[Rights Issue] Plight of North Eastern People and Manual Scavangers in India: Bezbaruah Commission, Nido Tania murder & SC verdict

polity41 Comments

Laxmikanth (English)Laxmikanth Hindi

Topic#1: Plight of Manual Scavangers in India

Q. Write a note on the legal initiatives taken to prohibit manual scavenging in recent times. 200 words.

In 2013, Parliament enacted a law to prohibit manual scavenging and for the rehabilitation of the existing people in this inhumane work.

Salient Features of the Act:

  1. D.M. to ensure no person employed in the manual scavenging within his jurisdiction.
  2. Provide them photo-identity cards, loan subsidy and skill development training to start a new vocation; scholarship for children and housing for the families.
  3. Make a list of dry latrine and demolish them in time bound manner.
  4. Local governance bodies need to construct latrines within 3 years
  5. In case of Violation: 1 year imprisonment + Rs.50,000 fine.
  6. Central, state monitoring authority and vigilance commission (under D.M.) to monitor implementation of the act.

In 2014, Supreme Court issued following Mandamus to Union and States that:

  1. Even in emergency, No one should be forced to clean sewers without safety gear.
  2. Compensation: Rs. 10 lakh to families of persons died in sewerage work- from 1993 onwards.
  3. Railways should end manual scavenging on the tracks, within timebound framework.
  4. Provide dignified livelihood to women engaged in this trade.
  5. Donot create red-tapes, provide these victims their legitimate dues.

~191 words.

Side notes:

  • The practice of manual scavenging is a violation of the rights guaranteed under Art.14, 17, 21 and 47
  • But still, today ~12 lakh people in this work, 95% of them Dalits.
  • Even Railways, PSUs, Army and military engineering works organizations (informally) employ Manual scavengers
1989National ST/ST finance and development corporation.
  • National scheme for rehabilitation of Manual scavengers.
  • 2003: CAG notes that despite spending 600 cr. in this, no visible progress made.
1993National Commission for Safai Karmachari
1993Dry latrine prohibition Act. (Because Dry latrines have to be manually cleaned. So if there are no dry laterines, then there is no need for manual scavengers)
1997Above act finally implemented. (But only in a few states).
  • MANDAMUS writ petition was filed by Safai Karamchari Andolan (Civil society org.)
  • they demanded dry latrine + manual scavenging = violation of 14, 17, 21 and 23
  • Government enacted the law. (that we discussed in answer)
  • March: SC delivered verdict on that Mandamus writ (of 2003). Chief Justice P. Sathasivam himself headed the bench.

Topic #2: Plight of North Eastern People in India

  • 2014, January: Arunanchal Student Nido Tania- asked for address in Delhi, was mocked for his look and hairstyle. Fight breaks out, he is killed.
  • Home minister formed a Commission under retired IAS M P Bezbaruah
  • To look into concerns of people hailing from north-eastern states living and working in other parts of the country.
  • 2014, Aug: Bezbaruah recommends following:
Report Bezbaruah Commission North East people

Salient Recommendations for safety of NE people working in Rest of India

Major reforms by Bezbaruah commission
Social mediaGovernment should setup a dedicated facebook, whatsapp, helpline and email support for reaching out to North Eastern people living in rest of India.
  • Set up a dedicate panel of lawyers to fight cases for North Eastern vitcims.
  • 50% of these lawyers should be women.
  • Legal awareness campaigns in the areas of Delhi with significant concentration of North Easterners.
  • Rights awareness lectures for the NE-freshers in JNU, DU and other universities
PoliceNodal police stations for North Easterners. So the police officer can immediately register FIR instead of asking the victim to go to other stations.
  • Relief fund for helping victims of hate crime, giving money to their relatives to dispose body, travelling from faraway parts of North East etc.
  • Sports ministry should hold regular national/international sports events in the Northeast
  • Stadiums in each state of NE.

All these reforms are to be implemented in a phased manner

Timeframe for Reforms
Immediate6 months to 1 year
Short term1 to 1.5 years
Long term1.5 to 3 years

September 2014: Home minister ordered chief secretaries of all states to implement this report.
Visit Mrunal.org/Polity for entire Archive of Polity articles published so far.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
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  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

So far 41 Comments posted

  1. Karanth

    Thank you for updating and helping us glance more news and current affairs materials:)

  2. renu

    sir will u do eco survey rem parts?

  3. siddharth

    this charity that you do to us , unconditionally , its beyond human qualities . i feel the need to learn ethics from a soul like you . respect and keep up the good work . youve been the most important cornerstone in my upsc journey . youve helped me fill all the loopholes . a hug . peace .

    1. Badal

      by reading ur compliment I can be sure that u will fetch very gud marks in Ethics paper…. ur answer writing is on track.. gud luck

  4. arul daniel

    could you plaese give notes for every day news paper

    1. Aanya

      Anything else?

      1. ABHAY KUMAR

        Great reply…..really

      2. Ashima

        yes,, Also give notes for all imp books that need to be studied.

      3. Chandrahas M

        Good one. XD

    2. silver

      shall we send the newspaper too..

  5. legolas

    uppcs 2014 results out…. mains from nov 05…….seems competing with upsc 😛

  6. aspirant

    great to learn about Ambedkar.I thought he was only responsible for making the constitution but he also had worked in so many diverse fields!!

  7. snehal

    You guys are simply amazing. A lot of people must owe their success to you. Thank you, really.

  8. Harish

    Thanx 4 d topic sir…

  9. anonymous

    Hindu code bill was to reform the Hindu personal law and not to apply hindu law uniformly.

    It had provisions for property rights for women etc. i.e why it was difficult to implement it. At that time hindu (read caste hindu) women came to oppose the legislation on the streets. The immediate cause of his resignation was the dilution of this bill.

    Although you’ve mentioned a couple of his books (including Annihilation of Caste), it should be told that he has written 34 volumes of books. And his phenomenal work is “Riddles in Hinduism” – where he tears apart each and every Hindu scripture.

    Also one has to read “What Congress and Gandhi have done to the untouchables”.

    He was a person intellectually born in the 21st Century. This is the reason why he was voted as “The Greatest Indian” – CNN IBN.

    1. saurav gupta

      So are you saying he was Anti Gandhi???

  10. Optimus Prime

    Blunt recomendation from Barua.no concrete plan to abolish racial discrimination.

    1. caligula

      exactly, even upsc wont give marks if such steps are mentioned in answer sheet

    2. Chandrahas M

      I must agree. The sports part is the only thing helpful practically.

  11. Sandeep

    Sir ,great job is done by you and your team ….. thanks.are you going to add these article(sep) in date wise update links…

  12. sunil yadav

    thanx…u r doing very good job……we must utilise it

  13. power

    after checking by official answer key uppsc i got 104+134 = 238 in pre but not qualified for mains, it seems cut off uppsc pre is high, so sad to know that i m even not in top 12500 of 215000 aspirant, time come to do hard devotionla work.

  14. kailashnaik


  15. Avi

    Thanku sir 🙂

  16. dc

    Mrunal u r ying that cgl 14 exam is in october…….but i am unable to download hallticket………..help me

  17. Sandip

    Can I change center for upsc mains?

    1. kApil

      Yes after clearing pre. While filling mains form you can change center

  18. Anand Kamal

    In BPSC OMR sheet, what to fill in 1st Column – ‘Batches Applied for’.
    Please help.

  19. Abhishek Kumar

    Thank you Sir:)

  20. kApil

    Very in formative content

  21. kApil

    Very knowledgeable

  22. Sandip

    Can we expect question regarding indian cinema as it completed 100 year in gs 1?

  23. sonali

    very good article sir………………………………….

  24. ankit

    How to download these articles in PDF??

    1. Chandrahas M

      Open the same in latest Chrome. use the Print/PDF option at the end of the article. You can save as PDf through Print option.

      1. ankit

        Thanks Chandrahas 🙂

  25. Sarvesh

    Mrunal sir.When will you post the remaining part of eco survey?

  26. Parashuram

    I have a good pleasure about this news updates,these are all important news for upcoming exam’s….. Thanks

  27. Bhavani

    sir can u list the overall schemes launched by narendra modi ji after coming to power

  28. Bipin

    Hey where’s the info on Ambedkar?

  29. Jude_Prudence

    Fut ref:

    Racialism isn’t only a feature of North india…Similar North South divide is also seen and in Manipur, the people (labourers) from Bengal and Bihar were brutally murdered in the 70’s including a pregnant lady. At least Nino Tadia’s killer are behind bars while the killer of that lady are scot free.

    Why increasing in Delhi
    Peddler= Black, so all blacks are peddler
    Lyuten’s Delhi or New Delhi and NCR are poles apart in Culture. While Khirki extension beneffited extensively due to real estate but the residents still have traditional mentality. (Primatic Society- Poly Normative)

    P.S: This is only a part of a bigger thing that I must remind myself in future so please no “Baal Ki Khaal Ukaadna”

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