[Geography Lecture] Land Use pattern, Soil Types, Desertification, Erosion, Soil Conversation, Indian Agriculture

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India Yearbook
  1. Prologue
  2. G8/P1: Soil profile, erosion, conservation, salinity, desertification
  3. G8/P2: Soils of India
  4. G8/P3: Indian Agriculture and industries Part1


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 23rd March, continuation of the Indian geography segment with soil and agriculture related topics. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into three parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G8/P1: Soil profile, erosion, conservation, salinity, desertification

soil erosion in india

  1. Recap of previous lecture:
  2. Soil formation: 5 factors affecting it: rock, climate, relief, biota and time.
  3. Transportation in soil: capillary and leaching process
  4. Types of leaching process
  5. 3 chemical process in soil: capillary action, leaching and gleying
  6. Soil Profile, Leaching and capillary in horizons
  7. Soil erosion: meaning, factors responsible and implications.
  8. Soil conservation techniques: structural and non-structural
  9. Structural solution for soil conservation: slopes, Stone pitching and wire netting
  10. Structural solution for soil conservation: coastal areas- Tetra-pods, groyne
  11. Non-structural solutions for soil conservation: afforestation, slopes, agro-practice reforms, Strip farming, mulching, desert margins – transverse farming
  12. Soil salinity: reasons, implications.
  13. Structural solutions to combat soil salinity- washing, underground piping, canals and amendments.
  14. Non- Structural solution from soil salinity:
  15. Desertification: meaning, implications and preventive measures.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/jOIy6g372nQ

G8/P2: Soils of India

soil types in India

  1. Alluvial soil: properties, area, comparison from east to west.
  2. Red soil: formation, properties, problem areas, UPSC MCQ.
  3. Black soil: formation, properties, areas, minerals.
  4. Lateritic soil: properties, agriculture, bauxite mining, UPSC question
  5. Mountainous soil: podzolic soil; chelation process
  6. Desert soil, Mangrove soil, Saline-alkaline soil
  7. Land use pattern in India: total area under India
  8. Desired land use pattern: forest, development land, fallow land, pasture land.
  9. Need for Reduction in net sown area: China vs India.
  10. Release of net sown area for forest and development purpose
  11. Gross sown area and Cropping intensity

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/wxM_EFXdeoE

G8/P3: Indian Agriculture and industries Part1

Indian agriculture

  1. Introduction to Indian Economic geography
  2. Importance of agriculture in India, its features, targets
  3. Agricultural efficiency and productivity, patterns.
  4. Factors to increase agriculture productivity: nutrition, irrigation, forward linkages
  5. Agricultural seasons in India
  6. Major crops of India
  7. Rice: requirements, cropping techniques, area under cultivation
  8. Wheat producing areas
  9. Pulses- types and problems in cultivation, Government schemes.
  10. Millets, Jawar, Bajra, Ragi, Cotton
  11. Cotton producing areas
  12. Textile industries in India: history, Maharashtra, Gujarat, South India, and UPSC prelim questions.
  13. Sugarcane producing areas, shift in location, South India and UPSC mains question
  14. Oil-seeds- types, problems in cultivation, Government schemes to promote it.
  15. Tea plantation and UPSC Mains question.
  16. Jute- retting, importance in economy
  17. Spices production, importance of Karnataka and UPSC prelim questions.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/r2ZR2Czghho

Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel For more lectures on UPSC General Studies.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

So far 26 Comments posted

  1. satyajit

    Thanks tusi great hoo

  2. suresh

    thank you so much mam. for the wonderful lectures. Mam may I know from where can I study the geography optional subject for main examination.

  3. laliko

    maam aap great ho

  4. murali

    thank u very much

  5. Arjun

    thank you maam..!!

  6. Arvind bhati

    This site is very halpful so, thaku very much maam

  7. praveen_r

    Hello Madam,
    Can you please share the latest updated ppt for the “Climatic regions of the world” topic. The shared one isn’t the same as shown in the video and is missing the notes.

  8. nimesh

    thank you ..

  9. VNK

    Thanks a lot maam…

  10. saba alam

    Thnx a lot mrunal group and specially Mam for making Geography so easy and interesting.
    ppt initiative more useful than previous yrs approach as it is very easy to understand, remember and recall in exam hall. It guides well to decide what to read and what to absorb.
    Really it is mrunal version 2.0 with new features.

  11. Mayank

    Thanks a lot . . Geography was never made so easy . .

    This is the first time i am witnessing Beauty with the Brains 🙂 🙂

  12. bala murali

    is there any english version available sir ??

  13. Shashank

    Geography lectures are really good 🙂


    Thnx a lot for making it so easy 🙂

  15. Harsha

    Hii mrunal,

    Plz provide a study plan for fci ag3 technical And book list also specially for technical part. And all paper related to fci technical.

  16. aditya


    Last few videos are protected so that one has some difficulty in downloading and saving. Please remove that.

  17. ravi

    Kya gajab ke lectures hai boring topics ko bhi majedar bana diya bahut bahut dhanayavad

  18. Riju

    Thanks a lot..Very nice explanations…

  19. pinki kala

    madam mein bahut confuse hu option history or geography me. kyunki m science student hu to geography terms samjh jaldi aati h but ye bhi lgta h ki geography me bahut jyada memorize krna padega… kya option rakhu or tyari khan se start kru…plz help me

  20. sailu

    Thank you very much! Valuable lecture for Hindi medium. Only you can do it “MRUNAL SIR”…..

  21. Sachin G

    Thank u very much mam…excelnt wrk…

  22. anonymous

    Excellent Video lectures ma’am and excellent job mrunal sir
    Even though am from south and don’t understand much hindi, the lectures were of immense help
    Keep up the good work and expect an english version or an explanation i form of pdf .

  23. anonymous

    good Video lectures Rajtanil ma’am and excellent job mrunal sir
    Even though am from south and don’t understand much hindi, the lectures were of immense help
    Keep up the good work and expect an english version or an explanation i form of pdf .

  24. Aakash

    do we need to study the US soil classification. Any idea?

  25. mohit rajpoot

    hello sir, sir alluvial soil ki chemical properties wrong typed hai, ishme N lack hota hai na ki PHosphorus

  26. Rohit Pandey

    Sir Red soil ka classification main kuch doubts hai. Aur sab jagah likha hai ki deficient of lime and phosphorous but slide main its written rich in lime and phosphorous ?
    Please clarify !

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