- ~2000 sites of Indus valley civilization in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
- Till now, the largest site: Mheonjo-daro, in Pakistan.
- Now the largest site= Rakhigarhi, Hayana
Why Rakhigarhi important?
- Industrial centre of Indus valley civilisation.
- A seal and a potsherd, both inscribed with the Harappan script.
- Previously, Archiologists believed that Early Harappan civilization phase begin from 3500 BCE
- But new sites from Haryana are as old as 5000 BECAUSE (Farmana, Girawad and Mitathal)
- Now Expert think that Harppan civilization originated from Ghagagar basin in Haryana and then spread towards Indus Valley civilization in Western India and Pakistan.
- Rakhigarhi is best example for the expert to prove above concept.
- Menhir means a large standing stone.
- They contain embossed figures of humans, animals and weapons.
- Found in Mizoram, Andhra and Myanmar. (even in South America and Eastern Europe).
- Mizo people have protected these sites for ages, despite having no exact knowledge of their meaning / origin.
- Mizo script is barely 100 years old. Previous events are unwritten, orally passed through folklore and songs. Therefore, Menhirs are important source of decoding the early history and culture of this region. (Although yet to be deciphered.)
- WHY IN NEWS? Culture ministry has declared the Menhirs, its surrounding caves and forest as protected areas.
- Exact place: Vangchhia village, Champhai district, Mizoram.
- In Mizoram, Villagers call the site “Kawtchhuah Ropui” (The Great Gateway).
- ~170 Menhirs found. Each ~6 ft.
- The site lies on the bank of the Tiau River
- Taiu river separates India and Myanmar.
- Muziris: lost Roman Port town, excavated near Pattanam, Kerala.
- Murizirs finds mention in ancient Roman and Tamil texts.
- Setup during Iron age, Roman trade during 1 to 4th BC
- Traded with Alexandria (N.Africa)
- Later Portuguese built St.Thomas fort here. Tipu Sultan destroyed it (1790)
- Items found: Chera coins, pottery, Frankincense (Aromatic gum), gold filament and semi-precious stones.
- DNA samples are being checked to find who lived here? Dravids, European or Africans.
- LIDAR: light detection and ranging. The Oxford Archaeologists are using this technique to map the surface of Muziris/Pattanram port.
full report: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=104424
He has given a long PH.D thesis. You need to extract only MCQ worthy points.
- Majra village, Haryana.
- Pratihara period mint found. (mint = A factory where money is coined by authority of the government.)
- First of its kind ever found in the country.
- worked during 8-11th century
- Pratihar King MihiraBhoja. HQ=Kannauj, Ruled over northern and central India.
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