[Mains Answerkey] GS1-Geography-2013 (part 1/3): Analysis, booklist for Mains 2014, Contiental drift, Hot Deserts, Western Ghat Deltas sample answers with explaination

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UPSC Paperset
  1. Prologue
  2. List of Questions asked
    1. Continuity of trend from 2011 & 2012
    2. Was it Geography (Optional) friendly?
    3. How difficult was the Geography section in Mains 2013?
    4. Questions “came” from where?
    5. Which Geography Book to use for Mains 2014
    6. Utility of Hindu in GS (Mains) Geography portion?
  3. [Physical 1] Continental Drift Theory 5m
  4. [Physical 2] Why Hot Deserts in N. Hemisphere?
  5. [Physical 3] Why no Delta in Western Ghats


  • December 2013, UPSC conducted Civil Services Mains exam.
  • Jan 2013: I published answerkey for Indian History Answerkey and Culture Answerkey for General studies Paper I (GS1). Then I drifted away to economy related articles given the IBPS and IIM interviews.

April 2014: back in the business, starting with Geography. Total three parts article-series

  1. Physical geography (3Qs) You’re here
  2. Climate, environment, disaster (4Q) click me
  3. Energy and Industrial location (4Qs) done click me.
Chart Geography topicwise analysis Mains 2013 General Studies paper 1 UPSC

click to enlarge

List of Geography Questions asked in GS1

typeQuestionmarksTheory /CurrentIndia/World
physicalWhat do you understand by the theory of continental drift? Discuss the prominent evidences in its support5theoryneither
physicalMajor hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents. Why?10theoryworld
physicalThere is no formation of deltas by rivers of the Western Ghat. Why?5theoryIndia
locationDo you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in the Southern states of India ? Discuss with justification.5theoryIndia
locationAnalyse the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India5theoryIndia
energyWith growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world.10theoryIndia
energyIt is said the India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needs of country for quarter century. However, tapping of the resources doesn’t appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved.10currentIndia
disasterThe recent cyclone on the east coast of India was called “Phailin”. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world? Elaborate.5currentneither
disasterBringout the causes for more frequent landslides in the Himalayas than in Western Ghats.5theoryIndia
climateBring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world.5theoryneither
climateWhat do you understand by the phenomenon of temperature inversion in meteorology? How does it affect the weather and the habitants of the place?5theoryneither
total 70 out of 250 marks28%only 15 marks current related.only 15 marks world geography.
  • Contrary to expectations, neither World geography NOR environment-biodiversity dominated the paper. Infact World geography= barely 15 marks.
  • Straightforward questions from Industrial location factors (I was afraid they’d ask something about tertiary / service sector / current affairs type question in it.)
  • Nothing from flora fauna or climate change (Except heat island).
  • OR may be because examiner thought “5 mark =100 words” rule alone was a sufficient shocker so even easy question should become BackbreakingTM, therefore he saved all the tough questions for next mains hahaha.

Continuity of trend from 2011 & 2012

climate change vs water resourcesustainable development; CDM mechanismheat islands
  • tiger monitoring,
  • vulture population
  • tourism in core tiger areas
  • endosulphan
nothing from wildlife
desertification in Indiawhy all hot deserts in N.Hemisphere
Overall 24 marks.overall 125 marks (mostly environment related)70 marks.

following questions repeated from past general studies (GS) mains papers

marks in Mains 2013asked in GS Mains year
why W.Ghat river= no delta52006
Atomic raw material in India and world5/101989 (only India)
total10 marks

Was it Geography (Optional) friendly?

In other words, was this a Back-BreakingTM section for Non-geography candidates? Answer is both YES and No depending on how you interpret. Following questions were repeatedly asked in previous papers of geography optional subject:

Questionmarks in Mains 2013asked in geography optional during
continental drift theory51980, 1996, 2000, 2007
temperature inversion51995, 2010.
atomic raw materials in India and world5/101998 (only India, not world, hence counting five marks)
Sugarmill51997 and 2009
cotton textile mill51979, 1982, 1985, 1996, 1999 and 2000.
total25/70 =36% of Geography. (and 10% of entire GS1).

BUT if you look at the nature of question, most of them are not falling from sky- where only Geography optional candidate can solve it and other people cannot.

^the purpose of this discussion: Coaching walla usually try to brainwash new players that “you should only take Geography optional because __ marks worth GS-question came from geography only.” Same sales-pitch goes in Public Administration, sociology, political science, even anthropology. Please don’t pick optional subjects on the sole criteria of “how much does it help in GS?” Every optional has its own headache, called “scaling system”.

How difficult was the Geography section in Mains 2013?

In real life- entire paper can be said tough- because this was the first time UPSC ordered the aspirants to write 100-200 words on everything. 5000 words in three hours is no child’s play. But still for the purpose of theoretical discussion: A question can be said ‘easy’, if

  • For five marker, you can recall at least 3 good points, & write it within given time limit.
  • For ten maker, you can recall at least 5-6 good points, & write it within given time limit.
Continental drift5easygiven in most std. reference books
Shale gas10easyonly IF you followed Hindu diligently.
Landslides5easygiven in most std. reference books
Temp. inversion5easyGiven in most books
Delta5easygiven in most std. reference books
Sugarmill5easygiven in most std. reference books
Textile Mill5easygiven in most std. reference books
Atomic raw10mediumhard to recollect that many sources in “World”
Deserts10toughAt least for non-geography students. hard to recollect that many points.
Cyclone Naming5toughhad to dig official website and still hard to memorize.
Heat islands5toughVerbatim given in Majid Hussain, Fundamentals of Physical Geography 4th ed. but most non-geography student don’t use it.
total7040 marks easy; 30 marks medium to tough.

Questions “came” from where?

  • Exam is long over, even result has been declared. So the only purpose of any answerkey  = find out what should be prepared and from where it should be prepared for the next Mains examination in 2014
  • Some experts claim 50 marks worth questions came from NCERT. I beg to differ- unless the given book has sufficient content to handle 100-200 marks, only then we can say the question “came” from there.  Merely mention of a line or phrase or a sentence doesn’t count. Therfore, NCERT’s real-aukaat is only 24/70 marks in geography. (Proved below)
Review of Geography books for Mains 2013

click to enlarge

Now, if we allot yes= full marks, hardly =20% marks and no = 0% marks. then new table will look like this:

Bookutility in GS1Comment
Spectrum, Geography50Highly useful because it covers all three parts: Physical, world and geography.
Surender Singh, Geography (TMH)41Same as above. Although this is one type of “Guide” book for Geography optional (prelims, during pre-CSAT era).So I’m not surprised by its performance. Same for Krishna Reddy’s performance in History/culture.
D.R. Khullar, India A Comprehensive Geography25Despite the fact this book only deals with Indian geography- good performance. (Infact Better than Majid’s Indian geography book)
Majid Hussain, Fundamentals of Physical Geography 4th ed.25Despite the fact this book only deals with physical geography- good performance. (compared to Goh Cheng Leong, Certificate Physical and Human Geographyng’s book)
Savinder Singh, Physical Geography22Since he only deals with physical geography so appreciable performance. Almost parallel with Majid’s Physical. Majid shines over because verbatim answer on heat island theory was given only in Majid book and not in Savinder Singh, Physical Geography.
NCERT24They have their utility in Prelims. Harr stage pe kaam aaye ye bhi toh jaroori nahi. (not necessary that NCERT should come handy at every stage.)
GS Manual18Same as above.
Majid Hussain, Geography of India 5th Edition14For Indian Geography, DR D.R. Khullar, India A Comprehensive Geography is better choice from now onwards.
Goh Cheng Leong, Certificate Physical and Human Geographyng11His Golden Era is finally over. He served well in the late 90s but fast losing relevance under back breaking era. Even CDS and CAPF MCQs have become tougher than Goh Cheng Leong, Certificate Physical and Human Geography
MAX. possible55(T)+15(C)=70(T)=theory, (C)=Current.

Which Geography Book to use for Mains 2014

As such there is no single book where everything is given slim and trim without bogging down the reader with “Exhautive” coverage from geography optional.
Spectrum or Surender (TMH) seem more beneficial (Atleast statistically) because they were written as guide books for geography optionals.
Same situation was happening with Krishna Reddy’s book in Indian History/Culture answerkey, but there I could find thinner and cheaper jugaad (=TN state books, ). Unfortunatly, same case not happening here.

Therefore, I can think of two approaches:
Approach #1: Selective reading from “all in one guidebook” type book: EITHER Spectrum OR Surender (TMH)
Approach #2: selective reading from three different books: DR Khullar for India; Majid for Physical; Goh Che’s Human & Economy Geography (for world part).
Although Goh Cheng’s Human geo book would be an overkill given the nature of world geo. related questions asked. Majid’s World geograhy=bad cost : benefit.

all three common (India, Physical, World)

(DONOT USE BOTH. Both run almost parallel so pick any one)

only IndianD.R. Khullar, India A Comprehensive Geography
only physicalMajid Hussain, Fundamentals of Physical Geography 4th ed.
only World Goh Cheng’s Human geography etc but cost : benefit not that great.

Haven’t included following books/sources in review

Majid Hussain’s world geography book (TMH)
  • Too bad cost benefit.
Spectrum, Geography’s Indian geography
coaching /postal material.
  • Way more expensive than standard reference books. Besides usually its cut-paste-bullet version of parapgrahs given in above books.

Utility of Hindu in GS (Mains) Geography portion?

  • Only one question: Shale Gas why not in high policy agenda? 10 marks. Answer verbatim available in Hindu article.
  • Other than that, indirectly it also covered heat island and cyclone naming. But verbatim answers = nope. (Otherwise IBN and NDTV will also count in “Cyclone naming”.)

Anyways, enough of book reviewing.  Now let’s start answer writing one by one. Total three parts

  1. Physical geography (3Qs) you are here
  2. Climate, environment, disaster (4Q) click me
  3. Energy and Industrial location (4Qs) done click me.

(GS1) Syllabus topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

[Physical 1] Continental Drift Theory 5m

Q. what do you understand by the theory of “continental drift”? Discuss the prominent evidence in its support. (5m | 100 words)

Continental Drift theory has been asked in previous Geography optional papers of 1980, 1996, 2000, 2007. Although answer is not “unsolvable” because topic is given entirely in Class11 NCERT.

Sources: Any book on physical geography will contain the topic on continental drift. For example

  1. Spectrum, Geography, Chapter on Geomorphology, Page17
  2. Savindra– pg no. 57-60
  3. Majid Hussain, Fundamentals of Physical Geography 4th ed.: Ch6, first three pages
  4. TMH, Geography section page 50.
  5. Chapter4 “class 11 NCERT  Physical Geography” Page- 30-31
  6. Even Orient Longman Atlas- pg. 7 (page no. may change with new edition)

First, Let’s understand the topic, then we prepare answer.

Continental Drift: Explanation

Question demands two answers: 1) what is the theory? 2) What are the evidences?

#1: Theory

  • Geographers in the early 18th century were puzzled about the location of lands and water on earth. Why are they in the specific position where they’re right now?
  • They came up with many theories, but none plausible.

Finally, Alfred Wegner formulated a theory known as Continental Drift Theory.

  • Positions of the continents are not fixed permanently.
  • The pieces of landmass have been floating on Earth’s upper-most layer.
  • Once they were part of supercontinent “Pangaea”, surrounded by a mega ocean Panthalassa. But in carboniferous period, it was broken into two parts: Laurasia in north and Gondwana land in south, with a shallow sea of Tethys in-between them .
  • They got further broken and drifted apart.
  • during Wagener’s era, Geographers believed that Earth had only 3 layers in its composition:
NIFE(Nickle and Ferrous)inner-most core
SIMA(silicon-Manganese)ocean crust
SIAL(Silicon-Aluminium)Continental crust.
  • Therefore, Wagener believed SIAL layer used to float over SIMA layer.
  • With this crude information of Earth’s composition, he was unable to explain what force caused such displacement of the continents.
  • So, He claimed tidal forces and centrifugal force were responsible for westward and equator wards movement of the present continents!
  • Still, his evidences for the possible drifting of the continents were a landmark discovery.

#2: Evidences of Continental Drift theory

  • Noticeable in both sides of Atlantic Ocean.
  • Eastern coastline of South American continent and Western coastline of Africa matches like jig-saw puzzle.
  • It seems that they are broken from a united piece.
  • But that could also be a co-incidence!
  • Mountain system and rocks are also similar on the opposite sides of the continents. Eg. Coal from Appalachian (USA) and coal from Kjolen mountains (Norway) have same properties & composition.

Same situation for

  1. Gold mines in Ghana coast (Africa) vs. Brazilian High (S.America)
  2. Rocks of west coast of Brazil vs. East coast of Africa.
  3. Mountain ranges in Cape of Good hope (Africa) vs Buenos Aires (Argentinca)
Paleontological FeaturesFossils on the opposite sides of coastline of the continents also share similar characteristics. Examples:

  1. A fern like plant-Glosspteris found in India, south America, South Africa, South Australia and Antarctica.
  2. A mammal like reptile from Lystrosaurus genus also found in S.Africa, S. America, Asia and Antarctica. This creature was strictly a land dweller- there is no way it could have swam so far.
  3. Same for Lemur fossils found in India, Madagascar and Africa.
Glacial features
  • Tilitate is a sedimentary rock formed out of glacial deposits.
  • The deposits of this rock found in India, and have counter parts in Africa, Antarctica and Australia. Suggest these continents shared similar histories.

~425words. Let’s compress

First we brain storm to recall points

  1. Alfred Wegner (answer hollow without his name)
  2. Pangea=> laurasia + Gondwana. Hard to recall which period). + if possible, draw a sketch- demonstrate laurasia, Gondwana, Tethys into it, to save word limit.
  3. Tidal force and centrifugal force caused the movement of land.
  1. jigsaw coastline
  2. mountain and rock composition
  3. fossil of flora and fauna (Although can’t recall any latin names.)

+Diagram for additional brownie points.

Sample Answer: Continental Drift Theory

Q. what do you understand by the theory of “continental drift”? Discuss the prominent evidence in its support. (5m | 100 words)

Answer keypoints.

Theory of Continental Drift:

  1. Alfred Wegner stated that at one time, all continents were part of a super landmass called “Panagea”, surrounded by a mega ocean.
  2. Over the time, this landmass was broken into smaller continents that drifted away from each other, under the effect of tidal and centrifugal forces.
Geography Mains Answer Continental Drift Theory

Fig. Continental Drift theory of Alfred Wegner


Eastern coastline of South America and Western coastline of Africa fits like jig-saw puzzle.
Mineral composition on the opposite sides of the Atlantic, is identical. e.g. Gold in Ghana vs Brazil, Coal in  US vs Norway.
Similar Fossils found in India, South America, South Africa and Antarctica.

~106 words.

[Physical 2] Why Hot Deserts in N. Hemisphere?

Q. Major hot desert in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 deg N latitude and on western side of the continents. Why? (10m | 200 words)



  • We all know that hot deserts are created due to lack of enough rainfall in the region.
  • The rainfall can occur by only 3 ways:
  • When mountains are standing in the path of moisture laden air=>heavy rainfall on wind ward side of the mountain
  • However, in absence of mountains, moisture laden winds can penetrate way inside the land and rain until it contains moisture.
Where mountain range located parallel to coastal areas and longitudinal to route of moisture winds.
  • Rain associated with passage of cyclone or depression.
  • Generally at the Intertropical convergence zone and polar front.
Middle and high latitudes (50-60 Deg. north and south.)
  • high temp. + high humidity
  • moist air rises, cools down adiabatically=> heavy rainfall.
  • Equator (throughout the year)
  • temperature rate regions (early summer)

Ok now let’s check which rainfall can occur in 20-30N?

typeCan it occur in 20-30N?
  • Nope, because precondition is high humidity.
  • 20-30N region comes under sub-tropical high pressure zone => cyclones cannot occur.
  • And since cyclones cannot occur= cyclonic rain cannot occur.
  • Besides, this will create anti-cyclonic condition (high pressure) on ground.
  • This prevents rising of air and formation of clouds.
  • The moisture laden winds from ocean follow the path of trade winds, from east -> west.
  • So moisture carried by winds results into rainfall in eastern side of the continents, they become dry by the time they reach the western side.

#role of cold currents

  • The cold ocean currents pass through western coasts of continents between 20-30N deg
  • Result? air becomes cool and dry=> desertification. for example:
Californian Cold CurrentMohave desert
Canaries Cold CurrentShahara desert and Arabian desert
Peruvian Cold CurrentAtacama desert
Benguela Cold CurrentNamib desert
Western Australian CurrentThe great Australian desert

#Relative humidity

  • Relative humidity=: ratio of the amount of water in the air at a give temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature;
  • When air becomes saturated with the water vapour at given temperature and pressure, it results into cloud formation.
  • But desert = lack of water vapour = very less chances of cloud formation due to lack of water

~360 words. Let’s compress

Q. Major hot desert in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 deg N latitude and on western side of the continents. Why?  (10m | 200 words)

Geography Mains Answer Hot Deserts in Northern Hemisphere

Fig. Hot Deserts Across the world

  • Lack of Cyclonic Rainfall:  The 20-30 N region comes under Sub Tropical High Pressure(STHP) zone, so they experience anti-cyclonic effects on ground. This deters rising of air, cloud formation and cyclonic rains.
  • Lack of Orographic rainfall: The eastern region of 20-30N receive rain due to moisture laden trade winds, but by the time they reach western side, they become dry. Hence scanty rain in western region.
  • Lack of Convectional rainfall: precondition is moisture laden warm air. But due to Cold currents, the air near coastal areas is cool and dry. This prevents formation of convectional rainfall. And thus lead to desertification effect on western coast of continents. For example: Californian cold current vs. Mohave desert; Canaries cold current vs. Sahara desert and Arabian desert.
  • Low level of Relative humidity: When air becomes saturated with the water vapour at given temperature and pressure, it results into cloud formation. But Relative humidity is very low in the desert, every droplets of moisture is evaporated before the air becomes saturated with water. Hence lack of cloud formation.

~ 180 words.

[Physical 3] Why no Delta in Western Ghats

Q. There is no formation of deltas by rivers of Western Ghats. Why? (100 words, 5 marks)

Similar Question was asked in 2006’s GS paper I.  “Why do rivers of the West Coast not form a Delta? 125 words.”

Sources (although none gives verbatim answer- points are scattered around):

  1. Spectrum, Geography, Page 562
  2. Surender Singh, Geography (TMH) Page 14.14
  3. DR D.R. Khullar, India A Comprehensive Geography, Ch. on Drainage, Page 87
  4. Majid Hussain, Geography of India 5th Edition Chap 3: Drainage –The peninsular river systems – table on difference between Peninsular and Extra-peninsular rivers.
  5. Savinder Singh, Physical Geography– only condition of delta formation are given in page 265 else nothing specific on Western Ghat rivers.
  6. NCERT Class 9 chapter 3.
  7. Leong, Chap 15: fluvial process: rivers and related Landforms. (only for theoretical reference)


A river has 3 stages of channel development:

  •  At the source of river.
  • River cut across the valley, erode it vertically.
  • Steep slope –narrow passage
  • Also known as flood plain
  • Gentle slope, rivers widens its channel
  • Unable to carry large size pebbles and rocks, start deposit them along the banks
  • River channel becomes shallow and wide.
  • River contains lower volume of water ->less fluvial force to carry even fine sediments, large amount along the mouth of the river. => Delta.

The landform created by the sediments deposited by the river at its mouth is called Delta.

What about rivers of Western Ghat?

  • Rivers of Western Ghats flow through peninsular plateau. Peninsular plateau has hard rock surface and lacks alluvial material. So rivers do not carry large amount of sediments=> cannot deposit it @mouth of river to form deltas.
  • They receive less amount of rainfall compared to Himalayan Rivers.
  • West flowing rivers of Western Ghats
    • they are small streams. They flow rapidly from steep slopes and merged into Arabian Sea covering very short distance. They can form estuaries and not deltas.
  • East flowing rivers
    • flow through relatively shallow and eroded valley = less fluvial force.
    • Rivers have hardly erosion activity to perform = less amount of sediments

Compressed version:

Q. There is no formation of deltas by rivers of Western Ghats. Why? (100 words, 5 marks)

Delta is a landform created by sediments of large rivers at its mouth.

Geography Mains Answer River Delta Formation Western Ghat

Fig. Formation of River Deltas

Unlike, Himalayan rivers, rivers originate from Western Ghats do not form Deltas because:

  1. Rivers of Western Ghats flow through peninsular plateau, which has hard rock surface and lacks alluvial material. So rivers don’t carry large amount of sediments to be deposited at their mouths.
  2. They receive less amount of rainfall compared to Himalayan Rivers, some of them non-perennial in nature.
  3. East flowing rivers flow through relatively shallow and eroded valley, hence unable to produce large amount of sediments.
  4. West flowing rivers of Western Ghats are small streams, flow rapidly from steep slopes and merged into Arabian Sea covering very short distance. They can form estuaries and not deltas.

~125 words

Remaining answerkeys in next two articles.
Visit Mrunal.org/Geography for more, especially world geography.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

87 Comments on “[Mains Answerkey] GS1-Geography-2013 (part 1/3): Analysis, booklist for Mains 2014, Contiental drift, Hot Deserts, Western Ghat Deltas sample answers with explaination”

  1. sir, please explain NCERT GEOGRAPHY ALSO

  2. Mrunal Sir
    Please guide us on how to read spectrum geography for gs paper1 as you have guided us for indian polity by laxmikanth.Sir completely preparing on my own the way you are guiding so please help!

  3. Mrunal,

    Western ghats river are not the ones originating from Western ghats like godavari/krishna/kaveri? But these rivers do make deltas on the east coast plain.Can u pls help clarify?

    1. 1. high gradient slope in western ghats, it increased the velocity of stream so it does not deposit the sand to form a delta
      2. western ghats have the deep valley rivers which ends in the ocean bed hence whatever the deposits carry by the stream they deposit into the ocean bed
      3 western ghats rivers does not have the long runoff water stream hence they carry the less deposits

  4. Sir
    Please reply!

  5. The question on hot deserts is an exercise question in NCERT class 9 geography

  6. awesome sir.. Is it neccesary to buy all d books given by you.. Coz expensiv + cannot read only geography so time factor..

  7. Plz..
    Can you give analysis for Geography optional?

  8. Sir the Spectrum Geography book is not available on flipkart. Can you please refer another book?

  9. I am li’l confused on world geography sources please help. Also Spectrum Geo is discontinued what’s the alternate?

    1. in my views old ncert of class 6 7 8 are enough…….jst read d basic books………else u will do

    2. Ncert book of class 11th and 12th r must.
      try 2 read ncert alys, apit helps in building basics which ll help u in pre also. Besides G c Leong is a supplement, d diagrams r gd wid nice explanations., wenevr u hv doubt refer from internet.

  10. If Writing mains this year then go for coaching notes otherwise decide after mains paper

  11. sir,is it true that upsc is going to reduce no of attempt and age limit from 2015.

  12. Sir, how no. of words are counted f an answer ??

  13. Sir, as uve suggested a list of reference books for geography,I jus need to confirm that do we even have to deal topics in this much detail that we need to refer these many books only for paper 1 gs mains then what will be the difference between those who hv geography optional

  14. Best compilation……hats off !!

  15. Hi Sir,
    Thanks for the answer keys, however I feel your answer to the desert question is not accurate.
    The simple reason why deserts are 20-30 degree north is because water evaporated at equator rises and reaches a Max level then it proceeds further in all directions N,S,W,E. The air cools down and and rain falls by the time air reaches 20-30 degree north air contains no moisture so no rain fall. Further this area lies in easterly trade winds where winds flows NE to SW, if we look look at all deserts here no ocean can be found in North east of them so trade winds contain no moisture for them further these easterly trade winds are the reason for deserts to be in west of the continent because by the time tree winds reaches western cost moisture of trade wind is already gone.
    This holds true not only to 20-30degree north but south also.

    If we go by logics of cold ocean current then western coast of Europe, north america and eastern cost of norther n Asia should also be a desert.

  16. Sir, Spectrum is a good book but is very huge so, do I need to read full book or selective reading will work

  17. Two of my friends gave interview last year just by reading NCERTs i dont know y ur suggesting so many books

  18. Hi mrunal sir & team
    thank u very much for ur great work to help students.
    U r truely a simplest sir I hv ever seen

    sir, mains exam of CSE is comming, so plz explain some Geography questions-answers which r more difficult asked in previous GS paper.

  19. this is a amazing for the optional geography student but gs paper also for our future as well as how to improved ourselve for mains exam of civil service.

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