[Modi Diplomacy] Part 4/4: Summit Style diplomacy with Japan, China, USA- achievements and limitations

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IAS Mock Interviews
  1. Prologue
  2. Summit-style diplomacy
    1. Strategic relations
    2. Trade & investment
    3. Infrastructure
    4. Railways
    5. Transport corridors
    6. Nuke Energy
    7. Environment and disaster Management
    8. Space science public health
    9. Culture tourism
  3. Limitations of Summit Style diplomacy


So far we’ve covered three meetings of Modi with

  1. Japan- PM Shinzo Abe
  2. China- President Xi Jinping
  3. USA- President Barack Obama
  4. Fourth and last part- just a ‘recap’ cum quick revision table of above three parts.

Summit-style diplomacy

Meaning, Leaders of two countries, meet face to face, to resolve bilateral issues.

Benefits of Summit style diplomacy

  1. Generally, International conflicts arise due to non-transparency, suspicion and trust-deficit.
  2. But, when two leaders meet face to face, it allows personalization of relationship, adds warmth between two nations, creates positive atmosphere ahd reduces tensions and misunderstandings.
  3. Easier to convey issues face to face, behind the closed doors.

On that parameter, let’s check progress made by meeting the leaders of Japan, China and USA. I’ve not written all the agreements here, just those easy to memorize.

Strategic relations

mantraTokyo declarationInch towards milesChalein saath, saath: Forward together we go
gang membership to NSG, MTCR, Wassenaar, Australia groupyesyes
Support UNSC permanent membershipyesyesyes
Terrorismdenounce it in all formszero tolerance against it
  • disable LeT, JeM, D-company, Al-Qaeda and Haqqani network
  • intel sharing for ISIS
maritime- anti piracy, freedom of navigation, narcoticsyesyesyes
border issuesNAwill clear the LAC matter soon.NA
monitor civilians returning from Iraq/Syriasilentsilentyes
exercisemay join Malabar regularly
  • Joint army exercise.
  • Navy-airforce ex. soon.
  • Malabar Naval ex. upgraded
  • help setup Defense univ.
want stable Afghanistanyesyesyes
asked N.Korea to denuclearizeyesyes
defense tradejapan to sell US-2 amphibian aircraftDefense cooperation pact extended for 10 years.

Trade & investment

investment Billion USD
  • 35
  • double FDI in 5 years
  • Japan plus team in PMO
import-exportIndia will export rare-earth chlorideChina will facilitate entry of Indian goods to decrease trade deficitBilateral trade to be increased from $100 to $500 billion.
trade agreementsRCEP collaborationcollaborate for Doha roundWill sort out TFA mess.
invited for make in IndiaYesYesYes


  • 50 billion yen loan to IIFCL
  • Industrial cities in Guj, Maharashtra, UP and MP.
  • Two industrial parks in Guj + Maharashtra
  • sister pacts with A’bad and Gujarat
  • USA will help in 3 smart cities- Allahabad, Ajmer and Vishakhapatnam


  • bullet train A’bad-Mumbai feasibility study
  • Metro between Gurgaon and Bawal
  • Dholera airport + Alaang ship breaking
  • train 100 Indians for heavy haul transport
  • Rail university
  • Chennai-Bang-Mysore speed to 160 kmph
  • High speed rail project- pilot studies.
  • USA to share best practices in rail  Management

Transport corridors

  • will finish existing industrial corridors in India
  • BCIM corridor: agreed to move forward
  • Maritime silk road: Modi says not yet.
USA invited us to

  • New silk road
  • India-Pacific Economic corridor

Nuke Energy

  • speedup the consultation
  • joint LNG procurement
  • clean coal technology
  • solar parks @Rajasthan
will begin consultationNew “contact” group setup, to sort the nuke liability issue.

Environment and disaster Management

  • Ganga cleaning (all three agreed)
  • desalination @Gujarat
  • Jap to host disaster  Management summit
  • CBDR
  • Hydrological data sharing for floods.
  • $1 billion credit line to import such renewable energy products in India

Space science public health

  • science fellowship
  • Jap volunteer nurses in Mizoram
just bolbachchan
  • Ebola alliance
  • India pledges 12 million USD
  • Vaccine action Program for dengue, malaria, TB.
Spacevia asia-pacific regional agencyapplauded Mars mission as Asia’s achievement.NISAR mission 2021

Culture tourism

  • Kyoto Varanasi pact.
  • JENESYS 2.0 for youth exchange
  • visit India year in China and then vice versa
  • Hiuen Tsang tourist circuit
  • new route for Kailash Mansarowar
  • joint production of movies
  • exchange 200 youth per year
  • language teachers
  • 2015: Visa on arrival for US citizens

Limitations of Summit Style diplomacy

  1. Few hours of meeting between two leaders, alone cannot solve intrinsic disputes.
  2. It requires lot of background homework and collaboration between ministerial staff, defence heads and experts from think tank.
  3. As such Modi meetings were mostly successful in Nepal, Japan, Australia, China and USA. However, some issues unsolved, for example:
Unresolved issues / at most lip-service
JapanNuclear deal
  • Trade deficit. It remains to be seen when and how China actually facilitates entry of Indian goods in their market.
  • Border dispute: although both agreed to clarify LAC, but immediate escalations did not stop- Chinese soldiers kept encroaching Chumar region during the same period.
  • NSA-spying. Internet governance.
  • Trans-pacific partnership (TPP) and Trade in services agreement (TiSA) exclude India.
  • Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan and terrorism.
  • Special 301 report, IPR, Drug patent rights.
  • WTO-Trade facilitation agreement
  • H1B visa, Totalization pact


Summit level diplomacy can help in creating a conducive environment at beginning. But long-term vision and follow up action needed to solve long term issues.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

16 Comments on “[Modi Diplomacy] Part 4/4: Summit Style diplomacy with Japan, China, USA- achievements and limitations”

  1. Mrunal gone into hibernation? Or preparing himself? All articles written by team members post-prelims.

    1. how do you know? from tag ?

      1. it is good for the society if good samaritans like mrunal, raz kr get into the top services….

  2. Thanks for funny but much needed comparison and clearty in international relations.

  3. sir.. could you please provide important points from yojana and kurukshetra ?(only if time allows, because i know you are too busy with existing topics )… It takes so much time to understand them (yoja and kuru)..

    1. It’s available on insightsonindia…..

      1. Thank you bhai..

  4. india china army exercise ” hand in hand”

  5. solid n simple..great!

  6. Shri Mrunal Patelji,

    Please make a note on India-Pakistan Relations. Why Pak violates ceasefire? What is the solution for this?.
    If you make article in this,it will useful for Mains.

    Thank youji.

    1. bro ahar mrunal ne hi sab karna ha to tumne sirf paper hi dena h kya?

  7. Sir, please provide option to pdf your post for mobile users. At the moment, pdf option is available only for desktop users..


  9. very nice article & about IR specially with three major indian Startegic partners in the world. Thanks bro Mrunal

  10. thanks a lot sir . it is really very helpful for me to understand the international realations

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