[Essays] September Week1: 16 Topics for UPSC Mains- Expansionism, Buried Justice, India-the Model international citizen

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Write Essay on any one of the following topics. 2500 words, 3 hours.

  1. Combination of `Samata` (equality) and `Mamata` (motherly love) would lead to `Samarasta` (social harmony). (Modi while praising Ayyankali)
  2. Development (Vikaswaad) vs Expansionism (Vistarwaad) [Modi in Japan]
  3. Economic aggression may soon become more dangerous than military aggression (A Judge on telecom license bribery case)
  4. Those who do not learn from history are bound to repeat it (IAF chief during a seminar)
  5. Critical reasoning and fearless interrogation are pre-requisites to democracy  (HRD minister in teachers’ day speech)
  6. Justice hurried is justice buried (SC judge during a seminar.)
  7. The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others. (Gandhi said this. VP quoted during LBSNAA speech)
  8. I want Students to have a sense of responsibilities and show it in a tangible manner. (Gandhi said this and Pranab recalled during a speech)
  9. Children are the foundation on which a strong, vibrant and dynamic India shall be built. (Pranab on teachers’ day).
  10. Education should be imparted with a view to the type of society that we wish to build.  (Dr. Radhakrishan’s quote, Pranab recalled during teachers’ day speech.)
  11. Education should become a force for the nation’s character building.  (Modi on teachers’ day)
  12. Religion can never be the basis of a Modern state. (Katju)
  13. Reunification of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. (Katju)
  14. India, the country that threatens no one and is a friend to many. (Aussie PM)
  15. India, the model international citizen.(Aussie PM)
  16. India, the world’s emerging democratic superpower (Aussie PM)
Want to participate?
Post comment below containing topic and keypoints of your essay.draft essay in MS word, upload It on google drive. Then comment below this article with two things:

  1. title and keypoints of your essay
  2. URL link to your google doc

Q. Are there any prizes and winner announcements?

Ans. None.

Q. Then what exactly are you trying to accomplish?

Ans. Two things

  1. once there is enough data, I’ll update this same article by copying those points from comments.
  2. If someone seems really consistent and talented, might ask him / her to join my gang.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

47 Comments on “[Essays] September Week1: 16 Topics for UPSC Mains- Expansionism, Buried Justice, India-the Model international citizen”

  1. Time to break my silence.

    Mains 2013…1200 words. 125 marks. ” Be the change ….” Mahatma Gandhi.
    Sacrosanct is your quality.

  2. I am glad you broke your silence. The “2K+” makes me nervous to a fault…I would have never made it past 1K!

  3. hey, i think we can include some regional national issues as well here.like encroachment of MNC’S ,builders on tribal land ,just to say they r helping in development.when i read the topic it was the frst thing tht striked my mind.we can also include like in history british raj was following expansionist policies, ws developing roads,railways,telephone links nd claiming tht they were doing development, bt they were just means for exploitation on the name of development.

  4. Statutory warning: Use these risky moves when you are sure about the topic. 2000/2500 is long range shotgun shooting. 1200 is sniping.

  5. @ amit bhardwaj,,it is better to define the meaning of terms,i.e intro of the essay,first and then draw the point of comprison btwn these two terms,,this will form body of the essay and thn the point of antagonism btwn these twos,,,blah,,blah,,
    sm points may be noted —development is VALUE LOADED term,,it means what is development for sm 1 might be considered as underdevelopmnt by others,.it means sm set of rules may be considered as gud development nd others as worst or bad development.
    point 2–a just development is not bearing on others ,it is sort of ones upgradation without the degradation of others ,even abiotic nd non-living objects,.but the expansionism is bearing on others,,it is sort of encroachment over others.it comes @ the expense of others.
    so,,a gud development does nt always bring conflicts but a expansion can,,,,not in mood to explain,,hope u understnd better,,take it positive,,

  6. what? just 1200 words fetched you 125 marks?
    Can u just help with 5-6 ideas around which your content revolved, as it will be of great help to freshers like me. PLEASE sir/mam.

  7. Mains 2012….1300 words….on Working Women- Does she get a fair deal? Guess what… i scored 129. Hence, no need to fumble for words and sentences to reach 2500 words. Concentrate on quality, content and presentation.

    1. That’s great mam i also wrote on the same topic in 2012 but scored very poor i will be very thankful of you if u can please send me the out line of your essay @..( [email protected])

  8. sir,i want to write those articles on my own..but i am not understanding how to start and reading all the matter sir please tell me how to write

  9. Thanks ..! That helps … can you post your short summary – here ?

  10. mrunal sir could u guide me about essay writing. should i take admission in institution or prepare ownsilf

  11. Education should be imparted with a view to the type of society that we wish to build

    • We wish to build a society which aspires “to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform”.(one of the Fundamental duty) .We must work to impart education such as to fulfill above objective. Science is being taught in our school today however scientific temper and spirit of inquiry is missing in the teachings.
    • We wish to build a society which aspires “to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures” (FD). The practicality of the above objective looks missing from the education, where we rarely practice the principles taught. Education just need not teach but also help to implement the ideas like saving the environments by promoting students to use ecofriendly transportation, tree plantation, pond/lake cleaning, animal protection etc.
    • We wish to build a society which aspires “to safeguard public property and to abjure violence” (FR). Had our education been successful in imparting this idea, we would not have witnessed so much loss of public property every time bandh/rasta rook etc. happens. Peaceful demonstration is a fundamental right however we see instances of such demonstrations turning violet every now and then.

  12. I think the most important thing is to touch upon as many dimensions as possible for the given topic. Furher to interlink them in a linear sequntial manner.No flowery language..no difficult word usage.
    The topic i select is Religion cant be the basis of the modern state..

    The broad prospective of religion and the definition of a modern state is the first point..

  13. Sure, and it’s neither Sir nor Mam… it’s just Jude_Prudence

    Although it has been an year, but I will try.

    For the time being here is the draft that I prepared in exam

    intro= Dynamic world, organic, evolving, infinite (related to jaininsm theory)
    why changes are needed
    Why you need to initiate change, (be the change)- Benifits of being the initiator (becomes role model, leader, brand value inc+, soft power, credibility etc)
    Change initiation in…
    Technological world and examples of people who got success by being the initiator eg. Russia ends cold war (Strategic arms reduction), Ping pong diplomacy, Gandhi Ji and Harijan campaign, many other examples that I have now forgotten
    In personal life how can you be the change (small things)
    eg: Don’t litter, set an example by collecting garbage and throwing in dustbin, as an employee, as a boss, in your friend/professional/social groups how you can be the change that this world needs. It’s the small hings that matter, small things bring about bigger changes

    Why change is difficult
    Cons of be the initiator


    There are many things missing, but this is all I can remember now. World of caution, i have worked as Organizational Development guy, as software analyst etc. so there were few things that i could think of from my work.

    As I said, I took a risk, I wanted to take a risk and it paid off, everyone might not like this, and even I make not do this ever again. It depends upon your level of knowledge of topic. Everything simmer downs to that moment. I prepared about 20 topics. Neither of those were anywhere close to the topics that came in exam!

  14. Mrunal, rather than writing detailed articles, just give the topic like you have done now. This helps greatly in understanding the nature of questions. This is quite helpful and will also make time for you focus on economy articles. Thank you for these quality questions.

  15. Hemant Kumar, CSE 2013 secured 160/250 marks (probably the highest) in Essay paper and he has admitted in a post (available online) that he wrote around 1100-1200 words. This reaffirms that quality matters not the quantity.

  16. Below are the Key Points of the Essay. However, i would like the essay not to be stretched beyond 1800 words.

    Development Vs Expansionism

    1. How Development was linked to Expansionism
    Example : Colonial World
    Even French Republic and USA scrambled for colonies though they were modern nation states based on liberty, fraternity and equality.
    At that point of time development had nothing to do with ethics, morality and basic values of humanity. Can specify slave trade and paper boundary of Africa.
    2. Expansionism led to 7 year global war, then WW 1 and WW 2. Subsequent economic downturn, Jingoism, xenophobia, Nazism and fascism and sordid state of world affairs then.
    Then war was ennobling and Sun never set concept.
    3. Later better sense prevailed after World War 1, though there was Cold War, Vietnam War based upon the basic principle of Expansionism. Concept of neo colonialism.
    4. Now development is a concept which is not only economic, it is social as well as moral. HDI and all such concept.
    5. Today, how expansionism is taking its roots in the form of dispute between different nation states though sometimes, it has historical angle also.
    6. Mainly lust for acquiring more and more resources is the main reason for expansionism.
    7. Time and again, it has been proved that expansionism doesn’t lead to anyone’s wellbeing starting from Mahabharat though Srikrishna had an unconvincing argument to Arjun about duty and that too in huge cost benefit , Ashokan Kalinga war to today’s time of Dispute between china and japan.

  17. Religion can never be the basis of a Modern state
    1. Religion and spirituality. There is difference, it shouldn’t be confused.
    2. Though all established great religions are based upon same underlying principle, there interpretation in macro scale differs, so are the way of life and rules and protocols.
    3. Sometimes, religion is linked to orthodoxy, which hinders free thinking, new ideas and rationality.
    4. Doesn’t encourage plurality, though it is debatable. Because Hinduism and many other religions accepts pluralism. According to Dalai Lama ‘The aim of Buddhism is to make you a better Hindu, a better Christian and even a better Atheist’.
    5. When heterodoxy, plurality, dissension, critical reasoning are not respected, state becomes isolated. No development.
    6. Nation State can consist of people of many religions, many ethnicity and many tradition and custom and nation is not about territories, it is about the people. One religion can’t be sacrosanct as it may not be the best way of life as there can be many voices, so in a sense many ways of life.
    7. All the great nations of today are secular, Example India, USA. Some theocratic countries example, ISIS etc.
    8. Even during earlier times, Ashoka patronized Buddhism, but Buddhism was not state religion.
    9. Akbar, though islam was state religion, he patronized other religions also, ensued dialogue between Scholars of different religions.
    10. Rational Thinking, science and technology and religion or religious rituals often don’t go side by side.
    11. Without Science and Technology, today’s nation can’t survive.
    12. Even fringe elements of a tolerant religion like Buddhism can create havoc in the lives of other religion if patronized. Example Srilanka Boddhu Bala Sena.
    13. Religion is not amendable, where as constitution is, so religion doesn’t support changing times.
    14. Though religion can offers broad archetypal framework framework for the foundation of modern nation state, religion in letter and spirit can’t be and shouldn’t be the basis of any nation.

  18. Sir,
    Most toppers’ recommend coaching test series.But for those who don’t/can’t join coaching classes,please compile questions you have already made into a 3 hrs paper and post it on a weekly basis.

  19. a good 500-worder you’ve writtten there but it seems like an exerpt rather than a coherent essay.Could have begun your essay with a historical perspective and the modern day appetite for nations to gain markets to further their cause of the so-called expansionism.S

  20. I guess, it was kind of points. Not an essay altogether, just given broad framework. When it will be stretched, i guess it will be a coherent essay. Though i completely agree, it can be modified to large extent and what i have written might be really bad. :)


    After a long struggle we got freedom in 1947, I think it was happiest moment of 20th century for India
    and for Indian people.We had to face lots of problem even after Independence,as it was only beginning of our journey.After establishment of Planning commission we made lots of improvement in each and every field as per requirement of time but I think it was not sufficient for our proper and balance development,I mean to say we could do better than that in first 50 year after Independence of India.In those time we had to face war with Pakistan and China and it made us back on track less or more.
    Our real development started in between 1990 to 2000.Unfortunately we still not able to provide even basic need of Human being i.e,foods,cloths and housing Facility ( Roti,Kapda aur Makan). If we talk about Democracy in India, obviously India is largest democratic country in the world and we are one of the best emerging power of world.Almost 70% people of India are related to Agriculture and they live in rural area.It is true than we achieved many thing regarding development of our people. Improvement in Agriculture and and Education was the most important thing for our development and we implemented many scheme for improvement of these problems. Now days we are doing good almost each and every field of development.In education India is in good position,our literacy rate has increasing very fast.In primary education there are many scheme govern by state and center government like Serv Siksha Abhiyan,Mead day meal Plan,Agan Vadi and many more.Thousands of schools are being opened each and every year.In the term of higher education we have achieved a great slot in field of Technology,Medical,Research,Management etc.We have world level Institute and Universities like I.I.M.,I.I.T,J.N.U. and many more.India has become more powerful in research also in field of Technology,Defense ,Air Space etc.Now India has become Tenth largest growing in GDP and Third largest Purchasing Power Parity( PPP ) in the world.In the field of infrastructure like transportation,Energy and Power sector, Oil and Gas sector we are doing very good. We are second largest country of the world and Largest democratic country of the world. In the terms of young population we come first in the world and our young generation is our great asset. Our young people is our power and fortunately they are very talented and they contributing in the development of our country in each and every field.In Past we are not able to think about new invention but now we are in situation that we are become a good competitor regarding new inventions. In IT sector we already in a very good situation. Our Talented and hard working people can been seen every where in world and they are contributing in development of that country.Most important thing is that we are emerging in each and every field and we never compromise our moral value. India also able to maintain good relation with neighbor country. India has a strong relation with countries like Japan,America,China, Australia and with many more.

    Although, we are facing many problems like Insurgencies,Dispute,Corruption,Communal Violence,Unemployment and many more but we are still in position to be a Superpower. We have to overcome these problems and Utilize our resources specially out great asset YOUNG GENERATION in right path with a proper planning and execution. Now the time has come to make true the dream of our Ex. President APJ Abdul Kalam.I am Sure If we are committed to be a Democratic superpower,Definitely We will do it.

    I know Standard of My Essay is not Like UPSC Level but I have started my Preparation .Actually It was my first Essay and I could not complete even 1000 words.I am waiting for your feedback.

    Thank You.

  22. Regarding the article Development Vs Expansionism , Amit ji written very beautifully. The coherence required between the sentences is appreciable. Here , i want to add some suggestion that while writing such topics why should we not explore the lines with with liitle more elaboration i.e. China is adopting the same expansionist policies in the region with cover of manipulated gesture. China’s declaration of ADZ and Maritime Silk route has been interpreted in various meaning with varying degree of threat. China insistence on projecting the MSR as a regional growth model has attracted mixed reactions. This has been due to the current approach adopted by China in dealing with Vietnam over South China Sea and claim over Parsley Island. Also, Claim over Scourbough Island which is also being claimed by Philippine is genuine apprehensions expressed by the neighbours.Expansion may have other definitions i.e. Containing the powerful players with helping the enemy of that country and thus destroy the peace in that country . Transferring nuclear technology to Pakistan by china can be illustrated in this way which has negative outlook for India. In case of Japan, the recent visit to the war memorial by the Prime Minister Shinzo-Abe created much furore in China and north Korea etc. Overlapping claim over Shenkaku Island by China and Japan may be termed as modern face of expansionism. These example nowhere substantiate their manipulated advocacy of regional development.
    The middle east is boiling and strong players of the world are interpreting these development in their own values and patterns. Marshall Island has been destroyed the UK by doing nuclear test. Israel is expanding with on the cost of Palestine. These are some example whereby the real face of expansion has come into light with mixed mode.Some terrorist organisation is also reciting the development song for their expansion world over. The recent example of establishment of Isalmic State(IS) in Syria and Iraq cannot be termed as developmental expansion.
    Development and expansion may be a related term but with time and place is method get changed. In early history,Colonialism was the way of expansion which served the master and now it is serving the geo strategic value for the world powers.
    Your line need elaboration which may be viewed by some as exaggeration, but they still hold the ground.
    Development can be defined as helping the world poor to recover from malnutrition ,deadly diseases etc. Helping countries to raise the level of standard of living of poor countries ,in reducing the Infant Mortality rate,MMR, transferring handsome amount to help fighting the climate change by low lying and poor countries can be termed as development. World institutions helping undeveloped countries in their path of development by assisting them in formulation of plans, helping in reviewing and fixing the loopholes, training the nations and directly involving themselves to raise the human development without any terms and conditions are doing the work of development. In this way , the development is now being done by the Philanthropist agencies.
    By adopting this approach this topic can be elaborated.

  23. how to save an article as pdf..???

  24. To me – wat i cud think of at first instance is –

    What Expansionism and Development is in diff context, for eg at political/Economic level

    How wen expansion wen turns into ‘ism’ may turn dangerous. with eg from WW

    How it cud also be useful – Globalization

    Development – how initially growth was confused with development . what it means to be developed .diff aspects –
    1. as a person
    2. as a nation
    3. as world

    Explain the real reason for it to be in news..with all aspects, how China expansionist policy has threatened the freedom of Tibetans – self immolations, at East china sea, string of pearls..watever time permits..

    to show its turning dangerous..in recent times..and Modi statement a breezer..to remind China, which is also practices Budhism..in his own philosophy of Developmentism..

    and then conclude..how if we combine both with sense of universal brotherhood..and peacefulness..we cud help Asia in particular9poor and underdev) and world as a whole..

    I feel i am on Insight to ask friends to review :)

  25. Development Vs Expansionism

    1.These terms were highlighted by PM Modi in his recent visit to Japan hightlighting the contrast in policy approaches that the governments are following.
    2.Since his inception as a PM he has been advocating development through good governance rather than focussing on policies of expansionism.
    3.He advocates principles of Buddhism to be one of the guiding force behind this inception of development and expansionism has never been India’s priority .
    4.As percieved by India ,Japan,Some South East Countries , China , world’s second largest economy with huge military expenditure is now aiming for expansionism to exert his hegemony over Asia both politically as well as economically.
    5.Expansionism may be the next logical step after development of indigenious strength and the historical records bear a testimony to it.From Ancient to Medieval to Modern , the ruling setup has turned towards expansionism at a mature stage.
    6.If we look from the Cold War era ,we see how the Great Game unfolded resulting into a unipolar world of US Hegemony which to some extent is tilting towards China and thinking itself as a successor/sharer of hegemonic power , it is now focussing on expansionism after developing its economy with the power of manufacturing .
    7.Senkaku/Diaoyu Island disputes with Japan,South China Sea Disputes with SE Asian Countries,Conception of Maritime Silk Road,Border Incursions with India,Cyber attacks over its rivals are some of the expansionist tendencies of China that we are witnessing in the contemporary world.
    8.India on the other hand is focussing on development since there are many domestic problems we need to address such as poverty,hunder,malnutrition etc . There is an ideological difference between India and China over the nature of world order.
    9.Our principle of Democracy,Civil Liberties etc do not match with China’s authoritarism which is reflected in its expansionist tendencies.
    10.Expansionsim may be percieved as development since this may lead you to newer markets,cheap labour ,free raw materials but this approach is what we may term as neo-colonialism which is strictly against the beliefs on which independent india was founded.

  26. Guys,to elaborate your essay just do this SPELTmethod
    Analyse In all the above aspects you wiil get a massive essay..

    1. this was helpful. thanks

  27. Thanks for the “SPELT”… will try to look at the topic from “SPELT” prism…

  28. thnx sir for breaking ur silence ………..this info is really very helpful…………

  29. Education should become a force for the nation’s character building.


    Education, no doubt, is the most important building block in making of a nations character. It is the liberating force which helps individual to break the shackles of prejudices and parochialism and see the nation as a united march of human endeavours for attainment of a common goal. As such, its scope encompasses all the social , economical, cultural and political aspects of human life.

    Role of Education as a force for the Nations Character (Only points, which can be further elaborated) :-

    1) It acts as a cohesive force which helps in not only integration of people with diverse perspective, socio-economic and cultural background but also development of a common feeling of brotherhood for making the nation as a strong congregation of people committed for welfare of all of its citizens.
    2) Helps in eradication of reduntant social practises like dowry, child marriage, untouchability, castism etc. and thereby development of more scientific temperament in the society.
    3) Develops self critical awareness in indivduals which helps in continous refinement of thoughts and action.
    4) Develops a feeling of religious tolerence amongst people of different religion and sect and thereby providing space for each religoin and sect to flourish and prosper.
    5) A country may be endowed with vast natural resouces and manpower but unless its citizens have the ability to realize the importance of its limited resources through proper education a nation can never make judicious and sustainable use of resources.
    6) Education develops the ability to appreciate the nature and its bio-diversity and teaches its citizens to value them and make efforts for its conservation.
    7) Education is the chief tool for economic development of a country. It not only provides employment and livilihood but also motivates individuals to continously move towards perfection and excellence in their respective fields.
    8) It is through education that new and innovative ideas takes shape in the society. Education not only motivates individuals for innovation but also provides congenial atmosphere in the society to allow new ideas to flourish and implemented. Thus a nation advances with new innovation and findings.
    9) Education brings about improvement in standard of living and thereby improves the overall human development index of the country.
    10) Education inculcates ethical and moral values in individuals so that they perform their respective duties with integrety and commitment.
    11) It is through education that various macro socio-economic problems of the country like over population , poverty , malnutrition can be curbed.
    Education System: The present Scenario
    It is pertinent here to note that education , as elaborated above, has the potential to transform an otherwise self centric individual to a true citizen committed for building the nation character but unfortunately the present education system in our country could not deliver the desired result even after more than 60 years of independence. Ironically, most of the big scams and frauds are being committed by the so called educated and intellectual class of the society. As such it not only raises serious concern about the present education system in the country but also raises fundamental question about the efficacy of education per se to completely transform an individual. While the former can be overcome by an comprehensive overhauling of the present system of education the later indicates the limitation of education as a panacea to curb all evils.

    As far as reform in educational system is concerned with respect to making it more effective force for nations character making the following measures can be taken:
    1) Emphasis on explaining the benefits of following the ethical values should be given ,specifically, at higher level of education and professional education, so that the gap between what is said and what is done in practical life can be minimized.
    2) Exposure to the practises adopted in the developed societies in profession and life should be given to students . Yes, may sound a bit awkward, but its benefits can be realised if one see a change in the outlook of person who had been to developed country for a time and come back to india.
    3) More emphasis on practical knowledge than theoritical.
    4) Improvement in infrastructure , number of schools, teacher to student ratio etc.
    5) Emphasis on quality of eduation rather than quantity.
    6) Encouragement to innovation, research and development etc.


    At last Education can not be a panacea which can completely enlighten an individual, eradicate the the social evils and curb the crimes specifically the white collar crimes it is nevertheless a strong guiding force which inspires an individual to lead a life with moral and ethical principals. It ultimately dwells upon the individuals and society as to how effectely they utilize its potential to make it a force for the nation’s character building.
    Reviews invited

  30. Can anyone pls explain what is natural ally??

  31. @Kumud
    Option 1: Use the Print option in your browser (Under File menu) and then select Adobe PDF as the printer
    Option 2: Copy article in word and then convert it to pdf using the right click option (if you have that provision of converting word files to pdf)

  32. @kumud

    how to save an article as pdf..???

    1. Go to “MS-WORD”.
    2. Write or paste the article which you want to save as pdf.
    3. Click on “OFFICE BUTTON” i.e on extreme top-left corner (“circular in shape”).
    4. Move the cursor on “Save As”.
    5. Select”PDF or XPS”. (Publish a copy of the document as PDF or XPS file).
    6. Click on “Publish”.

    Simple, hope this helps.

  33. @viji

    Natural Allies:

    Natural allies are normally ‘birds of the same feather’. Natural allies (like America and Britain) share common political and cultural values—they may believe in democracy or authoritarianism; they may uphold liberal capitalism or socialism or state corporatism; they may share common historical and cultural traditions; their societal values may be more or less similar; they may practice the same religion; and so on.

    Generally what makes two countries natural allies is the common security challenge that they both face at a particular juncture in history and more importantly their decision to come together and pool their resources to deal with this challenge (think of America, Britain coming together to deal with ISIS).

  34. Hi mrunal sir
    I got this website it’s really amazing keep updating sir

  35. very nice essay aspirant 1983 @ kavi

  36. 10..TOPIC-Education should be imparted with a view to the type of society we wish to build:

    Education is the bed rock upon which the foundation of a nation is being laid.literacy is not just the ability to read and write but also gives rationality,awarness,scientific temper.Helps one appreciate the value of life and its different colours,is cognizant while making any decision,much more informed about the latest developments across the globe..Illiteracy on the other hand is a curse to humankind..makes him more vulnerable while bargaining in this cutthroat materialistic world.
    India is a nation of young people.it makes up almost 40% of the nation.they represent the demographic dividend which we all hope to reap going forward,so education plays a very important role in making india realise its fullest potential..Going back to the history ,education always played a very crucial role in indian societies ..universities like taxila,ujjain ,pataliputra not only enlightened the domestic pupils but also beckoned them from abroad..but unfortunately our current system of education is more textual,theoritical, hackneyednon applicative,cramming based creating a very unhealthy scheme of competiton and parental and social pressure driven by marks.Nowa days getting admission in even a kindrgarden is a herculean task in itself,leave aside college admissions.kids along with their parents are being interviewed to comprehend their educational qualifications and financial capabilties.These procedures based on annual assesment of students make them less applicative and assimilative making them nothing more than trained parrots contributing to EDUCATED UNEMPLOYMENT.
    The problem of illiteracy is magnfiied among the agricultural labourers .they usually think one pair of extra hand will contribute better to familys economic situation.So,the rates of school dropouts are more and lowering the form of humancapital and weakening their position of bargain in the labour market.this contributes to the formation of unskilled unorganised sector who are being exploited ruthlessly with less than half their deserved remuneration and almost no or negligible social security and insurance benefits.Here ,vocational training along with elementary education can play a crucial role -LEARNING BY DOING-making them adept in curricular skills helping them earn money..
    Another nagging situation of indian social structure is women education ..swami vivekananda had opined that women should be educated and left on their own and they will tell what reforms are neede..but given the social conditions women are not being provided with the basic facilities of life like nutritive meals,primary health care.so their education is adistant dream…starting from bharatpathik raja ram mohan roy who fought vehemently against the custom of sati to vidya sagar to vishnu shastri pandit to dk karve who eventually laid to the first women university in india in 1916 and himself married a widow were staunch believers in emancipation of women for the betterment of the society at large..they believed it was by educating the woman we educate two families,and can free our country of the social stigmas and narrow dogmas .it would provide the the reawakening and the enlightened vision that would shape the course of events for decades to come,even today womens desire to give expression to their energies are being suppressed and their reproductive contributions as mothers and wives still finds more glorification inthe society.
    The basic problem of our education system is that its based on the foundation of mccauleys minute of1835,that preferred an anglicist mode of education that created BROWN SAHEBS that would cater the exploitative needs of the then colonial rule.though later the government of india started NPE -national policy of education 1986 and POA -programme of action aswell.In 1988,NLM-national literacy mission was launched keeping in mind the functional education ,the other two objectives are universal elementary education and non formal education..it was later revamped to be SAKSAR BHARATwhich was a flagship programme of education with women education being the highlighting part..In 2001 ,sarvasiksha abhiyan was launched with the view of bridging the gap further between the urban and rural population .building infrastructural facilities n rural areas,increasing number of teachers and bringing computer in rural schools thus bridging the digital divide. it also laid emphasis on navodaya vidyalayas…ON april 2010,a landmark decision was made in this front -RTE-rightto education,which made it compulsory for the state to provide quality education to all 6 -14 year old and would further put several backto school..infact state duty of providing compulsory education has been in vogue in the west and in countries like japan,singapore,malaysia etc,, . but inspite of all the efforts the annual survey on education reports that a standard 5 child is unable to read and decode a class 2 book and is usually not adept in basic arithmatic skills…the rural schools are usually devoid of adequate number of classrooms and teachers,teacher absentism,one teacher teaching all subjects apart from multitasking in several other roles in the school..
    Still ,a sincere effort is being made from the government part to seal the aforesaid loopholes in our system..it is only education that brings in the essence of tolerance,secularism,inclusiveness in this world where the trinity of fanaticism,sectarianism and bigotry is the order of the day.the government of india in the year 2014 on its part has allotted 29000 crore inSSA,5000crore in RMSArashtriya madhyamik shiksha abhiyaan,and highlighted new school assesment programme,pandit MM Malviya teachers training programme,toilets and drinking water facilities in schools and so on..but the gap between launching and implementation has to be bridged in order to see the desired results where the role played by the NGOs and the educated citizens of this country along with the government is very crucial in bringing about the much neede educational reforms to consolidate our position on the world map as aware ,informed and respected global citizens…

  37. Pointers for “Combination of ‘Samata’ and ‘Mamata’ would lead to ‘Samarasta'”

    1. Indian society has a long history of divisiveness – what started as a system of division of labour got ingrained as the ‘4 varna’ system – lead to the highly stratified Jati system – institutionalisation of Untouchability – low status of women in society – sharp divisions in public life – all privileges and rights only for upper caste men – from sharing of agricultural produce to social status and even punishment for crimes, all were based on a paradigm of inequality – thus, we have a long history of a divided and exploitative society.

    2. The idea that all men and women are born equal – the need for ‘Samata’ or equality – is also not new to our society – has been articulated beautifully and in detail by great men of all ages – economic and social inequality reason for rise of Jainism and Buddhism – The ‘Sanghas’ were perhaps the oldest institutions to adhere to the basic human need of being treated equally – Ashoka also to a certain extent adopted the doctrine of equality, especially in the religious sphere – In the medieval times, the Bhakti and Sufi movements made a plea for equality – Ramananda, Kabir, Guru Nanak, Namadeva, Eknath – all spoke about the equality of man – Akbar too tried to encourage social tolerance and equality of religions

    3. The struggle for ‘Samata’ or equality took a much stronger dimension with Indian freedom struggle – tribal and peasant uprisings against alien rule – Gandhi Ji’s rejection of untouchability – involvement of women, lower caste, minorities in the struggle – the ideals of the struggle in fact rested on the foundation of equality

    4. This long struggle ultimately resulted in ‘Equality’ being incorporated as an integral part of the constitution – the first objective of the preamble – the first fundamental right – but though this has brought about equality on paper, social, economic, political inequalities abound till date in our nation – and many of these are interlinked, for example lower caste women are among the most vulnerable groups in our society today – the growth that liberalisation brought has come at a price – there is a stark difference between the prosperity of our cities and the poverty of our villages – unemployment, caste and religious biases cause law and order problems almost on a daily basis – crimes against women are at an all time high

    5. Thus, ‘Samata’ as a narrow approach is not helping India to reach its economic and social potential – an element of ‘Mamata’ is needed to heal the wounds caused over centuries by these sharp divisions – ‘Mamata’ here refers to an approach that involves understanding and empathy for the problems faced by socially and economically sidelined groups – this approach needs to be implemented on three levels – policy making, ground implementation and civil society awareness and sensitisation – and also needs to touch the lives of all vulnerable and marginalised groups – example of recent changes to manual scavenging law, better health conditions for labourers with changes in Factories Act, toilets for girls being built by government, corporates, civil society, campaign for a clean India, financial inclusion etc – basically all government and civil society actions showing an empathetic approach

    6. Thus, though ‘Samata’ is an essential element for any modern democratic society, providing ‘equal opportunity’ to all, it is only with the additional element of ‘Mamata’, when a polity and society takes special note of the difficult circumstances being faced by its most oppressed and needy, that true ‘Samrasta’ or social harmony will prevail – as a result of all citizens reaping the benefits of economic security, health, education, growth along with the freedoms and rights guaranteed by the constitution.

    This is about 640 words – should be able to pull this to 1500 – 1800. Feedback?

  38. aspirant sayntni nicely done.

  39. sir, please write the Essay topiclist in hindi also so it will be easy for Hindi medium aspirant also as to understand the topic deeply and digging the internet.thanks

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