[Public Health]- Ebola, Cavilon, Kala-Azar Revised strategy, Free Rotavirus vaccine, XDR-TB, BRCA genes, NOTTO

SubscribeTechnology93 Comments

Pavan Kumar
  1. Mains Questions
  2. GS4: Ethics Case study on Ebola
    1. H1: Ebola virus outbreak
    2. H2: Kala Azar-revised strategy
    3. H3: Cavilon for Boxers
    4. H4: Free Rotavirus vaccine
    5. H5: Sickle Cell Anemia
    6. H6: XDR-TB
    7. H7: TB: Email + Survey
    8. H8: BRCA genes Patented in Australia
    9. H9: Eye donation
    10. H10: NOTTO
    11. H11: Misc. Developments
  3. Mock MCQs
  4. Correct Answers for the MCQs

Mains Questions

100 words each

  1. What do you understand by Cavilon application in Boxing?
  2. Discuss in brief, the salient features of revised strategy against Kala Azar.
  3. Write a shortnote on Ebola outbreak.
  4. What is Sickle Cell Anemia? How can stem cell research help in combating it?
  5. NOTTO: structure and functions.

GS4: Ethics Case study on Ebola

You are Head of Centre for Disease Control. After the “PATH” clinical trials that misused norms to test drugs on innocent children, there has been new regulations that prevent use of unknown drugs on people. Now, there is a severe outbreak of Ebola-disease. No vaccine known. Only experimental drug in the market. It has shown some severe side effects. Patients hanging within the limits of death and life, can even die just because a wrong drug was given to them. A false symptom due to some other disease can lead to complications with the administering of this new experimental drug. There is no time for a systematic clinical trial and introduction of the Anti-Ebola drug.

What will you do, justify with reasons?

  1. There is a difference between giving experimental drugs and illegal trials of drugs. Lives can be saved, therefore experimental drug should be permitted in this case.
  2. There are lot of risks. People can lose lives. This is just like the “PATH”clinical trials. There is a process for everything.
  3. Something else.

H1: Ebola virus outbreak

Ebola infographics

  • It’s called “Ebola” because first cases reported near Ebola River in Congo back in mid 70s.
  • Ebola virus, causes hemorrhagic fever. Death rate upto 90%
  • Symptoms: fever, gum-bleeding,nose-bleeding, red spots on body, blood in stool and vomit.
  • Similar symptoms seen in malaria, cholera, typhoid etc. Hence need to perform ELISA test or other Antigen detection tests to confirm Ebola.
  • Affects: humans, monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees.
Ebola: Myths and truths
spreads viadoesn’t spread via
  1. Fruit bats considered to be natural hosts of this virus.
  2. Virus spread from wild animals like primates, bats, antelopes and porcupines to people.
  3. Then from people to people via blood and secretions.
  4. Even by physical contact with dead body!
  5. Even via semen / sexual intercourse- 7 weeks after recovery.
  6. Nations affected – Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria.
  1. Doesn’t spread by Air-unlike flu (Stanford univ)
  2. Mosquito bite
  3. money, swimming pool, groceries
  4. Ebola easily killed by soap, bleach, sunlight or drying. (says PIB)

Ebola Treatment?

  • Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use.
  • WHO had allowed use of experimental drugs to save lives but it is not successful yet.
  • World and UNICEF donated supplies worth million$.
  • In India, the Tourist returning from the affected countries are being observed for symptoms and their blood is being tested. So far everyone is healthy.

H2: Kala Azar-revised strategy

  • Also known visceral leishmaniasis. caused by Parasite: Leishmania
  • Spread by female sand-fly (it bites for blood meal)
  • Affects spleen, liver and bone marrow. (Parasite cannot synthesize iron containing haem molecule on its own. So, it attacks those organs in search of hemoglobin.)
  • In terms of death record by parasitic diseases: #1 Malaria and #2 is Kala Azar.

 

Revised strategy by Health ministry
Treatment
  • Kala Azar drugs are expensive (and toxic). But WHO will give free supply of Liposomal Amphoterecin B. This is an intravenous drug, helps reducing human reservoir of infection.
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has developed Rapid Diagnosis kits for Kala Azar.
  • Commercial vaccines still under trial.
Pyrethroid
  • Sand fly is the vector of Kala Azar.
  • Government will supply this Pyrethoid insecticide to spray on walls, to kill sand flies.
Notifiable disease
  • Government has declared Kala Azar a notifiable disease
  • Meaning, all sarkaari & private doctrs have to alert the state health authorities whenever they encounter a Kala-Azar patient.
Focus
  • four states – Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Eastern UP.
  • Bihar alone counts for 80% cases
  • Government will focus in these regions.
Social support
  • To recover, you’ve to finish 28 days’ drug course.
  • This requires social support- similar to TB-DOTS workers.

H3: Cavilon for Boxers

Important because remember that stupid cricket related Q in mains-2013. (+ the fact that Mary Kom in news due to bollywood movie.)

  • Back in mid-80s, commonwealth games introduced protective headgears in boxing matches.
  • 2013: AIBA  decided to do away with headguards for elite men category.
  • Logic? without headgear there will be lesser concussions as lesser force is needed to knockout. Headgears are still allowed for women, as they cannot hit with so much force like men.
  • Nonetheless, some boxes and coaches worried abt injury.
  • That’s why AIBA made Cavilon compulsory.
  • Cavilon is brand name of a cut-prevention cream / spray.
  • Boxers have to apply minimum 3 layers of this cream on entire face.
  • This cream helps in preventing cuts, provides moisture and increases medical tape’s adherence.
  • Can last upto 72 hours, contains no petroloeum jelly.

H4: Free Rotavirus vaccine

What is Rotavirus?

  • Grows in the intestinal cells, Causes diarrhea.
  • Called rotavirus because under microscope, it looks like a tiny wheel with spokes.

Why nuisance?

  • Kills 52 infants per 1000 livebirths per year
  • Causes diarrhea that indirectly kills atleast 1 lakh each year.
  • Vaccine too expensive, aam-juntaa can’t afford it.

What’s the Solution to Rotavirus problem?

  • Government decided to add Rotavirus vaccine in the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) from 2015 onwards.
  • Rota-vaccine will be given as an additional dose along with the DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)’s first, second and third doses.

H5: Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Sickle Cell Anemia is a hereditary disease and stays for whole lifetime.
  • Prevalent among Indian tribals.
  • Normal Red blood corpuscles(RBCs) have disk/donut shape.
  • But in this diseases, body produces sickle shaped Red Blood Cells (RBCs).
  • These RBCs have abnormal life cycle, oxygen carrying capacity etc.
  • During his Japan visit, Modi met Shinya Yamanaka asked him to work on Sickle Cell Anemia.
  • Shinya Yamanaka has won Nobel Prize for Medicine (2012), for his research in stem-cells. More details in this old article click me.

But How can stem cell therapy help?

  • Sickle cell can be used by bone-marrow transplant.
  • New bone marrow will begin synthesizing health (donut) shaped RBC.
  • But this transplant is very costly and riskly.
  • Yamanaka’s Noble winning research had created iPS cell- these cells behave like stem cells.
  • We can program iPS cells to create a mass of bone marrow.
  • Then, Transplant it into patient and his sickle cell anemia will be cured.

H6: XDR-TB

“Normal” TB
  • Caused by TB bacteria.
  • Can be treated with first generation drugs.
MDR-TB
  • Multi-drug resistant TB. It develops when first line drugs are not taken properly.
  • MDR-TB has to be treated with second line drugs, Patient takes longer time to recover.
XDR-TB
  • Develops when second-line drugs are misused. (e.g. patient not finishing entire course, or doctor giving inappropriate amount of drug)

H7: TB: Email + Survey

TB email

  • Health ministry wants to create an Email repository between doctors and government.
  • Help TB patients if doctors know of the latest treatment and protocols.
  • Help to devise new strategies to combat MDR TB
  • Research data transmission between ICMR, Doctors and international bodies.

TB survey

  • first TB survey conducted in India in 1914-16
  • In entire world ~4 lakh TB patients are multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB).
  • 25% of them in India alone.
  • Now, an even bigger “Extensively drug-resistant TB” (XDR-TB) has emerged.
  • Health ministry will launch a new survey, with help of with WHO and USAID
  • This survey will have ever sample size (5000+ patients) all over India.
  • The patients to be surveyed are both first time and retreatment cases.
  • Their resistance levels against 13 anti-TB drugs would be observed.

H8: BRCA genes Patented in Australia

  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 human genes used for diagnosing breast and ovarian cancers. (BRCA= BReast CAncer).
  • If a woman has mutation (fault) in BRCA 1 or 2= higher risk of breast/ovarian cancer.
  • Mid 90s: Myriad Genetics ltd. Got its patent, and established monopoly for selling BRCA gene testing. Each test costs >3000$.
  • Through this test, Hollywood Actress Angelina Jolie  found she had BRCA1 gene=> underwent mastectomy surgery to remove her Brests.
  • 2013: US Supreme court nullified this patent saying that isolating a DNA from human body doesn’t count as “innovation” therefore, doesn’t deserve patent rights.
  • Now Myriad Genetics applied for same patent in Australia and Australian court has awarded the patent.

H9: Eye donation

 

Why problem?
World4.5 crore blind. WHO says by 2020, this number will double because of higher population and life expectancy.
India1.2 crore blind. (largest population in world)

 

Cornea donation can help them BUT
Every year# of corneas
what we need1 lakh
What we get17,000 only. And out them, hardly 50% used.

What are the Solutions to Eye donation shortage?

  • National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) setup under DG health services under Helath ministry.
  • Soon, NOTTO will launch a dedicated webportal to provide transparent interface between donors and recipients of all organs including cornea.
  • Health ministry also asked HRD ministry to include organ-donation topic in school text books
  • National Eye Donation Fortnight: It’s an annual event organised by the National Programme for Control of Blindness, during August-September.

What do you know about Eye donation?

  • Takes hardly 10-15 minutes
  • Doctor can visit home and remove it. No need to bring dead body to the eye bank or hospital.
  • Leaves no scar marks on deadbody
  • One healthy person can thus give eye sight to two blind persons.

H10: NOTTO

  • National Organ and Tissue Transplantation organization- HQ: Safdarjung Hospital,Delhi.  ~150 crores.
  • It’ll provide ICT-enabled interface between organ donor and recipient, via call centre and webportal.
  • In first phase- will cover only Kidney cases.
  • Will provide a state-of-the-art transplantation operation.
  • Govt will also setup regional bodies with similar features. NOTTO will coordinate among them.

H11: Misc. Developments

Leprosy

  • Bacterial disease. Also called “Hansen’s disease”.
  • Multi-drug therapy available in ’81.
  • Yet, patients continue to suffer and face social stigma.
  • Supreme Court has asked the government to explain is this happening?

Suicide

  • National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) on launched a website dedicated to suicide prevention.
  • in collaboration with the White Swan Foundation.

Mock MCQs

Q1. Consider following statements

  1. Ebola virus got its name because of a river in Congo
  2. Both sand flies and mosquitos are vectors of Ebola Virus.
  3. Ebola can spread via sexual intercourse.

Answer choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. None of them

Q2. Which of the following are vulnerable to Ebola virus

  1. Humans
  2. Gorillas
  3. Chimpanzees

Answer:

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. All of them

Q3. Consider following statements about Kala Azar:

  1. Kala Azar is caused by Leishmania bacteria which are spread to humans via male sand flies
  2. In India, the worst affected states are Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha.
  3. Kala Azar is a notifiable disease in India.

incorrect statements are

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. None of them

Q4. Consider following statements about Rotavirus

  1. Rotavirus causes diarrhea
  2. These virus primarily affect the medular region of the brain in infants.
  3. Rotavirus vaccine is yet to be developed.

the incorrect statements are

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 and 3
  4. None of them

Q5. What is XDR TB?

  1. TB that is resistant to first line antibiotics
  2. TB that is resistant to second line antibiotics
  3. TB developed because of HIV
  4. None of above.

Q6. What is Cavilon?

  1. Name of an anti-Ebola vaccine going under clinical trials.
  2. An insecticide to kill sandflies which are responsible for Kala Azar
  3. A new drug as a replacement of Diclofenac, to save vulture population
  4. A cut prevention cream for boxers.

Q7. What are BRCA genes?

  1. Genes only found in Caucasian people and responsible for their fair skin.
  2. Genes only found in Indian tribal and responsible for their sickle cell anemia.
  3. Their mutation indicates possibility of Brest or ovarian cancer in future.
  4. None of Above.

Q8. Hensen’s disease is caused by

  1. virus
  2. parasite
  3. bacteria
  4. fungi

Q9. Health minister recently talked about a NOTTO web portal. What is the purpose of it?

  1. Facilitating the doctors to report the notifiable dieses to Government authorities online.
  2. Registration of transgendered people for medical checkup before granting them OBC certificate.
  3. Checking up the Travelers from Liberia, Sierra-Leon etc. for possible Ebola cases.
  4. Providing transparent interact between organ donors and recipients

Q10: which of the following is/are incorrectly matched?

  1. Liberia: Bomako
  2. Sierra Leone: Conakry
  3. Guinea: Free town
  4. Nigeria: Abuja

Incorrect pairs are

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 1, 2 and 3
  3. Only 2, 3 and 4
  4. None of them

Q11. which of the following can kill Ebola virus?

  1. Chewing neem or tulsi leaves
  2. Soap
  3. bleach
  4. sunlight

Correct choices

  1. Only 1 and 2
  2. Only 1, 2 and 3
  3. Only 2, 3 and 4
  4. None of them

Correct Answers for the MCQs

  1. C: 1 and 3 correct.
  2. D: All of them can get Ebola
  3. A: 1 and 2 are incorrect about Kala Azar.
  4. B: 2 and 3 are incorrect.
  5. B 2nd line
  6. D cut prevention
  7. C cancer
  8. C bacteria
  9. D organ donation
  10. 1, 2 and 3 are wrong. Refer to school atlas for correct pairs.
  11. C: 2,3 and 4 are correct as per PIB. There is *no* scientific proof that chewing neem/tulsi leaves can kill Ebola, except chain-message in whatsapp and random readers’ comments below newswebsite-articles.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

93 Comments on “[Public Health]- Ebola, Cavilon, Kala-Azar Revised strategy, Free Rotavirus vaccine, XDR-TB, BRCA genes, NOTTO”

  1. hello everybody I am CA Saurabh Deshmukh (last year interview appearered with 218 marks in commerce) looking for someone with commerce optional for group studies in Delhi(mukharjee Nagar preferred) anybody interested kindly contact me on 9971156383 ( if unavailable leave a message)

  2. Mrunalb sir please start your video classes which help to someone like me who has scored well in economic section.

  3. in which disease ELISA test is performed??? i think it is also in aids, if some one knows plz say something.

  4. PKB thanks Brother,,, thanks a lot .. i will do same as you shared…even i started and your suggestion helped me alot… thanks brother

  5. anyone appearing for mains with psychology as optional? plz drop in mail id…need direction for paper 2 n we can discuss our preparation…

  6. Praveen: For schedules refer Rajnikanth… sorry I mean Laxmikanth :) Pg 3.9 of 4th edition of Indian Polity

  7. This is really frustrating. Waiting seems to be eternal….When would be the result out….Please folks make some wild prediction

  8. U have become really slow.. Lot of waiting for articles

  9. Another important quesion for mains related to sports is– indian athlete gender test issue likes Dutee chand,pinki pramanik and Santhi Soundarajan.. As dutee chand is in news ……..Any thought?

  10. THANK U ! Sir JESUS

  11. Guys any idea about when prelims results wud arrive……

  12. Its said by sharing ur problems u gain confidence to move forward….and here I am to apply this theory to check whether it works or not?
    After tallying my marks , I have been keeping very low in mood and sort of loosing confidence…
    I worked with a MNC , received offers from abroad but i chose to quit my job to realise my once-dreamt IAS!
    This was my 3rd attempt.The first i tuk without any preparation….In my 2nd attempt,I cudnt make it in mains…!
    The third seems dwindling for i cudnt fare well..(Thanks to the protests !! and my poor speed n wrong strategy of relying on traditional trend of exam).
    Now,I feel so defeated..I donot want to quit as the entire process of preparation has been worth learning…It was kind of enlightenment period as previously i was confined to coding-office-home-coding-office cycle!!
    I no more want to be economically dependent…..it feels disgusting to ask money for my day-to-day necessities… (the transition of status from self-dependent to completely dependent is excruciating ).But without compromising my preparation for IAS.
    Help me out of this…I want to gain the bliss ,that confidence which i once had while embarking on this preparation platform…
    Thanks!

    1. Its really tough for cracking UPSC and indeed tougher for those who are doing job. Even who singularly prepare they might get some time to fresh up , While attending Office in day and studying in night is a monotonous course , those who are doing this thay can understand the painfull substance it holds.

      But we never forget that we are here by choice and no one forced us to opt study with job . While a normal employed person only give his time (9-5 PM ) for productive work at office , mean time when preparation coupled with job then the rest our also takes its quality time , that obviously stretch us up to threshold .

      One most Important thing we may crack and not crack the exam but the knowledge we gain will never leave us , Some times someday it will pay its dividend .

      This exam is a process from a Oridinary to Officer , and it is quite expected behaviour to give tension to all of us who are in track.

      Kindly never Quit , Winner never quit and quiter never wins ……..

      i am also preparing this exam with Job and can feel the agony of timelessness and restlessness .

      Good Luck Puja …..

    2. Pooja I m also working in banking sector. Official timing of my job is 10 to 6 but it normally it becomes 10 to 8 just because of work load. after this i start my study with cooking and I dnt want to quit then why You. I jst think there is no other option for me so dnt loose hope one day we our dream comes true..

  13. Puja,

    First up, the path you embarked on is not an easy one. It is bound to break and defeat you in ways you haven’t been broken or defeated before. It is sheer misery, until you actually make through.

    Having said that, do not think about failure just yet. Even if you do, it is at a very high level; it is not just an exam you couldn’t get through. Respect this sanctity of UPSC. It does prove unbreachable sometimes, even to the best of minds. Lakhs fail each year, only hundreds finally qualify.

    You already have work ex, go in with all your efforts for the next time, and if it doesn’t work; well, you are not without options. You can go back to your corporate job, start and NGO, get into political/analytical writing or anything you want. Life is much, much larger than it seems now.

    Cheers :)

  14. Another sports related important question is . Gender test of Indian athletes issue..Dutee chand, Pinki Pramanik and
    Santhi Soundarajan issue… As Dutee Chand is in news quiet a few months a while…Any thought sir?

  15. I empathize with you as I too quit my job and didn’t fare well in the prelims. I was irritable and taking it out on my parents and friends for some time but they understand my situation. I think when you left your job you did it for a dream. Don’t refer to it as ‘once-dreamt’! The only thing we can do at the moment is give it our best the next time and make sure that we don’t repeat the mistakes we made last time.

    I have seen that those people who have no job at hand and are really desperate to succeed are the one who are more likely to succeed than those who’re carrying on with their jobs and are just dallying with the UPSC preparation (This is of course not a rule )

    It’s normal to feel disheartened in this situation but I think if instead of brooding over the past we started our preparation afresh with new zeal and resolve not to repeat the mistakes we made this year we’ll get through the exam next time.

  16. First of all thank you mrunal bhai for this great website
    Some suggestions
    1.about print/pdf conversion please make it ecofriendly(actually cost friendly)as it takes dozens of pages to print ur evry article.eg.
    -remove that index part of every article in print
    2.If possible come out with CSE UPSC(main)dedicated site
    That will display only 9 sections related to 9 papers of mains on home page.(To be honest your site is more helpful for preliminary examination than mains)It should cover entire process of UPSC and only you can do it.
    3.If it is not illegal then post scanned copies of question paper and model answers of test series of classes like Vajiram,Synergy,vision ias at one place.
    (Having said all this even if you dont do anything still ur site will be my favourite.)

  17. This is the story for many mam. I am also an IT employee. Worked in office, studied at home. This is my second attempt. First attempt i didn’t qualify even prelims, this time i hope to the cross the path. I may not be the right person to say anything to you. But from whatever lil experience i have, i can say you that never blame others. It is always our fault to if we fail to accomplish that. The reason is if you make yourself accountable, you will have an action plan to execute, if you make others accountable, then the action item is with them others and on which we don’t have any control.So we need to objectively examine things and make ourselves accountable for our mistake.
    However, self guilt must be and should be avoided. Prepare a plan, execute that to the best possible extent, if you make that give yourself credit, if you fail, make your accountable for the purpose of correcting yourself not for self prosecution and do the process once more. And if you had worked for any MNC, i guess it is not at all difficult to get another job in IT field. It is not like that if you qualify exam, you will be the conqueror of the world. It is just another job and one more crucial thing is we should stop worrying about many things, we have hardly 3 months, we should work hard. After 20th of Dec, we will think about all these.

    1. “The reason is if you make yourself accountable, you will have an action plan to execute, if you make others accountable, then the action item is with them others and on which we don’t have any control.”

      Gazabendu baat bole ho dost

  18. upsc site is not functioning!!! is result out????

  19. @NIck !!
    Bravo, this piece of work gives the introduction of indefatigable spirit and the selflessness attitude within you. I hope this comes handy for people out there. Thanks from behalf of everyone one who would be using it.

  20. Superb ..!! Its good for students like us…

  21. Superb ..!! Its good for students like us…ill bring change…

  22. Please help: should i buy crack ias notes for mains i.e for g.s paper 1, 2 , 3 and 4? . They are charging rs 3000/- per paper. Will it be really worth buying ?

    1. dont waste your money. Instead Arihant’s books for GS 1 to 4 are better. They are cheap also (Rs 250 per book) and better also

  23. Thank You friend. Your comment means a lot.
    I will the next compilation today, and more in coming days.

  24. @ devil’s eye: You may buy the crack ias notes. they are of good quality

  25. @nick…yeah man u have done a great job.that defence portion was of much use to me.other materials were equally good.

  26. mrunal sir u are the one who has guided me all these days. i have started my preparation after going through ur posts a number of times. i have not appeared in any of those exams although preparing or getting myself prepared for preparing for civil services right after intermediates!! but this time i am ready to take the challnge i.e. 2015 cse. there was nobody to guide me except ur posts…thank u so much

  27. why it is not possible to convert these pages into PDF file and save it in my tablet….and to print this page can I use my tablet…? plz guide me….I want to print these some mrunals pages.

    1. USE CHROME………..U CAN SAVE PAGES AS PDF USING “SAVE AS PDF” OPTION ON THE PRINT PAGE….

  28. Thnks …i need that topics

  29. thanks a lot sir thank u

  30. Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)

    India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (U.I.P.) is one of the largest in the world in terms of quantities of vaccine used, the number of beneficiaries, the number of Immunisation session organised, the geographical spread and diversity of areas covered.

    Universal Immunisation programme UIP was lunched in 1985 in a phased manner.
    The measles vaccine was added in 1985 and in 1990 Vit A supplementation was added to the program.

    The Vaccination Schedule under the UIP is:

    1. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) 1 dose at Birth (upto 1 year if not given earlier)

    2. DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus Toxoid) 5 doses; Three primary doses at 6,10,14 weeks and two booster doses at 16-24 months and 5 Years of age

    3. OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine) 5 doses; 0 dose at birth, three primary doses at 6,10 and 14 weeks and one booster dose at 16-24 months of age

    4. Hepatitis B vaccine 4 doses; 0 dose within 24 hours of birth and three doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age.

    5. Measles 2 doses; first dose at 9-12 months and second dose at 16-24months of age

    6. TT (Tetanus Toxoid) 2 doses at 10 years and 16 years of age

    7. TT – for pregnant woman two doses or one dose if previously vaccinated within 3 Year

    8. In addition, Japanese Encephalitis (JE vaccine) vaccine was introduced in 112 endemic districts in campaign mode in phased manner from 2006-10 and has now been incorporated under the Routine Immunisation Programme

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *