[Economic Survey] Ch12: Sustainable Development, Millennium Development Goals, MDG, SDG, NAPCC, WTO Solar subsidies

Environment72 Comments

India Yearbook
  1. [Act 1] MDG, SDG, Kyoto Agreements
    1. #1: Millennium Development goals (MDG)
    2. MDG & India
    3. Budget 2014 on sustainable Development
    4. #2: Sustainable Development goals (SDG)
    5. #3: Kyoto and WARSAW
    6. #4: Fodder: Future agreements
    7. #5: Fodder: Emission cuts vs India
  2. [Act 2] Climate funding
    1. CF#1: Global environment facility (GEF)
    2. CF#2: National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF)
    3. Fodder: Climate finance problems
  3. [Act 3] India specific
    1. #1: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
    2. #2: Environment clearance problem
    3. #3: Assertion reasoning: Market vs Environment
  4. Appendix
    1. #1: Desi Liquor Solar subsidies =Anti-WTO, says USA
    2. #2: Ecuador oil drilling in Yasuni Park
    3. #3: Tar balls

[Act 1] MDG, SDG, Kyoto Agreements

  • Economic survey ch12: sustainable Development and climate change.
  • As such chapter has hardly any new topics. Most of the stuff is fodder and bolbachhan.

#1: Millennium Development goals (MDG)

Who?UN General assembly
When?Framed in 2000. (but targets calculation done based on 1990 levels)
deadline2015

Millenium Development goals MDG

MDG has 8 goals and 18 targets
GOALTARGET DESCRIPTION
1.povertyhunger1. reduce BPL junta by 50%
2. reduce hungry people by 50%
2.edu3. all boys & girls complete primary education
3. genderequality4.Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education
4.child5. reduce child mortality by 2/3rd
5.mother6. Reduce MMR by 3/4th (75%)
6.disease7. halt HIV/AIDS spread
8. halt malaria etc.
7.SustainbleDevelopment9. integrate sustainable Development into national policies, reverse environment loss
10.junta without access to water-sanitation : reduce their # by 50%
11. Improve life of at least 10 crore slum dwellers.
8.partnership12. reform training, financial system, good governance etc.
13.needs of LDC countries
14. needs of small island and land locked countries
15. debt problem of developing countries
16. youth productive work
17. affordable drugs with help of pharma cos.
18. new ICT technology with help of private cos.

MDG & India

Data taken from Economic Survey 2013, page 218
IndicatorMDG targetIndia’slikelyachievement
1.Poverty. BPL earning <1$/day23.9% BPL earning <1$20.74
2A.Edu. Net enrollment ratio
2B.Literacy rate (15-24 years)
100%100%
3A. Gender parity index(boys to girls in primary edu)11
3B. share of women in non-agri. employment5023.1
4A. under five mortality rate (1000 live births)4250
4B. IMR (1000 live births)2741
5A. MMR (1 lakh live births)109139
5C. births attended by skilled personnel100%62%
6.Halt HIV & other diseaseno projectionsgiven in survey
7A.households with water access94%(Urban) 79%(Rural)98%(U) 96%(R)
7B. households without sanitation access16%(U) 47%(R)12%(U) 61%(R)
Overall India’s performance on MDG deadline (2015)
India can achieve these by 2015cannot achieve these by 2015
  1. Poverty reduction
  2. households with water access
  3. Gender parity, universal primary education
  4. under five mortality rate (With some effort)
  1. MMR
  2. share of women in non-agri.employment
  3. birth attended by skilled personnel
  4. sanitation

Budget 2014 on sustainable Development

  • Re-affirmed global commitment to develop new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) when the MDG expires in 2015.
  • Outlined India’s performance on sustainable development viz.
  1. 12th FYP gave prominent focus to Sustainable development.
  2. Since 90s till now, India has reduced its Carbon dioxide emission by 20% (per unit of GDP)
  3. 12% of our energy comes from renewable sources. (23 Gigawatts).
  4. National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCCs.) have been development.

#2: Sustainable Development goals (SDG)

  • 2015: millennium Development goals will expire.
  • Therefore, under RIO+20 summit, the leaders had decided to enact new “Sustainable development goals” (SDG)
  • UN general assembly has setup 30 member group to design SDG.
Proposed focus area under SDG (fodder for mains/Essay)
  1. poverty eradication
  2. food security and nutrition
  3. health and population dynamics
  4. education
  5. gender equality and women empowerment
  6. water and sanitation
  1. energy
  2. employment
  3. sustainable cities and human settlements
  4. sustainable production and consumption
  5. means of implementation

What is sustainable Development?

  • “Development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
  • Brundtland commission on World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) gave above definition.
  • This has been asked in MCQ- who gave definition, therefore need to remember.

What is Rio+20 summit?

  • 1992: Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2012: United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, in same place.
  • but since 20 years had lapsed between two summit, therefore, second summit called “RIO+20”

For more details on RIO+20 and a mile long article click me.

#3: Kyoto and WARSAW

Kyoto protocolWARSAW summit
3rd conference under UNFCC (1997)19th conference under UNFCC (2013)
  • Kyoto Protocol designed in this conference.
  • It wants the Industrialized nations to reduce their GHG emission by around 5.2% by 2012. (against 1990 levels)
Like-minded Developing countries wanted NO LEGALLY BINDING commitment on  “DEVELOPING” countries.
Kyoto protocol expires in 2020Decided to meet at Paris in 2015, to outline post- what to do after Kyoto protocol expires in 2020
Kyoto protocol expires in 2020Decided to meet at Paris in 2015, to outline post- what to do after Kyoto protocol expires in 2020
three mechanisms

  1. Carbon trading. 2013: India registered 115 project= highest by any country.
  2. Clean Development mechanism
  3. Joint implementation
two mechanisms

  • Loss and Damage mechanism
  • REDD+ mechanism- UK, Norway and USA gave funds.
more details click memore details click me
List of Greenhouse gases under Kyoto
  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2);
  2. Methane (CH4);
  3. Nitrous oxide (N2O);
  1. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);
  2. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs);
  3. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
  • Mug up above list for tricky MCQs “which of the following is not a GHG?”
  • Do read NCERT Chemistry class11 chapter 14: environmental chemistry.

#4: Fodder: Future agreements

KyotoMDG
born in 19972000
expires in 20202015
Kyoto focus= industrialized (developed) countries to cut down their emission.MDG focus= developing countries to improve human and environment welfare.
But, in 2015: all countries will have to pledge emission cuts for the post 2020 period.But in 2015: MDG will end. Therefore, global community designing future sustainable development goals (SDGs), according to Rio+20 mandate. Budget 2014, also affirmed this commitment.
  • 2014 is the last chance for all stakeholders to introspect to be able to wisely choose the world they want post 2015.
  • Therefore future agreements:  (1) post Kyoto agreement (2) SDG= these two will apply to all countries- whether they’re developing, developed countries.
  • But applicability to all, should not amount to “uniformity of application”.
  • Per capita energy use in developing countries is hardly 25% of developed countries.
  • The bottom half of the world can do its bit but it cannot be expected to shoulder the bulk of the world’s development, sustainability, and climate crisis burden.
  • In other words, first world countries should further reduce emission and send truckload of donation to third world countries.
  • In other words, Global community must embed the principles of equity and CBDR in the new agreements.
  • Developing countries should have the discretion to fulfill their domestic goals in accordance with their national circumstances
  • Developing countries must be given their fair share of ‘carbon’ and ‘development space’.
  • Global community must stop taking solace in limited progress and move to decisive action.

#5: Fodder: Emission cuts vs India

Points from Economic Survey, about India’s commitment towards climate change and sustainable Development

  • India has not even utilized its fair share of the earth’s carbon space.
  • Between 1850 to 2010: India’s contribution to global emissions was only 2.7%, while that of the USA was 27%
  • India lacks the resources to effectively respond to sustainability and climate challenges.
  • We’ve not even achieved basic minimum standards of living for its entire population.
  • 4 crore Indians don’t have electricity in their homes
  • 8 crore Indians still use firewood for cooking
  • We have to maintain a high economic growth for a large population
  • We have to provide urbanization and industrialization.
  • But mitigation and adaptation must continue.
  • We’ve enacted a number of legislations on conservation of forests and ecosystems, waste management, and pollution control.
  • We strongly believe that environmental conservation can go hand in hand with development
  • But while pursuing higher GDP, we’ll keep “sustainability” at the core of India’s planning process.

[Act 2] Climate funding

Only covering the climate funding mechanisms discussed in survey/budget.

CF#1: Global environment facility (GEF)

  • 1991: started in the world bank
  • Provides funding for UNFCC, convention of biological diversity (CBD), Stockholm convention on organic pollutants, Minamata convention on Mercury etc.
  • So far, India used ~50 cr dollars from GEF. And itself pledged 1.2 core $ in GEF-5.
  • India has used majority of GEF funding on mitigation projects ($4 cr), and only a small fraction on adaptation projects.
Difference between two projects?
AdaptationMitigation
post-measurepre-measure
Building sea walls to protect against sea riseReduce emission to prevent global warming which leads to sea rise.
Having ambulance facilities in dangerous highways/roads with curves and narrow lanesDon’t make dangerous roads in the first place.

CF#2: National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF)

  • Was created from a coal cess of 50 per ton.
  • Falls under “public account of India” (And not under Consolidated fund of India).
  • Budget 2014 increased coal cess to Rs.100 per tonne
  • >15k crore rupees spent from this fund on JNNURM Solar lights, wind power projects etc.

Fodder: Climate finance problems

  • Developed countries committed to providing US$ 100 billion per year to developing countries by 2020.
  • But there is no comprehensive system for tracking climate finance
  • proliferation of funds, and lack of coordination
  • Developed countries providing Technological transfer instead of granting money
  • To reduce global temperature by 2 Degree in 2050, we need 44 trillion USD. No single source will be sufficient for this amount.
  • Countries can raise more money via domestic resource mobilization (DRM). But that depends on factors such as fiscal performance of the country, natural resource base, and size of tax base etc.
  • We must explore new funds from South-South cooperation, and private finance.

[Act 3] India specific

#1: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

The new economic survey itself shamelessly says “We’ve covered this topic in previous economic survey.” Therefore, time to shamelessly copy paste from previous summary, with minor updates.

TIMELINE of NAPCC
2008PM launched NAPCC.
2009PM requested state govt. to prepare SAPCC. (State Action plan on climate change)
201426 states/UT submitted their SAPCC so far (as per economic survey)

Thanks to NAPCC, we’ve reduced the CO2 emission per GDP unit by 20%

NAPCC 8 missions

Nehru Solar

  • 2010: (Jawaharlal Nehru) National solar mission launched.
  • Under ministry of new and renewable energy

Targets by 2022

  1. install 20GW solar power
  2. 2 GW of off-grid Solar
  3. 20 million sq. meter of solar thermal collector area
  4. 20 million rural households to have solar lighting
mission will be implemented in 3 phases
PhaseTill March
First2013
Second2017 [we are in second phase]
Third2022

Other missions under NAPCC

2.Energy
  • National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)
  • by 2015, help save about 5% of our annual energy consumption, and nearly 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year
  • via PAT and ESCert mechanism.
3.Water
  • National water mission.
  • increase water use efficiency by 20%
  • focus on over-exploited areas, integrated water  Management, awareness generation etc. fancy stuff
  • Finished pilot study on Godavari and Brahmani-Baitarani basin.
  • Water resource ministry got ADB’s technical assistance.
4.Agro
  • National mission for sustainable agriculture.
  • to enhance agro productivity
  • to reduce agro vulnerability to weather, floods, draught etc.
  • New activities focusing on horticulture, increases fish production, warehousing and seed processing.
5.Green India (forest)
  • National mission for Green India
  • Plant additional 10 million ht. of forest lands, wastelands and community lands.
6.Habitat
  • National mission on Sustainable Habitat
  • Energy-efficient buildings, sewage Management, urban planning, transport, etc. six sub sector.
  • 2009: Green Building norms made mandatory for the CPWD since 2009
  • 2013: Energy Conservation Building Code 2007 made mandatory for new as well as old buildings and incorporated in the Central Public Works Department (CPWD)
7.Knowledge
  • National mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
  • to Identify challenges arising from climate change,
  • Promote knowledge development for health, demography, migration, and livelihood of coastal communities.
8.Himalayan Ecosystem
  • National mission for sustaining the Himalayan Eco System
  • To reduce climate impacts on the Himalayan glaciers
  • To promote community-based management of these ecosystems

#2: Environment clearance problem

Lengthy topic, only summarizing points from survey.

Why environmental clearance gets delayed?

  • Fragmented policy. Several government agencies with differing policy mandates.
  • State institutes have shortage of trained personnel, database, funds and infrastructure.

Reforms taken?

  • Environment ministry has relaxed general conditions relating to distance of project from state boundaries.
  • If mining projects that have already obtained Environmental Clearance (EC) under EIA Notification 2006, then they don’t have to get another EC during mining license

Renewal.

  • Relaxed norms for Highway expansion projects.
  • As such Environment impact assessment work is classified into two categories:
Category ACategory B
Need clearance from environment ministryNeed clearance from state level agencies.

 

Reform taken: B category projects further sub classified
B1Need public hearing.
B2Don’t need public hearing anymore.

#3: Assertion reasoning: Market vs Environment

I’ve shifted this topic from Chapter on Industries to this chapter, for continuity in revision. Let’s direct check assertion reasoning type:

AssertionEnvironmental degradation is the result of market failure
ReasonMarkets for environmental goods and services is non-existent in India.
Correct answerBoth correct, R explains A.

 

Second A&R question
AssertionEnvironmental degradation is the result of market failure.
ReasonLack of well-defined property rights is one of the reasons for market failure.
Correct answerBoth correct, but R doesn’t explain A. (R explains what causes market failure but doesn’t explain how market failure causes environment degradation)

 

Third A&R question
AssertionGovernment’s price control and subsidies on fossil fuelAggravates the achievement of environmental objectives.
ReasonSuch interventions create Market distortions.
Correct answerR right and explains A

More fodder:

Indian manufacturing technology puts a heavy stress on the environment- via intensive resource and energy use.

Significant pollutersresult
  • Petro refine
  • Iron-Steel
  • Metallic mineral extraction
  • Fertilizer
  • Cement.
  • Small scale Foundries, brick making etc.
  • Resource depletion
  • Contamination of air, water and land
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Health hazards

Appendix

some related topics in current affairs:

#1: Desi Liquor Solar subsidies =Anti-WTO, says USA

  • Under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, Government has made specific guidelines for “local sourcing” i.e. some of the solar equipment must be procured from desi companies only. also called “Domestic content requirement” (DCR)
  • So, indirectly the American (And any other foreign products) are eliminated from competition.
America accusesIndia defends
  • Earlier India used to import thin solar films from outside.
  • But in Nehru Solar mission (phase II), Indian government specifically made guidelines that thin solar films must be procured from desi players
  • This is one type of non-tariff barrier = you’re violating WTO agreement.
In many states of USA, you’re also doing the same against our solar panels. So, this is tit-for-tat.
As per WTO’s Government Procurement Agreement, you cannot “discriminate” between desi vs foreign players while procuring goods/services for government projects.But we’ve not signed that stupid agreement!
You’re running a vendetta to hurt American businessmen.
  • We only want to protect Indian businessmen.
  • In past we’ve even imposed anti-dumping duty on Chinese and Indonesian solar companies.
  • So far we’ve not impose such duties on American businessman.
Our solar panels are of higher quality and cheaper price than your bogus desi products.
  • On that logic, if we continue buying everything American for Government projects, then our local industry will never develop,
  • because they won’t make good profits to invest in R&D. We must attain self-reliance for energy security.
  • So even if it means using public money on expensive desi products- that’s fine.
  • Public money should not be used to pay for imports- but to develop domestic production capacity.

What happened next?

  • 2014: USA complained to WTO. WTO asked both parties (India-US) to find a solution through (informal) talks/consultation with 60 days deadline.
  • But talks did not lead to satisfactory outcome.
  • May 2014: USA asked to WTO form a dispute settlement panel and adjudicate this like a court matter.
  • July 2014: onwards it’s just taarikh pe taarikh.
  • Aug 2014: US envoy on climate change meets our Environment minister. Only Lip service on dispute. Their main agenda is to sign energy efficiency projects for those “SMART CITIES”.

#2: Ecuador oil drilling in Yasuni Park

  • Amazon Rainforests= lungs of the world
  • Ecuador found large reserve of oil near Amazon basin – Yasuni National Park.
  • Yasuni national park – UNESCO Biosphere reserve. Has two primitive uncontacted tribes (Kichwa and Waorani tribe)
  • Park has more biodiversity than entire North America
  • 2007: Ecuador Government asked world to give money, in exchange of not drilling the oil and harming environment.
  • So far, hardly 13 million$ received. Government wanted >3.5 billion$.
  • Therefore, Government decided to start oil drilling in Yasuni National park.

#3: Tar balls

  • Tar balls are lumps of petroleum
  • How are they formed? Oil spillage from tankers. Regular ships discharging burnt-oil into sea.
  • This oil reacts with sea-water=> tar balls formed.
  • Tar balls were washed ashore during the pre- and post-monsoon period along the Konkan belt Goa, Karwar in Karnataka and south Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.
  • Why problem? Tar balls harmful for marine organism. They have foul smell, sticky to walk on=beach tourists decline.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha


So far 72 Comments posted

  1. MaNmOhAn

    Mrunal Sir when will u restart PIB ArTiCles

    1. T A M

      Dude atleast have the sanctity to question this after prelims.

    2. GANAPATHI

      Sir, Environment material has not been updated since long.is it relevant for 2017 material. Kindly suggest us. Thank you

  2. Parul

    Found this site accidentally and since then I have become a regular follower.
    Thanks a lot Mrunal for all these wonderful articles and easy to understand language !!!

  3. Arjun

    Firstly thanks a lot for all the articles sir..
    Sir from which section should we start CSAT paper ((now that eng comprehension ques won’t be coming)) ..??

    1. Sidhartha

      see Arjun.prepare for english comprehension also because UPSC has not clarified yet whether it will remove it or not.i think status quo will be maintained and we have to answer all 80 ques

  4. harikrishnaraj m.s

    Thank you sir..

  5. aspirant

    @GHATOTKACH who said u exam is postponed ???

  6. shikha

    mrunal sir,thanks a lot for economic survey. i m belonging to hindi medium but ur english is simple.again THANKS

  7. Aly soni

    Is the prelims paper for 2014 postponed or is it 2015?

    1. Karan Jain

      CSP 2015 on 23rd August 2015.

  8. mnu!!

    can anyone share notes for india year book 2014?

  9. Gourav

    Thanks Mrunal ….. A lot for consistent effort to educated India

  10. Sumedh

    Hi Mrunal,

    Do you have list of MCQ’s, which are part of each article in a single PDF (uploaded)? If not, is it possible for you to do so..
    Does anybody has it?

    Regards,

    1. Sumedh

      I mean to say, consolidated single PDF of all MCQ’s in articles published till now..

  11. Ankit

    really useful work by putting in a lot of painstaking efforts …thanks a ton!!!!!!

  12. Amit Kr

    Millennium Development Goal is baar important jaan padta hai… kyuki agle saal iska samapan hone wala hai. Mrunal Ji ho sake toh agle somwaar tak prarambhik parikshopayogi bindu bhi yadi prakashit karne ka kasht karte to hum logo ke lie achha hota. isase ek quick revision me madam milti….

  13. Amit Kr

    CSAT पर एक सर्व दलीय बैठक 24 अगस्त के पश्चात होग. इसलिए अब परीक्षा तिथि पर विवाद निरर्थक है. मृणाल जी के काउंटडाउन को ही ध्यान में रखा जाये.

  14. Neeroj

    GHATOTKACH
    Pagal ho gae ho kaya yaar.
    information dena hi hai toa puri do na kaya baat hai tume or kuch nahi mila toa yaaha par aa kar IAS ban gae nahi.

    Dear Friends,
    All information about from anything please provide genuine address because this time is not for fun.
    Our last stage preparation going now.
    If you want then share relate to questions ask in PT 2014. This is good for all.

    welcome……….

  15. rahul

    mansi, do not panic. ghototkach is a nonse guy spreading romours here and there. please focous on your study.

  16. osama

    brundtland commission

  17. rahul

    after the completion of economy articles , please resume the current series because it contains current within the static information and also start the geography series because by reading through books it is difficult to understand. thanks mrunal sir . you are a true gem for us.

  18. damu

    Plz anyone tells hw 2 prepare graph type mcqs(like x men do sm wrk in y days than which graph shows this relations) thnxs bt rply.. Mrunal g my most expctations to u..plz rply bcoz ktl Ki subh ab jyada dur nahi..

    1. Jude_Prudence

      Everything which has to be prepared can not be prepared. Have faith and depend on your common sense.

      1. Arun

        common sense prevails ….. jude ( a sensible comment on this site after a long time)

  19. Deepak

    Thanks sir… waititng for this articl

  20. rkv

    Railway budget is a money bill or not. … Please answer with explanation

    1. Jude_Prudence

      Yes it is. Anything in or out of CFI is via a money bill

      1. Jude_Prudence

        Rule 213 of the Lok Sabha says the budget may be presented in two or more parts. Trait budget isn’t an entirely different thing. It’s actually a part of annual financial statement under art112

        Even on being presented in separate parts it’s considered as one. Had there been 10 parts of afs even then it would be seen as a whole.

        AFS under Art112 is a money bill, so yes, rail budget is also the same.

        Admin, make it static :-P. Pin it

        1. Jude_Prudence

          Trait=rail

          #autospell

  21. ashok

    sir plz inform us that nw english is not counted for merit .. what we should do in the csat ..do we need to attempt them or not.. plz clear the confusion
    thank you

  22. Jude_Prudence

    Mrunal Sir…I think MCX , spot exchange and FMC have been completely over looked. They were such a hot topic in newspapers but I could not find good notes on it in totality. Hindu only covers in pieces, no background theory. I was hoping you would write on it, but this Survey ! Even worse, those SENSEX 30 aur NIFTY 50 wala article that you called garbage has been removed. Ab bolo kya kare.

      1. Jude_Prudence

        Ok thanks.

        Here is what I could gather in 10 minutes

        FMC=SEBI
        MCX SX, NSEL = BSE, NSE
        Spot trading=On the very spot (payment within 2 days of transaction, somewhere it said one day also)
        and a forward contract is within 11 days.
        Forward contract-(minus) spot=Speculation and profiteering
        This was happening at NSEL

        and for MCQ, commodity market also trades in Bullion, gaur gum, spices etc and physical delivery of goods also possible.

        I know somethings must be wrong, but what can I do…it’s not making sense to me. Anywho…akkad bakkad bambe booo A,B,C,D

        1. Mrunal

          @Jude, NSEL crisis= middlemen signed T+20, T+30 type contracts, but didnot have the goods to deliver (contracts made using fake warereciepts, they were hoping to get genuine reciepts/commodities withn those 20,30 days using “Jugaad”). then FMC says convert’em all into T+10 (settle within 10 days) hence the crisis because brokers couldnt do jugaad at such short notice.

          1. Jude_Prudence

            Thanks…got it

          2. mango people

            @Mrunal Sir, There is a recruitment going on for scientists at CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute,Kolkata.Last date of application is 18th aug,2014. This is the notification http://www.cgcri.res.in/datas/users/1-26_6_2014_advt_01_2014_cgcri.pdf. i found it missing from the recruitment notices of your website,though there is one of NCL. (sorry for posting out of context,wanted the message to reach mrunal sir)

  23. neel

    pls provide some notes on biodiversity plss…

  24. mansi

    yaar rahul pata ye person k kaaran mane socha k shayad paper forward ho jaye ,is khushi me aj sham se padhi hi nhi,aasa bolta hi kyu ha ye ghotoykach.

  25. mansi

    thanxx rahul once again .

  26. mansi

    damu ap plz you tube pe dekho ,mane bhi vahi se prepare kiya ha ,try it

  27. marshal

    I bow to you mrunal sir,
    I don’t know how to repay you for the knowledge learned from you, and I assure that I will spread the knowledge to the my surrounding society. Eagerly looking forward for CSAT

  28. amit

    hello everyone…an imprtnt information i want to share with all of you ..its not about…study its about health..i knw its not the ryt tym..but i think its imprtnt…hope u all heard about generic drugs…here is way to find out those generic medcn…which are selling on higher prices in market..all you have do this…download HEALTH KART PLUS app from andriod ph…enter ur medscn name…u vl get its selling price in market also generic price with same salt in subsitute option there…hope it will help….its a good will social service..so i just shared with you..thanks…..now start study…clock is running..

  29. ram

    thanks mrunal…….

  30. parmod

    thanks mrunal bhai.

  31. Kiranmoy Biswas

    Mrunal Sir
    1. Since the planning commission has been dissolved….does that mean 12th fyp is also gone.
    If 12th fyp is non existent then should I skip it for prelims???

    2. UPSC is still silent on removal of English only comprehension of 22 marks…will be advisable to attempt them in this prelim if UPSC stays silent on it till the end????

  32. Gokul

    Where I will get chapter no 8,9,10,11

  33. raghav

    Sir ………some absurd images are appearing on your home page………may be some hackers attempt…….I am not sure whether these are visible to you but its happening

  34. Deo

    anyone plz provide the list of ministries recently renamed by the new gvt.

  35. Tapasya

    Sir I noticed a spelling mistake in the name of the commission that gave the definition of Sustainable Development, it is the Brundtland Commission, named after Gro Harlem Brundtland.

  36. mnu!!

    yasuni park and tar ball

  37. sachin

    Plz ans ..
    Which of the following are example of investment in an economy?
    1. Purchasing of share.
    2. Repairing the warehouse of a factory.
    3. Buying an insurance policy.
    4. Purchasing machines and tools by a company.
    Select the correct ans. From the codes given below:
    (A) 1 and 2 only
    (B) 2 and 4 .
    (C) 1 and 3
    (D) all of the above .

    1. sanat

      investments are primarily measured interms of gross capital formation. Shud be 2 & 4.

      1. sachin

        U r ryt …bt I have a doubt ? Y not buying an insurance policy..bcz when v purchase a policy to iska paisa b to indirectly khi na khi invest hi hota hai na

        1. sanat

          Usually the money we put in insurance policy goes into instruments like Mutual funds and other equity/debt instruments. They form portfolio investments and hence cannot be necessarily be considered contributory towards CAPITAL FORMATION, where capital is one of the factors of production apart from land, labour, entrepreneurship.

  38. Himansh

    @ Mrunal kudos to u for this commendable work, I wud like to point some minute corrections in the above article:
    1. as per economic survey 400 million or 40 crore ppl in India don’t have access to electricity, and its 80 crore figure for firewood cooking

    2.In Gef utilization its $ 477 million ~=50 crore not 5 crore.

    was just going thro survey so noticed these inadvertent mistakes…..

  39. Rank7

    Dear Sir,
    I have a doubt regarding who can participate in Carbon Trading?
    (In JI both are Annex B, While in CDM one is Annex B and other non-annex)
    Isn’t it that only Annex B countries are given quotas such as AAU etc and hence only they can participate. In that case How can India register 115, highest Carbon trading projects?
    Thank you

  40. Prasad

    Thanks a lot sir.

    One small correction sir,
    40 and not 4 crore Indians don’t have electricity in their homes
    80 and not 8 crore Indians still use firewood for cooking

  41. kumar

    Thanks for all your support.

  42. Sid

    Thanks a lot for the wonderful effort in helping students.. Much appreciated.. !

  43. vivek

    Hi Mrunal, I could not understand the sentence—-‘Thanks to NAPCC (national action plan for climate change), we’ve reduced the CO2 emission per GDP unit by 20%’……can you please elaborate

  44. kamesh

    guys …all the best….
    concentration of mind just on 24 August….

    and don’t know any things….

    may Almighty invigorate such energy at penultimate to everyone at this chaotic junction to concentrate all energy at one juncture…
    all the best frds..
    kamesh

  45. arunima

    Sir, the two uncontacted tribes living in the yasuni national park are tagaeri and taromenan.

  46. san

    can i refer these notes for ias 2017 plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz guide me

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