[Geography Lecture] Oceanography: Currents, Tides, Estuaries, Mineral Resources & Major Ports

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India Yearbook
  1. Prologue
  2. L5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, petroleum reserves, Polymetallic nodules
  3. L5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution
  4. L5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling
  5. L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • Oceanography session began on 16th February 2015, and uploaded on youtube. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

L5/P1: Ocean Resources, EEZ, Polymetallic nodules

Ocean Resources Polymetallic nodules

  1. Understanding the Ocean bottom relief
  2. Division of ocean bottom: continental-margins, mid oceanic ridge and deep sea plains
  3. Ocean-continent margins: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise
  4. Continental shelf: Petroleum resources
  5. Map Reading: Persian gulf, strait of Hormuz , Map: Barent sea, Russia,arctic sea
  6. Resources from continental shelf: sulphur in gulf of Mexico; placer deposit – monazite, gold, diamond, zircon
  7. Resources from continental shelf: pearls, calcium and fish
  8. Continental slope: submarine canyon and submarine water fall
  9. Continental rise: transition zone, absent near trenches
  10. Deep sea plain/ abyssal plain and their resources
  11. Poly-metallic nodules, their metal-components, global distribution, India’s exploration of PMN
  12. UNCLOS- UN convention of Laws of the seas
  13. Discussion of previous questions from UPSC Prelims


L5/P2: Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

 Coral Reefs & Marine Pollution

  1. Types of Islands in the world: continental, volcanic, sand –bar islands and coral islands, Atoll; and their examples
  2. Coral reefs, their Formation: symbiotic relation of coral polyps and zooxanthalae
  3. Condition for growth of coral reefs, their Spatial distribution.
  4. Coral bleaching: meaning, Reasons for and global distribution
  5. Formation of coral reef, Fringing reef and Barrier reef
  6. Marine pollution- reasons, and Tar Balls.


L5/P3: Ocean Currents, Waves and Upwelling

Ocean Currents

  1. Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents), vertical (upwelling and tides)
  2. Ocean currents: meaning, importance, distribution and factors responsible.
  3. Effect of Insolation and Salinity gradients on the ocean currents
  4. Factor modifying the ocean currents: coastline and coriolis force
  5. Ocean currents of the world
  6. North Atlantic currents
  7. New foundland islands – meeting of warm and cold currents
  8. Effect of North Atlantic drift, Effect of Canary current
  9. Sargasso Sea
  10. South Atlantic currents
  11. Meeting of warm and cold currents at Bahia Blanca, New Foundland Islands, Japanese Coast
  12. Currents of North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Indian Ocean, South Indian Ocean
  13. Solution of UPSC Prelim Questions from 1997, 2002, 2012 and 2013.
  14. Up-welling: Ekman layer, Ekman spiral, Ekman transport and their impact
  15. Peruvian coast and other major Upwelling regions of the world
  16. Down welling: meaning and Effects


L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India

  1. Vertical Motion of ocean water: tides
  2. Ocean tides: meaning, Formation and importance
  3. Highest tidal range in world and in India
  4. Meaning of ebb and flow
  5. Apogee and perigee tides
  6. Syzygy position, Quadrature position
  7. Spring tides and neap tides: meaning and comparison
  8. Solution of UPSC Prelims questions from 2001, 2002 2004,
  9. Tidal currents, Tidal bores
  10. Meaning of estuary, Hooghly river: Kolkata riverine port
  11. Examples of tidal ports: Kandla and Diamond harbour
  12. Difference between tidal and non-tidal ports
  13. 12 major ports of India
  14. Tidal energy, location in India and world


Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

So far 47 Comments posted

  1. sachin

    thanx mam and mrunal sir…u both are great

    1. kalpana sharma

      Mam may be you are not surfing this site.Even you didn’t give intro of your subject.It means from where we have to study or your lecture is sufficient for UPSC.As in your 1st lecture you told us to read these topics from ncert of 6 n 11. But after that u didn’t tell us from where we covered these topics. Mam you are doing such a great job.But please reply when my msg is up to you.

      1. kalpana sharma

        mam example of coarl bleeching is La Nina like conditions in the pacicific Ocean off the coast of panama were closely associated with an abrubt shutdown in coral reef growth that lasted 2500 years.

        1. pratik

          @kalpana .. i dont think during la nina.. yu hav warm waterz near panama coast… durn el nino only.. there is warm water near panama which is essential for coral bleaching.. check it please

  2. MN

    Sir,I am not able to find the ppts.
    Has it been uploaded?

  3. swati garg

    plz give some banking lecture in youtube how to prepare banking syllbous & topic

  4. neeraj

    thank u madam g.bahut bahut dhanyawaad

  5. madhav

    thanks mam and sir, u both are doing great job

  6. shilpa

    Mam…ur way of teaching is superbbbb…now I started loving Geo just after ur videos..keep posting mam…it’s very informative….thank u mam

  7. murali

    thanku very muchhh

  8. vinay kumar

    videos are conceptual clear. thank you very much for selfless efforts.

  9. Ramnarayan Chaudhary

    Thanks a lot Murnal sir & Rajtanil mam … Keep it up

  10. Vinay Nautiyal

    Sir….Not Enough Words To Say Thank You

  11. sagar wadile

    Thanks a lot mrunal sir n rajtanil mam……

  12. dr.k.vijay

    madam pls use pointer, ur saying yahape ye hai, vahape vo hai… but we r unable to see in videos.

  13. abishek

    Mam plzz use pointer

  14. Piyu

    madam plz use pointer

  15. Relentless

    Thank you!

  16. priya singh

    is orissa is the boundary state of telangana?maps show that it is but i read somewhere that some portion of telangan state merge with andhra pradesh and orissa is not the boundary state for now. if anybody find then please give me the source of answer.

  17. srajan

    mam u r fab …go on .,,thanks for all dis

  18. Neeraj

    unable to find geography ppt. plz help.

    1. Aryan

      Go to download. Click on Power point for lecture. Click on Powerpoints for economics lectures (any of the two links). Check Geography folder.

  19. AMIR

    Mam please use pointer

  20. kunal

    Rajtanil mam.. your lectures are really helpful.. thanks a lot..
    May we request you to please use pointer on the maps.. its indeed very difficult to locate the the areas you wanaa point out.

  21. Omega

    Madam, will you be doing Environment & Biodiversity after Geography?? plz reply

  22. ujjwal

    Mam please provide slide of lectures as slides on mrunal are not updated, some slides are missing in oceanography lectures

    1. Aryan

      Download 0.2 versions. Its updated.

  23. Rohit

    Very very thanx mam. Mujhe kafi prob thi geography men but ab dhire dhere samajh aaraha hai

  24. tarun

    Plz provide me India physical and political maps

  25. ujjwal

    Mam please provide slide of lectures as slides on mrunal are not updated, some slides are missing in oceanography lectures
    Plz update

  26. Ankit

    Mam just a small confusion..bays with narrow opening and broad rears have highest tides or bays with broad opening and narrow rears? And i have read somewhere that tidal bores help ships to enter kolkata port so the question u have taken up in the lecture the answer to it appears to me as the first statement is wrong! Kindly rply to my query.

  27. babu

    Very very conceptual clear lecture mam….Thanks a lot…

  28. ravi

    madam unable to find ppt of this lecture on download section.please upload

    1. Aryan

      Its there. Check GEO_L5_Oceanography_0.2.pptx

  29. chhavi

    I am unable to find the slides for this lecture, Can you please mail me?

  30. gurmeet

    Thank u mam

  31. Ira

    Unable to find power points on world geography. Kindly respond.

  32. Sandeep Malik

    Respected Mam, in the ppt of Upwelling diagram … wind is shown blowing from north to south direction so Ekman Transport should be in left direction of the wind as Peru lies in southern hemisphere, but it is shown in right direction in ppt. Mam please clear this doubt.
    Thanks Mam.

    1. Sandeep Malik

      sorry mam, I get it. Now everything is cleared.

  33. Nisarg

    Hello mam,
    There is a mistake in L5/P4: Ocean Tides and Major Ports of India,slide number:117 Upsc 2004 prelims question.
    — Which of the following statement is NOT correct?
    (a)Gulf with narrow fronts and wider rears experience high tide
    (B)Tidal currents take place when a gulf is connected with open sea by narrow channel
    (C)Tidal bore occurs when a tide enters the narrow shallow estuary of river
    d) The tidal nature of the mouth of river Hooghly is of the crucial importance to Kolkata port
    Ans. D)
    Tidal bores at Hooghly are constraints for shipping at port
    – Rushing current imbalance the docking ships

    –Now matter is that after explaining estuary concept you choose answer (D),which it self correct statement.so Incorrect statement is (C) estuary one.[Tidal bore occurs when tide enters BROAD & NOT NARROW estuary.]

    Thank you.

  34. Sachin

    Is their any PDF on Geography

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