[Geography Lecture1] Longitude, Latitude, Timezones, Earth Interior, Rock types, Continental Drift

Youtube129 Comments

India Yearbook
  1. Prologue
  2. G1/P1:  longitudes, latitudes, Timezones and Dateline
  3. G1/P2: Earth’s Interior, S & P waves, Rock-Cycle, Geological Time-eras
  4. G1/P3: Continental Drift Theory
  5. G1/P4: Sea Floor Spreading Theory


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • First session began on 2st February 2015, and uploaded on youtube. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

Geography Lecture UPSC

G1/P1:  longitudes, latitudes, Timezones and Dateline

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:

  1. Longitudes and Latitudes: definitions and concepts.
  2. Why is there heat deficit and heat surplus regions on earth?
  3. Reason for season on earth, Day and night time variation, from season to season
  4. What are Solstice and equinox? UPSC-CSAT-2013 question on day-night time variation
  5. Daylight saving in temperate regions
  6. Longitude – prime meridian, International dateline (IDL)
  7. How moving to west to IDL one day is lost and how moving to east of IDL one day is gained? Example of Russia and Alaska
  8. Standard time: Indian standard time, Chaibaagan time zone issue
  9. Exercises – calculation regarding standard time of a place
  10. Solved UPSC CSAT Prelim Question 1999, 2006, 2008
  11. Map explanations for Malacca strait, Strait of Florida, Strait of Gibraltar

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/SMPO60DOTKQ

G1/P2: Earth’s Interior, S & P waves, Rock-Cycle, Geological Time-eras

  1. Origin of the earth, Nebular theory of Laplace
  2. Speculation about earth’s interior: Heaviest elements are placed at the core and lighter elements are at the surface.
  3. Interior of the earth: Density study, Temperature study, Direct and indirect evidences
  4. SIAL and SIMA concepts- Edward Suess
  5. Seismic wave studies: Propagation of S-Waves and P-Waves
  6. Layers of earth’s interior: Lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, outer core, inner core.
  7. Composition of interior of the earth and the crust.
  8. Rocks of the continental crust
  9. Rock-cycle (Igneous rock, sedimentary, metamorphous)
  10. Properties of Igneous rocks
  11. Properties of sedimentary rocks
  12. Properties of metamorphous rocks
  13. Prev. years question on rocks
  14. Geological history of the earth: Super continent –Rodinia, Breaking up of Rodinia
  15. Formation and breaking of Pangaea
  16. What are Panthalasa
  17. Laurasia, Gondwana and Tethys sea
  18. Breaking up of Gondwana
  19. Movement of Indian plate

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/DzAH67tsmh8

G1/P3: Continental Drift Theory

  1. Alfred Wegener and his theory.
  2. Evidences and Limitations of Continental drift theory
  3. UPSC 2013 Mains question on this topic
  4. Drawing maps for India and world in minutes.
  5. Arthur Holmes: convection current theory
  6. Driving force behind the continental drift

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/IxpPoVc7y3U

G1/P4: Sea Floor Spreading Theory

  1. Beginning of Sea-floor spreading theory
  2. Mapping of Sea-floor in 1950s
  3. 3 questions raised after sea-floor mapping
  4. Henry Hass and Dietz – theory
  5. Mid- oceanic ridge – Mechanism and distribution in the world oceans,
  6. Trenches – distribution in the world oceans,  Mechanism of trenches, the Mariana trench – deepest trench of the world
  7. UPSC Prelim 2006 q. on trench
  8. Concept of Palaeo-magnetism, geomagnetism, Vine and Mattheus

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/BlBg5GVhZ5k

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

So far 129 Comments posted

  1. Nationalist

    Thank U (Sir+Mam)

  2. Madhulika

    Very gud lecture!!
    Guys anyone from hyderabad waiting for mains results?

    1. Jeorge

      Hi, Madhulika. I am from Hyderabad. But will write 1st time UPSC Civils in 2015.

    2. prashanth

      yes my self here frm hyd..wrote mains

      1. Madhulika

        Hi Prashanth,

        How are you preparing for interview? Where do yu live?

    3. Amith

      Yes I am ……………….

      1. Madhulika

        Hi Amith,

        How are you preparing for interview? Where do you live in hyd?

  3. wangdu

    Sir and ma’am, thankyou so much for such a great effort..i m preparing for cse from ladakh ,so here only ncerts and your website is the only means. Thank you so much ” may buddha bless you people”.

  4. Sandeep

    Thanx a lot Mrunal Sir for your effort. please consider my respect.

  5. priya

    Mam wen s ur nxt leturer… waitin for nxt video upload ..

  6. Amit

    I would love to get involved in meaningful discussions too but not based in Hyderabad …
    Ho do you wish to communicate ?

  7. yamini

    thnku so much sir 🙂 waiting for next upload


    Could anyone clear that Russia has 8 time zones or 9, i searched on internet but couldn’t get a crisp answer.

    1. Aryan

      ” Some countries have a great longitudinal extent and so they have adopted more than one standard time. For example, in Russia, there are as many as eleven standard times. ”

      Source :

      Last Paragraph .
      Class 6

    2. Aryan

      From 2010 to 2013 Russia had 9 Time zones. But from 2014 Russia is back with 11 time zones.

  9. tarun

    Sir i would like to prelaration for ssc 10+2 and CGL…i donno which books are good so please tell me sir (authors name)

  10. somireddysivaram

    sir, u r work is very good but the videos language if in english it is useful to more nunber of people

  11. Ankit singh

    thank sir/mam for this kind & great effort. I want to say please provide us more video lecture of History, Art & culture.
    I am a fresher & i am not doing coaching. so please sir/mam help us. me & my friends are highly obliged to you.

    Ankit singh

  12. karunesh kumar

    not able to open the power point….in word and adobe reader
    pls suggest

  13. shyam sunder

    madam the answer you have taught as correct for 2013 gs paper is wrong. day night time variation is due to tilting of axis. its not my view and upsc has given this answer in its official key. so please check it and please don’t give your own theory instead check some references before telling some concept. if u tell people wrong concepts then u r wasting their 1 year and 1 chance…
    nyway thank u for ur lecture …

  14. lalit kishore

    Geography lecture 1(G1/P1) video—

    Variations in the length of daytime and night time from season to season are due to

    a.the earth’s rotation on its axis
    b.the earth’s revolution round the sun in an elliptical manner
    c.latitudinal position of the place
    d.revolution of the earth on a tilted axis
    answer given for this question in UPSC answer key is also d.(revolution of the earth on a tilted axis) and madam in this video explaining b is correct.
    Mrunal sir also gave answer d as correct.

  15. Vivek Shraran

    Answer d is correct

  16. vinay pandey

    Thanks sir & madam to do this philosophical work.

  17. vinay pandey

    Thanks sir & madam to do this philanthropical work,especially lecture in hindi

  18. Deepak k.

    how to draw maps of india and world?
    although written in prologue but nowhere mentioned in lecture

  19. anand swarnlar

    can you provide notes in topic wise like economy subject, so that we can study all thing in one place . there is only available only slide of powerpoint and video ,

  20. Rahul

    Are these lectures for GS Mains or Geography optional?

  21. narendra

    Sir. I prepare for cgl.. ur video lecture would have help in cgl preparation?

  22. Dinesh Kumar R

    Hats off to Rajtanil Mam. You are such a wonderful teacher, awesome lectures. With lots of respect and prayers from the bottom of my heart I wish you all the best for your Interview Mam. And I believe and know that you are going to clear it with ease mam, the whole process, and will make in to the final list. Ab aapko nahi milega tho fir kisko milega Mam..

  23. Bhavani

    is anyone able to download the content from download section? pls respond

  24. Satya

    The powerpoint presentation for this lecture is not available on download section (at least I couldn’t find it).Please help.


    in composition of the interior of the earth need updation in part of crust property you are mentioned potassium is lowest in earth’s crust , in ncert page no. 42 (xi geography ) magnesium (2.09) is lowest in earth’s crust.

    please update it.

    thank you

  26. Anil

    Hi Sir/Madam,

    All the slides which are in lecture are not available in slides(downloaded ppt).Some key slides and connecting slides are missing.Can you pls look into it.


  27. Ajay

    I can’t find it’s ppt link. Plz help me

  28. agyapal singh

    helping me with latest updated information regarding ias

  29. sucharithan

    Thanks a ton! Much helpful!

  30. Shrikant Pawar

    Plz update on new things that will help me for UPSC preparation

  31. Shrikant Pawar

    Thanks a lot and it’s very useful.Keep it up.
    Thanks again

  32. krishan kumar kasana

    can any body tell me that how to download power point lecture pdf

  33. harishankar

    thanks for all this very expensive for poor economical student thanxxxxxxxx

  34. Soham Maurya

    how i can download all those slide explained in the lecture?
    please let me know. thanku

  35. Soham Maurya

    Got those ppt in download section

  36. mahendra choudhary

    Hii I am new here plzz share urr note with me

  37. santosh

    i am fresher please suggest me how to prepare for upsc preliminary examination please.


    which books to refer for art and culture?

  39. yashraj

    please upload the file into mrunal online storage…all contents are empty..indian geography…

  40. Achyuth

    Sir are these videos are alone sufficient for preparation

Write your message!