- The Eurasian landmass, historically considered as two continents
- Since a long time, Europe was familiar with Asian lands, military prowess, empires, manufactures.
- Then Portuguese dis covered Cape of Good Hope. Europeans began naked colonisation of Asia, using “trade companies”.
|Century||Was century of ___.|
Rising Asia, Emerging Asia
Historian Niall Ferguson has identified 6 qualities that contributed to the rise of the West,
- property rights
- Consumer society
- work ethics (GS4)
But, these six qualities are no longer monopoly of the West.
- China, India slowly imbibing them and rising as global powers.
- ADB projection: By 2050, Asia would contribute 50% of the world GDP and investment; Asia’s per capita income will be similar to Europeans.
Challenges for Emerging Asia:
- Religious and Cultural diversity and complexity- posing challenge to social cohesiveness.
- Asia needs high growth rate to reduce poverty, combat climate change and ensure food security.
- Most Asian Governments face challenge of corruption and inefficiency.
- Rivalry among regional power, delays the ushering of the Asian century.
- Nonetheless, both Europe and USA are worried about losing their economic domination against Emerging Asia.
Why Europe Falling?
- PIGS-Sovereign debt crisis, has weakened the economic grip of EU.
- High level of unemployment, ageing population.
- Energy dependence on middle east and Russia.
- Declining natural resources and Military clout.
- Social conflicts because of migrants and minorities.
|needs technology and specialized skills;||Europe needs markets, workforce and investments.|
|Large and small democracies- face challenge of terrorism, cyber-crimes, drug trafficking, money laundering, natural disasters.||Same|
But, the relationship between the two continents will have to be one of a multilateral framework of “equals”.
- Close relationship between Avestan or Old Persian and Vedic Sanskrit language.
- Persian had remained court language in India for a long time.
- During Mughal period, there were 7 times more Persian readers in India than in Iran.
- A Mughal miniature painting depicting Jahangir embracing Shah Abass I of Persia – symbolises peace and harmony between India and Iran.
- 1823: Raja Ram Mohan Roy published 1st Persian newspaper in the world..
- Indian languages like, Bengali, Marathi and Urdu have deep linkages with Persian language
Iran is geo-politically important to India because:
- Iran’s location on the Persian Gulf littoral
- Iran’s location on the western borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
- Iran being a major source of hydrocarbons
With birth of Pakistan, the common border between India and Iran ceased to exist.
- Although we’ve signed Treaty of Friendship but Indo-Iran relationship have faced mutual neglect for a long time.
- This diplomatic-distance increased with the Cold War. India remained non-aligned while Iran joined various military pacts and alliances.
- In 1971’s war, Iran maintained neutral.
- India retained a carefully balanced position in the long Iran – Iraq War.
- 90s: strains in relation after Iran’s comments on Jammu and Kashmir.
- Mid 90s: bilateral visits by leaders of both nations.
- 2003: Iranian President was chief guest for India’s Republic Day.
- Need to enhance cooperation in energy sector
- Jointly work for Peace and stability in Afghanistan
- Cooperation for the Chabahar port.
- North-South corridor- from Iran to central Asia to Europe
- Under sea gas-pipeline from southern Iran to West coast of India
- Sea- Navigation freedom in Persian gulf and strait of Hormuz.
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