- [Act 1] Shipping
Economic Survey Ch11. Energy, Infrastructure and Communications. Total four subparts
- Energy & communication
- Roads, Industrial corridors, PPP, Infrastructure problems & reforms
- Shipping, aviation
- Railways infrastructure
|N||Jawahar Nehru, Nhava Shewa||MH (2)|
|N||Mormugao. Tidal Port, @Zuvari estuary, iron-ore export||Goa (1)|
|A||New Mangalore. Deep water, all weather||Karnataka(1)|
|N||Cochin/Kochi. Willingdon island||Kerala(1)|
|Total Major Ports (West Coast)||6|
|A||Paradeep (manmade lagoon)||Odisha(1)|
|A||Chennai (all weather)|
|A||Ennore (private, under companies Act)|
|Total Ports East Coast||7|
- #Some books (Pearson, Pratiyogita) mention Chennai to be the oldest port, but sarkaari sites maintain that Kolkata is the oldest port. (Ref#1, Ref#2)
- CDS/CAPF randomly ask question whether xyz port is natural harbor/artificial / riverine- hence need to mugup.
- States with highest Minor ports: Maharashtra >> Guj >> A&N >>Kerala >> Odisha
- Main problems: ageing fleet, manpower shortage.
- While India made great success metro rails and airport infra. but shipping infrastructure has been neglected.
- India does not have world class ports.
- Third-generation ships are not able to enter the harbour. Their goods have to be offloaded in Srilanka, then sent to India in smaller ships.
- India’s port charges are considerably higher than in many developed countries.
- Port congestion, delay in turnaround, takes lot of paperwork to load/unload cargo, slow process of customs clearance, inadequate road and rail connectivity
- There is urgent need to replace our ageing ships with new ones. But Government-owned shipyards like Visakhapatnam are not receiving new orders due to global slowdown.
- Will frame new policy, so increase employment, Indian shipbuilding and maritime transport.
- Sixteen new port projects are proposed
- New SEZs at Kandla and JNPT.
- Will develop Tuticorin outer harbor.
- Inland navigation: ‘Jal Marg Vikas’ (National Waterways-I) on Ganga. Between Allahabad and Haldia. Deadline: 6 years, 1620 kms, 4200 cr.
|Major port||Minor ports|
|TAMP decides maximum tariff charged by Major ports for cargo handling||
|Major port operators want TAMP abolished, so they too can raise tarrif and expand.||They can charge higher prices and re-invest profits to modernize further.|
- Old topic, Needs to be prepared again because NDA/BJP in power.
- This project wants to create a shipping canal between Palk bay & Gulf of Manner.
- Pro-argument: Will reduce time and fuel consumption. Improve traffic @minor ports in South-East India
- Anti-argument: marine biodiversity will be damaged + religious sentiments about Ram Sethu.
|Coastline||7517km (including A&N, Lakshadweep)|
Trade volume / value
|%||___ India’s foreign trade via shipping industry|