- [Act 1] Shipping
- S1: Major ports on West Coast
- S2: Major Ports on East Coast
- S3: Economic Survey: Shipping reforms
- S4: Budget 2014: Shipping related announcement
- S4: TAMP: Tariff Authority for Major Ports
- S5: Sethu Samudram
Economic Survey Ch11. Energy, Infrastructure and Communications. Total four subparts
- Energy & communication
- Roads, Industrial corridors, PPP, Infrastructure problems & reforms
- Shipping, aviation
- Railways infrastructure
[Act 1] Shipping
S1: Major ports on West Coast
A: Artificial, N: Natural harbor
|N||Jawahar Nehru, Nhava Shewa||MH (2)|
- Kandala, Kutch. Tidal port
- in 50s because Karachi port lost in Partition
- first Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ) in India and Asia
|N||Mormugao. Tidal Port, @Zuvari estuary, iron-ore export||Goa (1)|
|A||New Mangalore. Deep water, all weather||Karnataka(1)|
|N||Cochin/Kochi. Willingdon island||Kerala(1)|
|Total Major Ports (West Coast)||6|
S2: Major Ports on East Coast
A: Artificial, N: Natural harbor
- Haldia | Kolkata.
- Riverine port
- Oldest major port of India#
- Need constant dredging to keep depth.
- new proposed: Sagar
- Vishakhapatnam. & Eastern Naval command
- new proposed: Dugarajapatanam
|A||Paradeep (manmade lagoon)||Odisha(1)|
|A||Chennai (all weather)|
|A||Ennore (private, under companies Act)|
- Port Blair (Southernmost). Declared 13th major port in 2010.
- named after British officer Lt. Archibald Blair
|Total Ports East Coast||7|
- #Some books (Pearson, Pratiyogita) mention Chennai to be the oldest port, but sarkaari sites maintain that Kolkata is the oldest port. (Ref#1, Ref#2)
- CDS/CAPF randomly ask question whether xyz port is natural harbor/artificial / riverine- hence need to mugup.
- States with highest Minor ports: Maharashtra >> Guj >> A&N >>Kerala >> Odisha
S3: Economic Survey: Shipping reforms
- Main problems: ageing fleet, manpower shortage.
- While India made great success metro rails and airport infra. but shipping infrastructure has been neglected.
- India does not have world class ports.
- Third-generation ships are not able to enter the harbour. Their goods have to be offloaded in Srilanka, then sent to India in smaller ships.
- India’s port charges are considerably higher than in many developed countries.
- Port congestion, delay in turnaround, takes lot of paperwork to load/unload cargo, slow process of customs clearance, inadequate road and rail connectivity
- There is urgent need to replace our ageing ships with new ones. But Government-owned shipyards like Visakhapatnam are not receiving new orders due to global slowdown.
S4: Budget 2014: Shipping related announcement
- Will frame new policy, so increase employment, Indian shipbuilding and maritime transport.
- Sixteen new port projects are proposed
- New SEZs at Kandla and JNPT.
- Will develop Tuticorin outer harbor.
- Inland navigation: ‘Jal Marg Vikas’ (National Waterways-I) on Ganga. Between Allahabad and Haldia. Deadline: 6 years, 1620 kms, 4200 cr.
S4: TAMP: Tariff Authority for Major Ports
|Major port||Minor ports|
|TAMP decides maximum tariff charged by Major ports for cargo handling|
- They’re free to fix tariff charges
- They don’t fall under TAMP regulation.
|Major port operators want TAMP abolished, so they too can raise tarrif and expand.||They can charge higher prices and re-invest profits to modernize further.|
- Reform: 2013, shipping ministry exempted Port projects after Aug-2013, from TAMP.
- but Major port operators want all ports to be removed from TAMP mechanism
S5: Sethu Samudram
- Old topic, Needs to be prepared again because NDA/BJP in power.
- This project wants to create a shipping canal between Palk bay & Gulf of Manner.
- Pro-argument: Will reduce time and fuel consumption. Improve traffic @minor ports in South-East India
- Anti-argument: marine biodiversity will be damaged + religious sentiments about Ram Sethu.
Shipping: more stupid statistics
|Coastline||7517km (including A&N, Lakshadweep)|
- five on west coast
- four on east coast
- 13 +2 proposed
- Under the union Government
- handle 57% of traffic
- under State Governments
- handle 43% of traffic, but higher growth rate than major orthodox s.
- India 3rd largest supplier.
Trade volume / value
|%||___ India’s foreign trade via shipping industry|