- Nobel Prize Theory
- Nobel Physics 2014
- Nobel Medicine 2014
- Noble Chemistry 2014
- Nobel Economics 2014
- Nobel Peace Prize 2014
- Noble Literature 2014
- Nobel 2014: Quick revision Table
- Nobel winners with Indian Connection
- Mock Questions
- 1896: Dynamite inventor Alfred Nobel (Sweden) died. He left a fund to give awards in 5 categories: Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, and Peace. Later 6th Category added: Economics.
- 1901: started. Maximum 3 persons can be awarded in each category.
- A person must be alive to be nominated.
- Nobel prize recipients are called laureates.
- Nobel prizes are announced in advance but actual medals given on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death.
- They get medal, diploma, and 8-million Swedish kroner (SEK) = ~ $1.1 million
|All except Economics medal||fund created by Dynamite inventor Alfred Nobel, Sweden.|
|Economics||From Bank of Sweden (Riksbank)|
|Oslo, Norway||The Nobel Peace Prize given here.|
|Stockholm, Sweden||Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Economics medals given here.|
|Peace||For the peace and brotherhood of men.|
|Physics, Chemistry, Medicine||And they who bettered life on earth by new found mastery.|
2013 Nobel Physics: sub-atomic particles.
We should use LED because they’re
- 50% more energy efficient than CFL
- does not use mercury, unlike CFL.
- Lifespan 4-5 times more than CFLs
- Uses 1/10 energy of an incandescent bulb.
- Yet produces same amount of light.
Challenge: high cost than CFL and bulbs. Therefore, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under the Ministry of Power, came up with following ideas:
- Give financial support to all states- to promote LED use.
- Under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuthikaran Yojana (RGGVY): Give LED bulbs to BPL families.
- Electricity distribution firms should sign pacts with LED companies. To supply LED bulbs at discounted rates to their consumers.
- For example BEE + EESL (a JV of PSUs) began selling LED bulbs to households at Rs.10 instead of MRP of Rs.400.
- The electricity distribution companies then repays EESL, over a period of 5 to 8.
- BEE will launch a labelling programme and awareness campaign for LED.
- 2013 Nobel Medicine: how substances move within a cell.
- 2012 Nobel Medicine to Gurdon and Yamanaka for iPS stem cells. Important because Modi during his Japan visit, asked Yamanaka to cure sickle cell anaemia.
- 2013 Nobel Chemistry: computer model to predict chemical reactions- to make new drugs.
now let’s check a Related topic from October week 2, 2014:
Relevance: (GSM3) Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology
- Indian scientists designed this microscope
- Using funding from CSIR – Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.
- Broad Spectrum Confocal Microscope can generate 3D images of objects.
- Uses Infra-red beams and patented crystal fibres.
- Imported microscope of this quality =4 cr.
- Desi microscope: ~1.5 cr.
Jean Tirole (France)
- If Government doesn’t regulate private firms => Private monopoly=> new players can’t enter => lack of competition => high prices => market failure.
- Jean designed frameworks on how should Government regulate private telecom, banking, mfg. industry etc. without nationalizing them. How to prevent cartels and monopolies.
- Following his model, many developing countries began disinvestment and privatization of Public sector units in the 80s and 80s.
- Economics Nobel is given by Sweden’s Central bank.
- 2013 Nobel: How market prices of bonds/stocks/real-estate move.
Given jointly to Kailash Satyarthi (India) and Malala Yousafzai (Pakistan).
- Electrical Engineer from Madhya Pradesh.
- Head of Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA) — the Save Childhood Movement
- freed 80,000 children from factories, brick-kilns, carpet making and other bonded labour jobs. Even sustained attacks from local mafia while doing that.
- helped in their education and rehabilitation.
- Member of UNESCO group on “Education for all”.
- Wants the world leaders to include child-slavery abolition in Post-
- Has won Robert F. Kennedy International Human Rights Award (US) and several such civilian award in Spain, Italy and Europe.
- Government of India never gave him any Padma award.
- European Government nominated him for this Nobel Prize.
Only three people from India got Peace Nobel
- 1979: Mother Teresa
- 2007: RK Pachauri with Al Gore (climate change)
- 2014: Satyarthi.
Only two pakistanis won Nobel so far.
- 1979: Physics- Abdus Salam for subatomic particles
- 2014: Peace- Malala for advocating girl education.
Malala is youngest person to win Nobel (age 17). Broke record of Lawrence Braggs (25 years old, Physics noble-1915).
- She hails from Village Mingora, Swat Valley, Pakistan.
- Wrote a BBC-blog pseudonym ‘Gul Makai’ (2009).
- Advocated girl child education in Pakistan. Hence Talibans did not like it. NOT ONE BIT. so, they shot her in the head.
- Government sent her to UK for treatment. Currently living in Birmingham, crusading for education via speeches, books, and social media.
Malala has written following Books:
- I’m Malala (co-author Christina Lamb)
- Malala: the girl who stood up for education and changed the world (co-author Patricia McCormick).
- 2013 Peace prize given to Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. (OPCW)- Therefore still important for GS2: International bodies. UPSC occasionally ask stuff after it becomes “outdated”, same happened with Chandrayan.
- Anyways, back to the topic- 2014: Malala and Satyarthi got peace prize. Some people see Joint Prize to an Indian and a Pakistani- as a “symbolic-gesture” to stop the border tension.
- But Nobel Committee clarified, this wasn’t linked with India-Pak LoC firing at all.
- Malala selection done in context of ISIS extremism.
- Satyarthi was a genuine activist nominated by European parliament. (And not a Jholachhap NGO working with NAC or planning commission.)
- Both were less controversial than other contenders- Edward Snowden, Pope Francis.
- Nobel Committee’s message is: Hindus, Muslims, Indians, Pakistanis – all need to join a common struggle for education and against extremism.
Patrick “Modi”-ano (France)
- Novelist who write on themes of WW2, Nazi occupation.
- Famous book: “Missing person”
- 2013 Nobel: Canada’s Alice Munro for short stories
|Economics||Jean Tirole (France)||How to prevent monopolies and facilitate competition.|
||Child rights, child education|
|Literature||Patrick Modiano (France)||Novels on anti-Nazi, WW2 themes.|
|1902||Ronald Ross, born in Almora. Malaria research||Medicine|
|1907||Rudyard Kipling, born in Mumbai||Literature|
|1930||Sir C.V. Raman, Bharat Ratna||Physics|
|1968||Dr. Hargobind Khorana||Medicine|
|1979||Mother Teresa (Macedonia) worked in Kolkata. Bharat Ratna||Peace|
|1998||Dr.Amartya Sen, Bharat Ratna||Economics|
|2001||VS Naipul (Trinidad and Tobago)||Literature|
|2007||Dr. RK Pachauri (with Al Gore) for climate change work||Peace|
|2009||Venkatraman “Venky” Ramakrishnan – Ribosome||Chemistry|
|2014||Kailash Satyarthi – Child rights activist||Peace|
- Non-UPSC exams: trivial GK on winner vs nationality, winner vs category, facts from theory. Indian connection table.
- CSAT: principles behind LED light, brain’s positioning system, “match the following” winner with invention; microeconomics definitions about monopoly, oligopoly etc.
- IFoS Mains: They ask shortnotes about “persons in news” (PIN) so all winners and their contribution important.
- CSE Mains: indirect questions about LED / energy savings ; child-rights and child-education related laws/schemes/bodies in India; CCI structure function and so on.
For more persons in news (PIN), visit Mrunal.org/PIN