gain profit…
    Because I am a person who wishes to be a bank officer..
    I see myself as a future Shikha or Arundhathi!
    And I completely agrees with the Nachiketh Mor recommendations to low down NPAs.

    But, this..the way banks are dealing with education loans are really gruesome.
    I took a less amount as loan.
    they were supposed to give me a relaxed interest rate.
    AND I would want to suggest Raghuram to provide education loans without interest.The Govt should do something to encourage our studies.
    Its for the country we are studying, after all..

    1. Vishal

      If this is the condition of an educated individual who took loan for studies. Imagine the condition of an illiterate farmer asking for loan,and how can he imagine to come out of the debt cycle.

      1. ram

        Great Job sir go ahead as per the plan……….

  8. Manjunath

    How can you write articles which looks so simple but very informative. Are you from economics background? Can you Please write an article about yourself.

    Your articles boost my confidence. Thank you

    1. Rinu

      Agrees with Manjunath. We would like to read an article about Mrunal…

        1. Sasikumar

          Me too Agree Mrunal….pls

          1. saurav

            Mrunal Sir….this would be my privilege to know about you.
            Please do write an autobiography.

  9. rahul kumar

    great job sir thank u

  10. umesh sharma

    Sir thank you for your explanation about different articles anybody can read these articles because ur language is very easy to understand good job sir

  11. स्वतन्त्र

    अंततः, अंतरिम से अंतिम तक मैंने इसे पढ़ा।
    ये अनुभव अद्भुत था!!
    धाराप्रवाह!

    1. deepak

      sir thanks a lot for providing these valuable inputs for the civil service exam.

  12. meghna

    v nice compilation SIR…

  13. Brijesh

    Awesome!!! Tonnes of thanks!!Mrunalbhai

  14. mandeep malik

    sir,
    i want to say just “thank you” because i don’t have words to appreciate your work. I have recently started reading your articles but i am so impressed by these that i can’t tell you.

  15. nikhil

    Sir, excellent articles series . Thank you . Sir, what are we supposed to do when economic survey does not come out?

  16. amit soni

    excellent

  17. deepak

    Awesome writing skills , nice compilation n apt for xam..thanks mrunal

  18. sushant

    thank u sir ,u r maven in economics…i appreciate ur writing skills
    elegant piece of work..

  19. vjay

    what a series…!

    you should get the AWARD from FM.(Chindu…) ; )

  20. Shankar

    Hat’s off to Mrunal excellent work thanks lot..

  21. ANUSHA

    JUST I WANT TO KNOW HOW TO PREPARE FOR POSTAL ASSSISTANT AND CAN YOU UPDATE PREVIOUS PAPERS FOR THIS EXAM.

  22. Meken

    Simple , very informative… Thankyou so much for your great effort…..was struggling wid banking jargon but now recently started reading your articles and I’m so much relieved.

  23. Manoj Sharma

    Sir, I have taken a loan of rs 2,33,000 from OBC bank. I am paying my installments. can I get the rebate of this subsidy, I have already applied for the same, but there is no response from the bank. plz help me out

  24. Aadit

    @anyone: have mrunal have uploaded anything on basel I, II, III norms, i am not able to find it . thanks for help in anticipation.

  25. pushkar

    mrunal sir how can i get all your 2014 update article in file together ? can you give me link ?

  26. Neetu

    Dear Mrunal
    is it still necessary to prepare for 2 mark questions for Mains GS1- as 2013 mains did not have such questions… Please convey your opinion

  27. mukesh

    Wonderful analysis….thank u sir!

  28. dimple

    awesome work
    thanks a ton…..

  29. dimple

    awesome work
    thanks a ton…

  30. srajan

    sir aapka jawab nhi
    sir aap ase hi explain karte jao
    kasam se sir
    bina coaching ke upsc nikal jyege sabki
    asa to koi coaching wala bhi nhi abta pata hai
    sir u r greatest

  31. Oo Ji Naam me kya Rakha Hai

    [IMPORTANT MESSAGE]=My friends You all are requested to share this Mrunal on Facebook,Twitter, news, Sms, Whats App ,Wechat ,what ever means you have just spread like wildfire to student community who really need it.I am also a student like
    you.
    Sir ki mehanat bekar nahi jani chahiye..Is Nek bande ko tahe dil se sukariya.

  32. Rohit

    Sir PART III link in the PROLOGUE PART of this article isn’t working.. please look into it.. Thank You. 🙂

  33. afreen

    excellent explanation….the topics i was not able to understand…. Mrunal sir u explained in an excellent way… so easy to understand….Thanks a ton…..

  34. ENIGMA

    great job sir

  35. kunuma

    Luv d wy u use funny things to mk it understandable….

  36. M PRABHAKAR RAO

    Highly explanatory, neve before I saw anywhere, about RBI policy rates, as lucid as I found here. Even a lay man can easily understand the policy rates of RBI and how they show impact on our economy.My special thanks for placing such a useful information particularly for SBI po aspirants

  37. Sameer

    Mrunal, you have mentioned under the Agroforestry Policy that it falls under MoEF, but I was reading the official report on Agroforestry Policy. it mentions- “The Ministry of Agriculture has the mandate for agroforestry. Agroforestry Mission / Board will be located in the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
    (DAC) in the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) ”
    Kindly Clarify as it is an important aspect of the policy!
    Thanks!

  38. jude_lucy

    This was the most difficult series ever. I perhaps read this for the forth time and still not able to completely comprehend.

  39. sharath

    Mrunal Sir,

    Please clarify my doubt regarding the funds allocation by Center to State:

    Q1) Will Central govt allocate funds to both state’s plan + Central schemes to Consolidated Fund of State from now on? – My understanding is Yes
    Q2) Money allocated for central schemes execution for state should be used only for central schemes. Is it??
    which means States only have liberty for prioritizing the central schemes that are to be implemented. If the answer is states can use it for purposes outside the central schemes => Very purpose of developing Central schemes is defeated.

    Thanks in advance 🙂

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