- What is IRNSS?
- 7 Satellites of IRNSS
- IRNSS-C launch
- Benefits of IRNSS Desi-GPS system?
- Why waste money building Desi GPS?
- Appendix1: IRNSS-Scientific principle
- Appendix 2: Russian GLONASS
- Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
- 2006: Government approved project with ~Rs.1500 crores.
- American Global positioning system has 24 orbiting satellites, a global network of ground stations. Thus GPS covers every part of the world.
- But, given this small budget, it is beyond ISRO’s aukaat to maintain 24 satellites to cover entire globe,
- Therefore, our Desi GPS will use just seven satellites, and try to cover India + 1,500 km beyond its borders.
- HQ: ISRO Navigation Centre at Byalalu, near Bangalore. It’ll control this system.
- All seven IRNSS satellites will be at a height of about 36,000 km, taking a whole day to circle the Earth.
- In future, we can add more satellites to increase coverage surrounding India. and with God willing, one day 25-30 satellites to cover entire earth, just like American-GPS.
So far 3 out 7 satellites launched
|When||Jul. 2013||April 2014||Oct. 2014|
|Where||Satish Dawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra|
*PSLV: Polar Satellite Launch vehicle.
(Mains-GS3) Q.Write a shortnote on the importance of IRNSS-C satellite launch 100 words.
|WHEN?||October 2014. Hence the need for publishing this stupid article.|
|WHERE?||Satish Dawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.|
|HOW?||using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV C26)|
In next two years, remaining satellites will be launch, and Desi-GPS system will become operational.
(Mains-GS3) Discuss the benefits of IRNSS system 200 words.
|Two services||IRNSS will offer two services:|
|Accuracy||American GPS: 15 metersOur IRNSS: 20 meters.|
- Will serve both civil and military users.
- Will provide time-location coordinates on land, sea and air.
- Cell phone apps- for mapping, driving, hiking in jungle and remote areas. And if you use it with Idea-internet then rickshaw-walla can’t make you ‘ullu’.
- Forest department: Putting out wildfire, tracking endangered animals.
- Fleet Management e.g. taxi or truck company can monitor whether their driver is on right path or not.
- Disaster Management.
- During war: naval fleet Management, missile navigation etc.
Interview question: Why should Indian Government waste money on IRNSS? Why not simply use American GPS at a fraction of that cost?
At present only three countries have fully functional global navigation systems. (EU’s Galileo system yet to become fully operational)
|Russia||GLONASS (more under appendix)|
- To deploy a global navigation system, you need to setup lots of satellites hovering around the world, so they can scan and sent pinpoint location of anywhere to anywhere.
- During the Iraq war, the Americans sent wrong GPS signals to the Iraqi jets and missiles, therefore Iraqis could not attack Americans forces in a precise manner.
- Moral of the story = Don’t rely on other people’s navigation system.
- For the short term, We (India) have designed our missiles and fighter jets to can use both GPS (American) and GLONASS (Russian) signals for navigation.
- So if we want to attack America or its ally Pakistan, we can rely on GLONASS
- And if we want to attack Russia or its ally China, we can rely on American GPS.
- But for long term, we will need our own Desi-GPS system.
- Same reason why we need Anti-satellite missiles, to shoot down videsi-GPS systems during war.
(Mains-GS3) Write a short note on GAGAN system. 100 words
- ‘Global Positioning System Aided Geo Augmented Navigation System (GAGAN) for civil aviation purposes.
- GPS aided geo augmented navigation’ (gagan)
- It is a joint effort by the ISRO and the Airports Authority Of India (AAI).
- It’s main use is to help Air traffic control and helps pilots fly / land aircrafts in bad weather.
- But as the name suggests “GPS aided …” meaning it is not a separate independent navigation system.
- It depends on GPS (American navigation system). Therefore we need IRNSS for long term solution.
Since IRNSS project will still take two years to complete= Topic remains important for scientific principle MCQs in CSAT prelim 2015, 2016 and even 2017 (because even in 2017, Hindu will keep doing “mahimaa-gaan” every once in a while). So, let’s finish the scientific principle once and for all.
Microwaves: how they help in GPSing?
- IRNSS satellites use two microwave frequency bands: L5 and S.
- These microwaves travel at speed of light.
- Your receiver (the GPS-like gadget) will calculate the delay between microwave’s transmission and its reception = thus you get coordinates on earth.
- For above microwave-calculation, Navigation satellites have to periodically transmit their precise position in orbit with exact time.
- For this, we can’t fit Timex or Sonata watches in the satellite. They need to carry extremely accurate clocks with long shelf-life.
- Therefore, Each IRNSS satellite is equipped with rubidium atomic clocks, to keep precise time.
This is an old topic from 2012. Dead horse resurrects because of IRSNSS.
MCQs relevance: similarities and differences between American GPS, GLONASS and IRNSS.
- Glonass is Russia’s Global Navigation Satellite System.
- It provides location and time information anywhere in the planet.
- Glonass is an alternative to the U.S.-controlled Global Positioning System (GPS).
- 2012: Mohan-Putin signed agreement for use of GLONASS.
- GLONASS navigation system will allow Indian missiles, to strike within half a metre of distant targets= very accurate.
- GLONASS is fitted on Nuclear submarine Chakra= killer combo.