- Summit-style diplomacy
- Strategic relations
- Trade & investment
- Transport corridors
- Nuke Energy
- Environment and disaster Management
- Space science public health
- Culture tourism
- Limitations of Summit Style diplomacy
So far we’ve covered three meetings of Modi with
- Japan- PM Shinzo Abe
- China- President Xi Jinping
- USA- President Barack Obama
- Fourth and last part- just a ‘recap’ cum quick revision table of above three parts.
Meaning, Leaders of two countries, meet face to face, to resolve bilateral issues.
Benefits of Summit style diplomacy
- Generally, International conflicts arise due to non-transparency, suspicion and trust-deficit.
- But, when two leaders meet face to face, it allows personalization of relationship, adds warmth between two nations, creates positive atmosphere ahd reduces tensions and misunderstandings.
- Easier to convey issues face to face, behind the closed doors.
On that parameter, let’s check progress made by meeting the leaders of Japan, China and USA. I’ve not written all the agreements here, just those easy to memorize.
|mantra||Tokyo declaration||Inch towards miles||Chalein saath, saath: Forward together we go|
|gang membership to NSG, MTCR, Wassenaar, Australia group||yes||—||yes|
|Support UNSC permanent membership||yes||yes||yes|
|Terrorism||denounce it in all forms||zero tolerance against it|
- disable LeT, JeM, D-company, Al-Qaeda and Haqqani network
- intel sharing for ISIS
|maritime- anti piracy, freedom of navigation, narcotics||yes||yes||yes|
|border issues||NA||will clear the LAC matter soon.||NA|
|monitor civilians returning from Iraq/Syria||silent||silent||yes|
|exercise||may join Malabar regularly|
- Joint army exercise.
- Navy-airforce ex. soon.
- Malabar Naval ex. upgraded
- help setup Defense univ.
|want stable Afghanistan||yes||yes||yes|
|asked N.Korea to denuclearize||yes||—||yes|
|defense trade||japan to sell US-2 amphibian aircraft||—||Defense cooperation pact extended for 10 years.|
Trade & investment
|investment Billion USD|
- double FDI in 5 years
- Japan plus team in PMO
|import-export||India will export rare-earth chloride||China will facilitate entry of Indian goods to decrease trade deficit||Bilateral trade to be increased from $100 to $500 billion.|
|trade agreements||RCEP collaboration||collaborate for Doha round||Will sort out TFA mess.|
|invited for make in India||Yes||Yes||Yes|
- 50 billion yen loan to IIFCL
- Industrial cities in Guj, Maharashtra, UP and MP.
- Two industrial parks in Guj + Maharashtra
- sister pacts with A’bad and Gujarat
- USA will help in 3 smart cities- Allahabad, Ajmer and Vishakhapatnam
- bullet train A’bad-Mumbai feasibility study
- Metro between Gurgaon and Bawal
- Dholera airport + Alaang ship breaking
- train 100 Indians for heavy haul transport
- Rail university
- Chennai-Bang-Mysore speed to 160 kmph
- High speed rail project- pilot studies.
- USA to share best practices in rail Management
- will finish existing industrial corridors in India
- BCIM corridor: agreed to move forward
- Maritime silk road: Modi says not yet.
|USA invited us to|
- New silk road
- India-Pacific Economic corridor
- speedup the consultation
- joint LNG procurement
- clean coal technology
- solar parks @Rajasthan
|will begin consultation||New “contact” group setup, to sort the nuke liability issue.|
Environment and disaster Management
- Ganga cleaning (all three agreed)
- desalination @Gujarat
- Jap to host disaster Management summit
- Hydrological data sharing for floods.
- $1 billion credit line to import such renewable energy products in India
Space science public health
- science fellowship
- Jap volunteer nurses in Mizoram
- Ebola alliance
- India pledges 12 million USD
- Vaccine action Program for dengue, malaria, TB.
|Space||via asia-pacific regional agency||applauded Mars mission as Asia’s achievement.||NISAR mission 2021|
- Kyoto Varanasi pact.
- JENESYS 2.0 for youth exchange
- visit India year in China and then vice versa
- Hiuen Tsang tourist circuit
- new route for Kailash Mansarowar
- joint production of movies
- exchange 200 youth per year
- language teachers
- 2015: Visa on arrival for US citizens
Limitations of Summit Style diplomacy
- Few hours of meeting between two leaders, alone cannot solve intrinsic disputes.
- It requires lot of background homework and collaboration between ministerial staff, defence heads and experts from think tank.
- As such Modi meetings were mostly successful in Nepal, Japan, Australia, China and USA. However, some issues unsolved, for example:
Unresolved issues / at most lip-service
- Trade deficit. It remains to be seen when and how China actually facilitates entry of Indian goods in their market.
- Border dispute: although both agreed to clarify LAC, but immediate escalations did not stop- Chinese soldiers kept encroaching Chumar region during the same period.
- NSA-spying. Internet governance.
- Trans-pacific partnership (TPP) and Trade in services agreement (TiSA) exclude India.
- Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan and terrorism.
- Special 301 report, IPR, Drug patent rights.
- WTO-Trade facilitation agreement
- H1B visa, Totalization pact
Summit level diplomacy can help in creating a conducive environment at beginning. But long-term vision and follow up action needed to solve long term issues.