[GS3] Environment: Pusa Hydrogel, Eco-Cooker, Microgrid Power, Net Metering, Earth Overshoot

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UPSC Paperset
  1. Pusa Hydrogel
  2. Eco-Cooker
  3. Micro-grid power generation
  4. Rajiv Gandhi Net-metering se Bill kum karlo Yojana
  5. Earth overshoot day

Pusa Hydrogel

Topic in news: Oct 2014, Hindu; Relevance: GS3- Science-Technology / conservation;

  • Who? Indian Agricultural Research institute, New Delhi
  • What? Pusa Hydrogel is a granular product. Made by cross-linking hydrophilic (water-loving) polymers.
  • Mix the dry powder with seeds + 10 times soil + necessary fertilizers. Then plow the farm, spread this mixture.

Ya but what’s the benefit?:

  • During irrigation, the Hydrogel will absorb and retain water just like a sponge. 350xtimes its dry weight.
  • During dry period, it’ll release the water for plants.
  • Thus, gel reduces water requirement for crops. Improves seed germination,.
  • Helps farmers in arid areas. Less money, diesel, electricity spent on irrigation.

Eco-Cooker

Topic in news: Oct 2014, Hindu; Relevance: GS3-S&T in everyday life ;

  • Who? An Andhra corporation, a pvt.company and Mumbai based research institute. (names not important because they’re not high profile like ISRO, TERI etc.)
  • What? An ‘Eco Cooker’ that saves 70% energy than LPG.

But How?

Eco Cooker

Eco Cooker benefits

  • Modified gas regulatory: gas flow is controlled in such manner that temperature remains constant at 72 degree.
  • Modified burner design to spread the flame evenly.
  • Uses a sealed close circuit to trap steam and heat.

Benefits?

  • 30% of National Energy goes into cooking. Eco-cooker uses 70% less energy used than in LPG.
  • Ideal for canteen, hotel, hostels.
  • Can cook multiple items in one go-rice, dal, veggies etc.
  • Preserves food’s nutritional value, Improves food’s taste.

Micro-grid power generation

Topic in news: Oct 2014, Hindu; Relevance: GS3-infrastructure: Energy / conservation;

Discuss the important of Microgrid power generation to solve the electricity-shortage in rural India. 100 words.

Ans. A micro grid is made up of three components:

  1. Power generation system – usually a renewable source: solar panel, windmills.
  2. Energy storage facility
  3. Load Management system.

A single microgrid (2-3MW) can serve 5000 families.

  • These Micro grids are independent, self-sufficient and a practical solution to provide electricity to off-grid and inaccessible areas.
  • At present such families rely either on firewood or diesel- both harming environment. Micro grid electricity can benefit rural/tribal children in education and farmers in irrigation.
  • System already successful in USA, and American companies have shown interest to replicate the model in India.

Net metering to reduce lightbill

Topic in news: May 2014, Hindu; Relevance: GS3-Energy/ conversation

Q.Discuss the utility of Net-metering system to solve the electricity crisis in Urban area. 100 words

Ans. Under Net-metering system, Customer installs a solar or windpower plant on his premise, gets it grid-connected with the electricity distribution company (DISCOM)

Net Metering

  • Customer uses solar electricity for his own house, and transmit excess solar energy to DISCOM.
  • During monsoon, cloudy days or heavy usage, he can use the conventional electricity from the DISCOM (generated by thermal or nuke power plant).
  • The electricity bill will be calculated on the ‘net’ transfer between customer and DISCOM.
  • IF customer gave more (solar) energy to DISCOM, the (thermal) electricity he consumed=> DISCOM will have to pay the customer. And vice versa.
  • Hence it is called “Net” Metering”.
  • Benefits: less light bill, environment protection, fight climate change, solar panel can run for ~25 years.
  • Limitations: requires initial investment of ~1-3 lakh rupees to buy the solar panel. Takes ~3 years to recover investment.

Earth overshoot day

Topic in news: August 2014, Frontline; Relevance: GS3-Environment degradation

Mains-GS3: Q.Discuss the significance of Earth Overshoot day. 100 words

Unlike the World environment day (June 5), Earth overshoot day is not fixed permanently for every year.
For the given year, the Earth Overshoot day is observed on a day when:

  1. humans have consumed more than biosphere can replace
  2. humans created more waste than nature can absorb

2014: Earth Overshoot day observed on 19th August (8th month of the year)

  • Meaning, we’ve used up earth’s annual (12 month) supply of water, land and trees within 8 months.
  • We are generating waste, litter, CO2 at faster rater (8 months) than earth’s annual speed to absorb / biodegrade such waste.
  • It means, we are currently living on next year’s quota. So, next year’s overshoot day will occur even sooner than August 2015.
  • If corrective steps not done, then by 2030, we’ll need “Two earths” to meet our resource requirements and absorb our waste.

Side notes:

  1. Also called Ecological debt day.
  2. this day not decided by IPCC, UNEF etc., but an NGO called Global footprint Network.

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  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

58 Comments on “[GS3] Environment: Pusa Hydrogel, Eco-Cooker, Microgrid Power, Net Metering, Earth Overshoot”

  1. Net Metering Limitations

    1.Requires “Smart” Grid, with two way travel.

    2.May cause unintended accidents when discoms believe they have disconnected/stopped power while reverse power is still being sent.

    1. 2. Instead of transfering the excess energy produced, we can simply tap it in a battery and use when it is needed..

    2. for reverse flow stoppage option available . i.e only current flows to grid when grid is live, otherwise wont flow and stores in battery

    3. I think these limtitations can be corrected if government provides a huge subcidy by instaling it directly in houses rather than investing huge amounts in power plants and provide a smart grid ofcource to aviod accidents by taking the help of research institutes…what you think about this????

    4. Forward bias or reverse bias diodes can be used by developing a board with microcontroller using a simple program on and off gates . V hav technology only thong is right idea on right time is missing my friend .

    5. No its not correct it can be corrected by providing double protection scheme as power will cut from both sides if working in between, every grid is already a smart greed, but precaution extended by cutting power from both sides. As in ac it has no direction of correct its handline is not hard.
      It has another benefit that in case of completed blackout it will prove as a captive power source.

  2. good article

  3. Mrunal Sir/Friends, little clarification needed for today’s(13th November) news on China-US deal.

    What does China mean by saying it will ‘peak’ its emissions by 2030? Peaking something means increasing,right? How is peaking its emissions going to help the environment? Or is it like,the peak of emissions from China will be before 2030,and that there will be lesser emissions from then onwards?

    1. I might not be correct but it may means that china will not peak its emission at any time soon ie it will peak its emission by 2030 till then it will focus on renewable sources of energy to replace the existing Thermal and Nuclear sources of energy..

      1. China is a growing economy and its emission is increasing every year.The process cannot be reversed suddenly and as such it was asks to frame a time limit after which its emission will start decreasing. It has decided that it will peak or have maximum emissions latest by 2013 after which they will decrease.

      2. I think it may be peak in emission norms which automatically make all manufacturers and energy power plants to research in there field to get under those norms or use renewable energy sources

    2. I might not be correct but it may means that china will not peak its emission at any time soon ie it will peak its emission by 2030 till then it will focus on renewable sources of energy to replace the existing Thermal and Nuclear sources of energy..

    3. joseph,

      emission reaches its “peak” when consumption of oil reaches its “peak”, china is investing huge in russian gas pipeline, canadian tar sands(unconventional oil or heavy oil which is more pollutiong). moreover it is digging its own coal reserves feeding its economy(hope u know china has largest coal reserves in the world and also holds 50% world production), also it is investing heavily in renewable energy, which no other country can match with china(Germany is comparable). there is rise in environmental consciousness in china hence it is gradually decreasing its oil consumption with renewables,coal and natural gas as feedstock. So due to increase in renewables and gas investments its dependence on oil is gradually waning which nears “peak” in 2030.

    4. I think by that time there will be a balance between energy extraction by renewable and non-renewable energy sources. After that non renewable permanently replaces renewable. This is what they meant say but I don’t think so they will achieve by 2030.

      1. thanks Mr. partibhan…you cited a great answer….but sir/mem…isn’t it seems a drama coz China may be cut down the emission for an extent but it has’t acceded to any environment pact so far. As per the UNEP report China desperately lag in managing industrial waste. Beside this it is still hankering to the nuclear energy which is dangerous whereas the global community seeks disarming the nuclear material. In addition it has’t make any considerable shift toward the Solar,wind,thermal,Tidal despite having enormous potential…I think China want to focus more on Its Industrial manufacturing without doing any significant shift toward renewable energy…Hence it seems a lolypop….for the U.N

    5. Concept clarified. Thankyou all! :)

    6. china will increase the % of non fossil fuel ( other than coal ) like otec ,solar ,wind ,thermal etc and thus help to reduce the ghg emission.

  4. mrunal sir
    please help in understanding of tightening of nbfc norm…. masala bond for infrastructure …..and govts cash management bills

  5. hi mrunal sir,

    you have a very gud humanity & yu r helping a lot to many people.

    All will remember yo in a life & they never forget yo.

    thank yu sir!!!

    A NICE ARTICLES

    THANKS!!!

  6. Thank u mrunal sir.you take alot of pain for all of us so that we shall not miss any imp. Content.so clear and precise presentation.

  7. someone pls tell me following- 1. TRUST VOTE 2.DIVISION OF VOTES 3.PREVENTIVE DETENTION 1 and 2 are related to Maharashtra recent election controversy in vidhan sabha. how BJP managed to form government without having 140 + seat. I have studied that they need atleast 50 percent, they didnt took support of NCP, so how come they formd the govt. ? with respect to 3, i want to ask waht is preventive detention and how one can vote despite being in jail…

    1. In trust vote MLAs in the assembly give their answer by saying yes or no.if the yes people are more …then majority to form has been proved …where as in the “division of vote ” people give their vote by raising hands or not raising hands. now in Maharashtra BJP sought the voice vote because they didnt want to be seen as they are taking support from ncp. because in division vote ..NCP would have raised the hand to support the government…and BJP dont want to show that it has taking support from NCP. U can challenge the validity of this vote just after its being done . Later on after few days u cant question it. i hope it will help …

    2. Please someone rectify me if I am wrong anywhere…
      I think you need half majority of the votes present and voting.
      Eg. you have 200 MLA’s overall. If all are present then you need 100 votes.
      But if 50 opt not to vote, the you need 75 out of the 150 present and voting.
      Therefore, as NCP did not participate in the voting it virtually helped the govt in proving the trust.

      Preventive Detention is a special measure in which the person is arrested or taken into custody before the committment of crime. This measure could be taken for Judicial review.
      Many such detentions took place during emergency when the political leaders were arrested.
      The Right to Vote is not abridged when a person is under Preventive Detention.

  8. Hi Shivaram & Rajtanil

    Normally how many source you refer to draft an article… and average time taken for an article (Only info and not the format and pics)

    Awaiting your inputs regarding this. Thanaks

  9. RRB result out!!!!!
    Marks in 7 days………..

  10. I want your article from july to august sir

  11. Sir Can I get all your material in book form or directly to my mail.
    Thank you

  12. does anyone know what had happened to the ESIC-social security officers 2014 recruitment?

  13. I GOT THS ON SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY FB PAGE::
    Government decision on UPSC examination
    1. It was decided that the upper age limit should 26 years for Unreserved Candidates, 28 for OBC, 29 for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 years for Physically Challenged in each category.

    2.It was decided that 3 for Unreserved Candidates, 5 for OBC, 6 for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 attempts for Physically Challenged candidates in each category.

    3. The above provision regarding reduction of upper
    age limit and number of attempts will be implemented from Civil Service Exam, 2015.

    SOURCE : Department of Administrative Reforms And Public Grievances

    http://darpg.nic.in/darpgwebsite_…/Document/…/Decision10.pdf
    darpg.nic.in
    darpg.nic.in
    PLS tell me is dis possible…. :(

  14. (a): It was decided that the upper age limit should
    26 years for Unreserved Candidates, 28 for OBC, 29
    for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 years for
    Physically Challenged in each category.
    (b) It was decided that 3 for Unreserved Candidates,
    5 for OBC, 6 for SC/ST Candidates with additional
    2 attempts for Physically Challenged candidates in
    each category.
    The above provision regarding reduction of upper
    age limit and number of attempts will be
    implemented from Civil Service Exam, 2015.

    http://darpg.gov.in/darpgwebsite_cms/Document/file/Decision10.pdf

  15. dear sir,I was going through the site Department of administrative reforms and public grievances where I found that govt. has accepted the recommendation of ARC of restricting the attempts to 3,5,6,6 for unreserved,OBC(non-creamy),SC/ST and PH and they have also put an age bar 26,28,29 for unreserved,OBC and SC/ST.Please clarify.This could be heart breaking for most of us and above criteria would be applicable from 2015.

  16. dear Mrunal sir,I was going through the site Department of administrative reforms and public grievances where I found that govt. has accepted the recommendation of ARC of restricting the attempts to 3,5,6,6 for unreserved,OBC(non-creamy),SC/ST and PH and they have also put an age bar 26,28,29 for unreserved,OBC and SC/ST.Please clarify.This could be heart breaking for most of us and above criteria would be applicable from 2015.

  17. Government decision on UPSC examination
    1. It was decided that the upper age limit should 26 years for Unreserved Candidates, 28 for OBC, 29 for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 years for Physically Challenged in each category.

    2.It was decided that 3 for Unreserved Candidates, 5 for OBC, 6 for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 attempts for Physically Challenged candidates in each category.

    3. The above provision regarding reduction of upper
    age limit and number of attempts will be implemented from Civil Service Exam, 2015.

    SOURCE : Department of Administrative Reforms And Public Grievances

    http://darpg.nic.in/darpgwebsite_cms/Document/file/Decision10.pdf
    darpg.nic.in
    darpg.nic.in

  18. Sir please could you explain in details about Earth Overshoot day?

  19. Friends is it True ?

    Government decision on UPSC examination
    1. It was decided that the upper age limit should 26 years for Unreserved Candidates, 28 for OBC, 29 for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 years for Physically Challenged in each category.
    2.It was decided that 3 for Unreserved Candidates, 5 for OBC, 6 for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 attempts for Physically Challenged candidates in each category.
    3. The above provision regarding reduction of upper
    age limit and number of attempts will be implemented from Civil Service Exam, 2015.
    SOURCE : Department of Administrative Reforms And Public Grievances
    http://darpg.nic.in/darpgwebsite_…/Document/…/Decision10.pdf

  20. Mrunal bhaiyya i thinks it save 70% of lpg and not 70% than lpg
    Thanku bhaiyya

  21. Has anyone checked this link??? Is it true?

    http://darpg.gov.in/darpgwebsite_cms/Document/file/Decision10.pdf
    check clause on age limit

    Excerpts from Department of administrative reforms and public grievances website
    on Governments decisions on the recommendations of Administrative Reforms Commission
    (a) It was decided that the upper age limit should
    26 years for Unreserved Candidates, 28 for OBC, 29
    for SC/ST Candidates with additional 2 years for
    Physically Challenged in each category………
    (b) It was decided that 3 for Unreserved Candidates,
    5 for OBC, 6 for SC/ST Candidates with additional
    2 attempts for Physically Challenged candidates in
    each category.
    The above provision regarding reduction of upper
    age limit and number of attempts will be
    implemented from Civil Service Exam, 2015.

  22. Can someone explain voice vote, trust vote and all the related terms and the circumstances that call for their deployment? They are relevant toipics of GS paper 2 right?

    1. c a motion be it confidence motion (trust vote) and other motions are decided upon by voting. Now for voting there can be different ways:
      Lets say as a speaker u feel that there is too much difference in support between yes and no’s on the motion. So rather than asking each and every person to vote on a ballot or press some button, the speaker will say ” if u favor say ayes (yes), then the members will shout their support. The speaker can gauge if yes or no is more favored.
      However their are occasions when the contest is close and “shouting out” may not give a clear result, in such instances there is a “division”, that is members actually record the vote on a ballot. Thus there is counting and then the result is decided.

  23. Pusa hydrogel —–
    Mrunal sir, in such case won’t it hinder regeneration of underground water table ??
    Thanx :)

  24. Is it true that upsc is going to reduce the upper age limit for cse to 26?

  25. Frnz pls help…
    Wholesale banks wil buy loan files and convert into securities….mstly PSL loans…
    Nw if supose majority of debtors default then it may create a similar crisis as subprime crisis of US…
    So y hs nachiket panel recommended it…keeping in view sluggish growth in psl related sectors…
    May b I didn’t get con Roy of wholesale bank…
    Thankuuu…in advance … :)

    1. what r the chances of this notice to be implemented..?

    1. Yaar site par to kuch mil nahi raha yeh notice mrunal sir please clarify yeh link ayi kaha se,sir we know that u are not supposed to comment on rumors but sir If u or anyone from ur team spend 2 min on these and clarify it would be of great help

  26. this is year 2008’s documents. refer to website. no need to worry.

  27. UK PSC admit card uploaded.
    My center at Ranipokhri – Rishikesh.
    If any one having center in same city please comment.

  28. sabse shudh hindi vala newspaper kaun sa hai? I have hindi as compulsory paper..and this year it seems we got to score 90+ marks…damn difficult..

    can anyone help..how to tackle this?

    I saw last year paper..and even the muhavira…i was not able to translate in Hindi..though i knew the meaning…putting them in proper language was a challenge..

    someone plz help..senior players ??

  29. Sir your presentation has improved, now the brain can mange to shift gaze from pariniti cloths to your wonder articles . It is expected to open a window of improvement everytime, sir kill dil dekhi kya ?

  30. reduce age limit bad for rural candidate

  31. sir aaj ke the hindu ki front page news general category ke attempts ki no. 3 ho gye hai kya ye sach hai??
    sayad upsc wale phir se coaching adda ki importance badhana chahte hai
    respected razni rajdan ko koi samjhaye ki rural background aur garibi ki visamata ko aur mat badhaye kyun ki hamare jaise tamam hindi bhasi kshetra ke log jinki civil servent ki mahatvakansha hai unke liye ye nirnay bahut hi duvidhkari hoga

  32. Dear sir, your articles are very nice n use full . But I am not able o download it. Plz can make it downloadable .

  33. thanks a lot sir for your articles

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