- E2/P1: Video Lecture by Kavan Limbasiya (AIR-198/CSE’14)
- Attitude: Meaning & types
- Attitude: Salient Features
- CAB Model of Attitude
- Attitude Structure #1: Uni-Directional
- Attitude Structure #2: Bi-directional
- Potential vs felt ambivalence
- Attitude: Functions
- Belief + Value = Attitude
- Attitude is always about “Something”. It’s a state of mind- your positive/negative feeling towards a person, object, event, idea, environment.
- It determines how people will arrive at a correct judgement.
- Attitude AND Aptitude are different- Surviving terminal disease depends on your ‘attitude’ towards life rather than ‘aptitude’ in physical training. We’ll discuss more on this during next lecture (E3)
|Positive attitudes||Negative attitudes|
|Modest, humble||Inferiority, superiority|
- Attitudes are directed towards an object, event, person or organization and give specific reaction to them.
- Attitude affects group behavior e.g. Jury service, racial prejudice, work environment, voting pattern and more.
- They help us understand ourselves and others.
- They can be explicit – formed by recent events
- They can be implicit- derived from past memories and traumatic experiences.
- They protect us from acknowledging harsh realities of life and thereby help coping up with emotional conflict.
- They’re situational.
- Some thinkers say Attitude is permanent, forms habit and becomes predictable
- Some thinkers say Attitude is tentative- a person will form attitude from his past experience but if new situation comes he’ll evaluate and change attitude. Thus, Attitudes are spontaneous reaction to environment.
- Persuasion can change attitude of a person. If a trustworthy, expert, likable person says, “rich people’s love for fur-clothes has led to extinction of xyz. Species”. Then next time you see a rich lady, you’ll feel repulsed. We’ll discuss more on persuasion and attitude change in third session of this lecture (E2/P3).
|Physiology: Age||Physiology: Disease|
Some thinkers don’t agree with above, and believe that Social factors determine a person’s attitude.
CAB has synergy- each component is independent, but they will strengthen each other.
- Like a number-line, attitude has two ends negative (left hand) and positive (right hand).
- Our attitude towards death penalty? It can be positive or negative.
|Component||What do you think about snakes?||Positive/negative|
|Cognitive||Snake is poisonous. (your belief)||Negative|
|Affective||I clomid fertility drug information fear snakes (your feeling)||Negative|
|Behavior||I’ll watch run away. (your behavior)||Negative|
|Overall||Negative attitude towards snake.|
Limitation of uni-directional structure?
Difficult to distinguish between neutral and ambivalent attitude.
- e.g. do you like chocolates?
- Neutral: A poor illiterate person in remote island may say “I’ve never heard of this term so I don’t have any positive/negative feeling about it.”
- Ambivalent: an intelligent person may say “yes I know chocolates bad for teeth (negative cognitive) but still I love them (positive affective). So +1 – 1 = 0
If we plot negative attitude on Y-axis and positive on X-axis, we can show neutral / ambivalence as per following graph:
So, what is the implications?
|Difficult to change his behavior.|
|Felt||e.g. chocolate example- you know there is inconsistency (it’s bad for teeth yet you like it). Such ambivalence will give you dissonance.|
Sequence is potential => felt =>cognitive dissonance. Result?
- either person will stop wrong-behavior OR
- he’ll begin justifying his wrong behavior.
That’s how attitude changes. We’ll discuss more on this in E2/P3.
|Object appraisal||Attitudes help us approach beneficial things and avoid harmful things.|
|Social adjustment||Attitude helps us identify with people we like e.g. I love SRK, so I’ll buy frooty, because he is endorsing it.|
|Externalization||Similar to ego-defensive. By blaming external factors we try to defend our internal conflict e.g. “I got low marks in interview because panel was biased.”|
An advertisement / marketing guru must be observant about above functions. Only then he can make a successful ad.
|Detergent||Utilitarian. So ad must show that given brand is cheap and yet cleans the clothes efficiently.|
|Gold||Value expressive. I’ll purchase more gold to show I’m of higher status. Company will even use photos of Goddess Laxmi.|
|Shoes||Ego defensive mechanism must not be trigged. So, No gods/goddesses must be shown in ad.|
Mock Questions and Case studies after three-part article series on “E2” is over. In the next part (E2/P2), we’ll take a look at moral and political attitudes, and role of social media.
Visit Mrunal.org/Ethics for more study material on Ethics.