[Nobel] 2014 Winners: Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Economics, Literature, Peace- Malala, Satyarthi

PIN76 Comments

  1. Nobel Prize Theory
  2. Nobel Physics 2014
    1. BEE to promote LED:
  3. Nobel Medicine 2014
  4. Noble Chemistry 2014
    1. Confocal microscope
  5. Nobel Economics 2014
  6. Nobel Peace Prize 2014
    1. Kailash Satyarthi
    2. Malala Yousafzai
    3. Tokenism in Peace prize 2014?
  7. Noble Literature 2014
  8. Nobel 2014: Quick revision Table
  9. Nobel winners with Indian Connection
  10. Mock Questions

Nobel Prize Theory

  • 1896: Dynamite inventor Alfred Nobel (Sweden) died. He left a fund to give awards in 5 categories: Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, and Peace. Later 6th Category added: Economics.
  • 1901: started. Maximum 3 persons can be awarded in each category.
  • A person must be alive to be nominated.
  • Nobel prize recipients are called laureates.
  • Nobel prizes are announced in advance but actual medals given on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death.
  • They get medal, diploma, and 8-million Swedish kroner (SEK) = ~ $1.1 million
Who gives the money?
All except Economics medalfund created by Dynamite inventor Alfred Nobel, Sweden.
EconomicsFrom Bank of Sweden (Riksbank)


Where is the award party held?
Oslo, NorwayThe Nobel Peace Prize given here.
Stockholm, SwedenPhysics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Economics medals given here.


Inscriptions on Nobel medal?
EconomicsNo inscription
PeaceFor the peace and brotherhood of men.
Physics, Chemistry, MedicineAnd they who bettered life on earth by new found mastery.

Nobel Physics 2014

  1. Isamu Akasaki (Japan)
  2. Hiroshi Amano(Japan)
  3. Shuji Nakamura (US)
  • First, Red and Green LEDs were invented. But still white light couldnot be produced.
  • 20 years ago, these three invented Blue LED (light emitting diode) using Indiaum Gallium Nitride semiconductor (InGaN)
  • Blue +Red + Green  = White LED light produced, hence LED became popular.
  • Today LEDs are the most efficient source of light.
Nobel Physics award 2014 LED

Without invention of Blue LED, we could never get white LED light!

2013 Nobel Physics: sub-atomic particles.

BEE to promote LED:

We should use LED because they’re

  • 50% more energy efficient than CFL
  • does not use mercury, unlike CFL.
  • Lifespan 4-5 times more than CFLs
  • Uses 1/10 energy of an incandescent bulb.
  • Yet produces same amount of light.

Challenge: high cost than CFL and bulbs. Therefore, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under the Ministry of Power, came up with following ideas:

  • Give financial support to all states- to promote LED use.
  • Under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuthikaran Yojana (RGGVY): Give LED bulbs to BPL families.
  • Electricity distribution firms should sign pacts with LED companies. To supply LED bulbs at discounted rates to their consumers.
  • For example BEE + EESL (a JV of PSUs) began selling LED bulbs to households at Rs.10 instead of MRP of Rs.400.
  • The electricity distribution companies then repays EESL, over a period of 5 to 8.
  • BEE will launch a labelling programme and awareness campaign for LED.

Nobel Medicine 2014

  1. John O’Keefe (UK)
  2. May—Britt Moser (Norway)
  3. Edvard Moser(Norway)
  • Discovering the brain’s positioning system.
  • Certain Nerve cells become active to enhance our spatial memory
  • Only then, we can remember things and their exact place around us.
  • In Alzheimer’s disease patient loses his spatial memory as well.
  • These 3 scientists’ research will help fixing that. Hence Nobel.
  • 2013 Nobel Medicine: how substances move within a cell.
  • 2012 Nobel Medicine to Gurdon and Yamanaka  for iPS stem cells. Important because Modi during his Japan visit, asked Yamanaka to cure sickle cell anaemia.

Noble Chemistry 2014

  1. Eric Betzig (US)
  2. William Moerner (US)
  3. Stefan Hell (Germany)
  • Earlier optical micrometers could show resolution upto  0.2 micrometres only (=half the wavelength of light)..
  • But these 3 gentlemen developed  super-resolved fluorescence microscope, which can show details in nanometers.
  • Hence the Nobel.
  • 2013 Nobel Chemistry: computer model to predict chemical reactions- to make new drugs.

now let’s check a Related topic from October week 2, 2014:

Confocal microscope

Relevance: (GSM3) Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology

  • Indian scientists designed this microscope
  • Using funding from CSIR – Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.
  • Broad Spectrum Confocal Microscope can generate 3D images of objects.
  • Uses Infra-red beams and patented crystal fibres.
  • Imported microscope of this quality =4 cr.
  • Desi microscope: ~1.5 cr.

Nobel Economics 2014

Jean Tirole (France)

  • If Government doesn’t regulate private firms => Private monopoly=> new players can’t enter => lack of competition => high prices => market failure.
  • Jean designed frameworks on how should Government regulate private telecom, banking, mfg. industry etc. without nationalizing them. How to prevent cartels and monopolies.
  • Following his model, many developing countries began disinvestment and privatization of Public sector units in the 80s and 80s.
  • Economics Nobel is given by Sweden’s Central bank.
  • 2013 Nobel: How market prices of bonds/stocks/real-estate move.

Nobel Peace Prize 2014

Given jointly to Kailash Satyarthi (India) and Malala Yousafzai (Pakistan).

Kailash Satyarthi

  • Electrical Engineer from Madhya Pradesh.
  • Head of Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA) — the Save Childhood Movement
  • freed 80,000 children from factories, brick-kilns, carpet making and other bonded labour jobs. Even sustained attacks from local mafia while doing that.
  • helped in their education and rehabilitation.
  • Member of UNESCO group on “Education for all”.
  • Wants the world leaders to include child-slavery abolition in Post-
  • Has won Robert F. Kennedy International Human Rights Award (US) and several such civilian award in Spain, Italy and Europe.
  • Government of India never gave him any Padma award.
  • European Government nominated him for this Nobel Prize.

Only three people from India got Peace Nobel

  • 1979: Mother Teresa
  • 2007: RK Pachauri with Al Gore (climate change)
  • 2014: Satyarthi.

Malala Yousafzai

Only two pakistanis won Nobel so far.

  • 1979: Physics- Abdus Salam for subatomic particles
  • 2014: Peace- Malala for advocating girl education.

Malala is youngest person to win Nobel (age 17). Broke record of Lawrence Braggs (25 years old, Physics noble-1915).

  • She hails from Village Mingora, Swat Valley, Pakistan.
  • Wrote a BBC-blog pseudonym ‘Gul Makai’ (2009).
  • Advocated girl child education in Pakistan. Hence Talibans did not like it. NOT ONE BIT. so, they shot her in the head.
  • Government sent her to UK for treatment. Currently living in Birmingham, crusading for education via speeches, books, and social media.

Malala has written following Books:

  1. I’m Malala (co-author Christina Lamb)
  2. Malala: the girl who stood up for education and changed the world (co-author Patricia McCormick).

Tokenism in Peace prize 2014?

  • 2013 Peace prize given to Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. (OPCW)- Therefore still important for GS2: International bodies. UPSC occasionally ask stuff after it becomes “outdated”, same happened with Chandrayan.
  • Anyways, back to the topic- 2014: Malala and Satyarthi got peace prize. Some people see Joint Prize to an Indian and a Pakistani- as a “symbolic-gesture” to stop the border tension.
  • But Nobel Committee clarified, this wasn’t linked with India-Pak LoC firing at all.
  • Malala selection done in context of ISIS extremism.
  • Satyarthi was a genuine activist nominated by European parliament. (And not a Jholachhap NGO working with NAC or planning commission.)
  • Both were less controversial than other contenders- Edward Snowden, Pope Francis.
  • Nobel Committee’s message is: Hindus, Muslims, Indians, Pakistanis – all need to join a common struggle for education and against extremism.

Noble Literature 2014

Patrick “Modi”-ano (France)

  • Novelist who write on themes of WW2, Nazi occupation.
  • Famous book: “Missing person”
  • 2013 Nobel: Canada’s Alice Munro for short stories

Nobel 2014: Quick revision Table

  • Nobel Prize 2014_1
  • Nobel Prize 2014_2
  • Nobel Prize 2014_3
  • Nobel Prize 2014_4
  • Nobel Prize 2014_5
  • Nobel Prize 2014_6
  1. Isamu Akasaki (Japan)
  2. Hiroshi Amano(Japan)
  3. Shuji Nakamura (US)
  • Blue LED invention
  • Red + green + blue = white
  1. John O’Keefe (UK)
  2. May—Britt Moser (Norway)
  3. Edvard Moser(Norway)
  • Cells that create brain’s positioning system.
  • This system Help us remember “exact places” of things
  • Can help in Alzheimer’s disease
  1. Eric Betzig (US)
  2. William Moerner (US)
  3. Stefan Hell (Germany)
  • Microscope: Super-resolved fluorescence
  • Nanometer resolution
EconomicsJean Tirole (France)How to prevent monopolies and facilitate competition.
  1. Malala Yousafzai (Pak)
  2. Kailash Satyarthi (India)
Child rights, child education
LiteraturePatrick Modiano (France)Novels on anti-Nazi, WW2 themes.

Nobel winners with Indian Connection

1902Ronald Ross, born in Almora. Malaria researchMedicine
1907Rudyard Kipling, born in MumbaiLiterature
1913Rabindranath TagoreLiterature
1930Sir C.V. Raman, Bharat RatnaPhysics
1968Dr. Hargobind KhoranaMedicine
1979Mother Teresa (Macedonia) worked in Kolkata. Bharat RatnaPeace
1983Subrahmanyam ChandrasekharPhysics
1998Dr.Amartya Sen, Bharat RatnaEconomics
2001VS Naipul (Trinidad and Tobago)Literature
2007Dr. RK Pachauri (with Al Gore) for climate change workPeace
2009Venkatraman “Venky” Ramakrishnan – RibosomeChemistry
2014Kailash Satyarthi – Child rights activistPeace

Mock Questions


  1. Non-UPSC exams: trivial GK on winner vs nationality, winner vs category, facts from theory. Indian connection table.
  2. CSAT: principles behind LED light, brain’s positioning system, “match the following” winner with invention; microeconomics definitions about monopoly, oligopoly etc.


  1. IFoS Mains: They ask shortnotes about “persons in news” (PIN) so all winners and their contribution important.
  2. CSE Mains: indirect questions about LED / energy savings ; child-rights and child-education related laws/schemes/bodies in India; CCI structure function and so on.

For more persons in news (PIN), visit Mrunal.org/PIN

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

So far 76 Comments posted

  1. Sagar

    I am in my final year of engineering, I have qualified the preliminary stage and the institute has agreed to provide me provisional/bonafide, I will obtain my degree in may-2015, so am I eligible to write mains by providing provisional/bonafide temporarily?? Any help from aspirants who are familiar with situation will be of immense help.


      heartly congratulations….even i am in final year of engineering…writing next year…all the very best ……

    2. Sandeep

      Dear Sagar,
      Yes you can appear for mains.

    3. kk

      sorry , u r not eligible 4 mains…
      wait for uploading DAF…
      becoz all docs r req before mains ..

    4. Dilip

      Dear friend, before going to face main examination you must to have completed your degree.

  2. Naveen

    Sir i m going to write mains dis tym nd my studies are going well except Ethics.. plz suggest me smthng how to approach dis subject or any book which i follo

  3. Naveen

    Sir i m going to write mains dis tym nd my studies are going well except Ethics.. plz suggest me smthng how to approach dis subject or any book which i follow

  4. arjun

    I have cleared the prelim and now i dont know what to do for mains because i did not expect to clear the pre and had not prepared for mains.
    Pls help
    Its URGENT.

    1. osho baba

      better follow mrunal and few other good sites..instead of corrospondence course buy good books for preparation..will be more handy…

    2. osho baba

      i m in the same boat bro…guess working hard and hoping for the best is the only alternative..

  5. vikram

    Thanks Mrunal for providing the information about Nobel prize for 2014

  6. kk

    pak ko pressurize karne ke liye MALALA
    and Kailash Satyarthi 4 Indian booming of 21st century

  7. meg

    Following his model, many developing countries began disinvestment and privatization of Public sector units in the 80s and 80s.

    kindly clear this line please..

  8. arjun

    I have filled pre dorm as general category as at that i did not have obc certificate, now that i have it can i fill the daf for mains as obc category.
    Pls help

  9. keya

    Thanks. Need your help with sports

    Please update sports pin for last five months

  10. Jude_Prudence

    (Aggravating questions I’m interview, which will not be asked cause by then some other country will be attacked by some one else)

    Q. Isn’t Malala over rated? She didn’t do anything expect being shot at.What do you think?

    Q. Is Nobel racist ?

    Q. Is Nobel motivated by western agenda?

    Warning: Don’t start a comment war, don’t get angry, it’s a time bomb meant for you to diffuse not be wreck havoc. No one prescribes to this!

    1. Mehul

      Jude, Ofourse Malala is overrated!
      She is given half dozen prizes every year for last 2-3 years for same “achievement”.
      I’m tired of memorizing the list. And her interview-answers seem too artificial and tutored for a person of her age.

  11. Nobita

    here are other examples
    2009-peace prize to barack obama.

    2012- Nobel Prize (Literature) to Mo Yan.

    These prizes let Norway to punch above its weight.

  12. Mama

    An interesting fact-the Mosers who have got medicine nobel are indeed a couple which is a rare thing in nobel.

    1. Bhavesh Mishra

      In fact Mosers were the fifth couple to win Nobel Prize. Here are the other four:

      1. Marrie and Pierre Curie
      2. Irene and Freidrich Joliot (Irene was Curie’s daughter)
      3. Gerty Theresa Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori
      4. Alva Myrdal and Gunnar Myrdal

  13. Kapil

    Mrunal Sir! Nobel Peace Prize, 2007 was awarded to Al Gore Jr (former US VP) and IPCC (not Dr.R.K. Pachauri). Though I know that Dr. R.K. Pachauri has been the head of the organisation since 2002 but does that mean the award given to any organisation is equivalent to award given to that organization’s head, as an individual? Please reply.

    1. Deepak

      Exactly..It was given to IPCC and not Pachauri..It’s a grave error.

      1. Shivi

        Yes, you are right. It was given to IPCC . R K Pachauri took the awad on behalf of IPCC

        1. feroj

          Its not that …He was awarded the Prize .. he was the chairperson of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change …and any one is given any award for leading an organisation then the award should be given to him unanimously and he should owe that exactly.. …

  14. Anand

    Sir, please recheck. I guess Mr. Pachouri was not conferred with a Nobel Prize, he just received it on behalf of the IPCC being the head of it.

  15. neha



    1. Anand

      You can file RTI, but, as per the notice they are not bound to answer it and they won’t until the completion of the process.

  16. ss

    Any one giving hcs mains
    with geography optional

    1. Neha

      hey i m giving mains of hcs……. but my optional is sociology……… r u preparing from chd??????

    2. Neha

      i m prprng from chd…… r u giving any test series smwhere??

      1. vikram

        hcs with geography+mechanical

        1. Neha

          hey vikram r u giving sm where test series for this??? from where??

        2. Neha

          reply to kr do yaar………… r u preparing frm chd??? i hv hrd that our mains will be delayed!!!!

        3. Neha

          mains of hcs nt upsc…… clarified….. do reply……..

  17. Deepankar katiyar

    sir , please help me ” RAJASVA NIRIKSHAK EXAMINATION ” ka form 2 din fill up kar raha huu but na to registration ho raha hai na hi payment get way open ho raha hai na koi help number lag raha hai aaur last date bhi aa rahi hai kya karu sir ????????

  18. bhart singh

    i am going to appear for ssc cgl2014 on 19 sept. so how many question should be attended to clear cut off (general) ???and i don not want problem for further procedure. so plz suggest

  19. silver

    sir, rabindra nath tagore got nobel too including others, there nobel is not counted as Indian in your list, just bcoz at tht time, we didnt have the sovereign govtt of ours ??????? asking this might sound silly to few, but still asking.. ty in advance fr answering… anyone please

    1. aditya

      did he not return it after jalian wala bagh massecre

      1. aditya

        he returned his knighthood not nobel..your point is taken

        1. silver

          aditya bhai phir ans. kya hai ?? why mr. tagore is not included in list.

  20. snoopy

    yes…i am sick of this malala mania….she’s become the hannah montana of humanitarian causes…..enough is enough.

  21. pradeep yadav

    Nobel winner mr. Kailash satyarthi did his Engineering from samrat ashok technological insttitute vidishsa and he was worked as lecturer also.great achievement

  22. hriti

    Yes..I am also bored of malala every time..as if no none else doing anything.

    And modi s not stopping coming up wid a new scheme ..slogan..and new list of grt ppl each day..which is adding onto the burden..

  23. pratik

    dt kid malala…i doubt she evn served those girls from swat valley evn for 3 yrz.. while c is sharing t nobel with a person who struggled gainst child labour for mre dan 20 yrz ie 3 yrz mre dan malalaz age… and the way she and her dad gave an interview once.. i feel lije both of them are from pakistan civil service..how diplomatic she z in her speech… its the hieght of prematurity… these usa campaignz aktly raise dz ppl above wat actualy dey do in real…n jst bcoz c had a bullet duznt mean she shud get a nobel else all doz humanitarian workers n cameramenz who riskz deir life evrydy dre in iraq to brng t happeninz dre to t world… like steven scotloff…david haines..james foley etc…

  24. parveen

    My mother’s surname is missing in graduation certificate. But it is all right in matriculation and 12th certificates. Do i need to change it on my graduation certificate? What should i use while filling Civil Services Prelims application form?

    1. Jude_Prudence

      Certificates are checked during personality test. For such trivial things they ask for affidavit on stamp paper

  25. Hriti

    can someone upload a sample DAF form?

    to see how it looks like and start consultation with friends and family on filling them?

    1. hriti

      upsc uploaded DAF for IFoS..

  26. sam

    Mains k liye kab tak k current affairs padne padenge

  27. sushilkumar

    dear mrunal sir,

    my question is regarding ACIO-2014 , please tell which date should be consider to calcuate age limit? there is no mention in the advertisement, so please reply at your earliest. thanks

    1. Chandradeo

      @sushil kumar- For ACIO – date of calculation of age- 9 nov 2014 (last date of form submission)

  28. Kunal Raja Gautam


    Indebted we all are to the hard work you do. Thank you.

  29. Kunal Raja Gautam

    Dear All,

    Anyone writing Mains 2014 with Economics as optional? Perhaps we can share some vital points.

  30. deepak

    Thank you sir

  31. anbubose

    Thanks a lot Mrunalji

    1. rochak29

      Hi Random guy,

      I am in Bangalore. How can avail vision ias test series ?

  32. Abhishek

    Dr. I need your help. I m beginner and little bit confused about coaching. I m a teacher by profession and I want to do a corresponds for prep. Is it right decision? If yes, then help me to find right place to get correspondence. Also I cannot leave my job.

  33. avyaktha

    Request: can u provide some help for ifos preparation? like books recommended for the optional as u have provided for civil service..

  34. Govind

    I’m following this blog since a month.im begginer and It really help me for my civil service preparation . Can someone please suggest some other blog that upsc aspirant should subscribe. I have opt political science. Expect yours valuable reply

  35. Ravindra

    Dear sir i am a beginer how should i start my preparation ….

    1. haider

      Is geography a good optional for writing mains….plz tell

  36. viplav

    Mrunal sir,

    please clarify how LED Tvs are able to display white coloured images even without using a blue light emitting LED

  37. deepak pandey

    i am really thankful mrunal team . it helps me more . further i would like to search mrunal again

  38. Anjana S Kumar

    Excellent work !!!

  39. Rahul Shrivastava

    Please tell me about which books are preffered for scra(technical & non technical).specially for English.

  40. arjun tiwari

    dear Sir,

    I request you to please also review the Question paper of engineering services ( general studies portion) So that the share of static and dynamic portion and also the type of expected question and books to study can be known.


  41. anjali

    I’m a beginner and following your website for a couple of days.. It’s really helpful to understand points in comfortable way.. Thanks a lot for your work..

  42. Mayflower 1989

    This platform is really awesome. Keep the good work going… All the best and Thanks….. 🙂

  43. Rohit yadav

    Thank u mrunal sir for this awesome job…,

  44. Jagjeet Singh

    Does upsc is going to reduce chances for general catagory from six to four in near future as I have already used my two chances.so please provide me information regarding my question,so that I can plan my study accordingly.

  45. Arvind Mishra

    Sir my folded hands Pranam to ur lotus feet.
    Sir for environment and ecology. Base to current. Please guide me and tell me the sorce

  46. Ashish bhumihar

    Nice to know about you, following from last 2 month, learning nice…..thanks

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