[Ethics] E3/P2: Foundation Values-Empathy & Compassion towards the Weak + Case studies & Descriptive Questions

Ethics40 Comments

India Yearbook
  1. E3/P2: Video Lecture by Kavan Limbasiya (Rank-198/UPSC-14)
  2. Value#4: Empathy
    1. Why do we need empathy?
    2. Empathy in Western Society?
    3. Lack of empathy leads to
    4. Can we cultivate empathy?
    5. Value#5: Compassion towards weaker section
  3. How to inculcate Compassion?
    1. Case study #1: Marry the rapist for Child’s future?
    2. Case Study #2: “right” aptitude for NGO-giri?
    3. Descriptive Questions

E3/P2: Video Lecture by Kavan Limbasiya (Rank-198/UPSC-14)

In the first part (E3/P1), we looked at aptitude, integrity and objectivity. Now moving to other important foundational values viz. Empathy and Compassion
Empathy & Compassion towards weak for UPSC mains gs4

Youtube Video Link:https://youtu.be/1QkpnIBsIUM

Value#4: Empathy

  • Man is a rational animal“, said Aristotle.
  • Then man must arrive at decision after evaluating all pros and cons. In Western society this is evident.
  • But according to some, man is a social animal, an emotional animal.
  • He is “Homoe empathicus”. He takes decisions with emotions.
  • Empathy is all about  emotions:
What is the difference?
SympathyYour belief and Cognitive aspects. If you’re rich and you’ve sympathy towards the poor. Then you’d know factually- what is meant by poverty?
Empathy
  • Has both cognitive and emotional aspects.
  • You succeed in UPSC after 3-4 attempts, then next time you meet a fresher who has failed in prelims- You feel  the emotion of other person -that’s empathy.
  • Empathy is stronger attitude than sympathy, hence it’s better indicator of behavior.
  • Empathy is the one of the many bases of pro-social behavior and altruism. (if I give money in charity, to save taxes, then tax-planning is my base for altruism.)
Altruism
  • Doing good things selflessly, for the well-being of others. It is about  ‘action’.
  • You recovered from cancer, and feel pain for other cancer patients, that is empathy.
  • Subsequently, if you build a charitable cancer-hospital, that is altruism.
Compassion
  • It’s a form of sympathy. But stronger than empathy.
  • Strength wise: sympathy << empathy << compassion.
  • Hence compassion is even better predictor of behavior.
  • Compassion is what made Mother Teresa leave her motherland and serve selflessly in in Kolkata.
  • Empathy means understanding other person’s pain / feeling. It can be for everyone higher or lower than you. But compassion is targeted towards weaker beings.
  • E.g. you’ve faced criticism from colleagues despite working with earnest intension. Then you’d have empathy (not compassion) for Rajanbhai, when his moves are criticized by columnists.

Why do we need empathy?

  • Indian civil services (ICS) attracted the most intelligent and talented among the British youth, yet they failed to look after the interest of Indians,  Why?
  • They were intelligent but lacked ’empathy.’ and at the same time, the British civil service manual / code of conduct lacked any directives in that regard.
  • For ICS officers, public services meant ensuring the administrative, economic and strategic interest of the empire.
  • Our bureaucrats have inherited this colonial legacy- hence we must make them emphasize with the plight of a common man.
  • Long cut: you teach poverty theory and allied topics to an officer and then expect him to help the poor.
  • Short cut: you make him empathize with a poor. He’ll automatically try to help the poor,  because empathy will trigger his altruistic behavior.
  • Empathy helps us understand others’ emotion, therefore empathy required to increase your emotional intelligence.

Empathy in Western Society?

  • Nolan committee doesn’t  list ’empathy’ in its recommendations. Because Western societies believe man is a rational animal.
  • Objectivity and empathy are at times in contradiction. E.g. In doctor will have to give you injection (short term pain),  to cure your disease (long term peace.) But, if a doctor is too empathetic, his hands will shake while giving injection.
  • Empathy is targeted towards individual, while objectivity looks @masses. So if judge gives more weightage to empathy over “objectivity”, he may give lenient punishment to a criminal. In long run it’ll hurt the masses.
  • Syrian refugees have been flooding Turkey and EU since many months, but only after  a child (Aylan Kurdi) is drowned and images appear in main-stream media, all EU nations have became attentive. Because empathy of people towards an “individual child.”
  • Killing of thousand people is worst than killing one. But if you’re empathetic to that “one”,  you may loose sight of the objectivity. Therefore, in western society / Nolan committee have sidelined “empathy”.

Lack of empathy leads to

  1. Bullying, ragging, stalking.
  2. Intolerance, lack of compassion towards animals, environment, poor, minorities, women and children
  3. With rise of Social media and internet, empathy levels have declined. Because you are not physically seeing the other person, so you can’t feel his body language, gestures, tone of voice etc.
  4. It’s difficult to abuse a person in real life- because its awkward. But very easy on anonymous online groups and forums.
  5. Monika Lewinsky considers herself the first victim of cyber-bulling. See her TED-talk if you’ve time.

Can we cultivate empathy?

  1. Empathetic officers are the need of hour in modern day administration targeted towards inclusive growth.
  2. Art, literature, cinema- they help us inculcate empathy. E.g. Satyajit Ray’s “Pather Panchali” realistically portrays the poverty and rural India.
  3. Common Holiday- Eid, Diwali- people of all religion are given public holidays on these events. It should encourage them to participate in each other’s festivals.
  4. Right to education Act provides 25% reservation to children from economically weaker section in the schools. So rich and poor will interact with each other and cultivate empathy for each other.
  5. Encourage Perspective talking, role playing games,  put yourself in the shoes of other people.

Value#5: Compassion towards weaker section

  1. Base of compassion is empathy.
  2. We’re a divided society- wealthwise, castewise, religionwise.
  3. We believe in law of Karma, so if a person is poor or physically disabled, we believe it is the result of his own karma. Hence compassion required.

How to inculcate Compassion?

  1. Teaching the four noble truths from Buddhism.
  2. Loving-kindness meditation– you’ve to think good things about …..
    1. People you respect and love.
    2. Your beloved persons within family and friend-circle.
    3. People for whom you’ve no love or hatred (neutral people.) e.g. Pan-walla,  Chai-walla.
    4. People you hate.
  3. Above exercise will increase your compassion towards others. Now how to measure it? Ans. Zurich Prosocial Game.
  4. Visit slums, old age home.
  5. IAS probationers are sent to “Bharat Darshan” for similar reason- to understand the diversity of India and grow compassion towards others.

Case study #1: Marry the rapist for Child’s future?

In June 2015, Madras High Court Judge P. Devadass let a convicted rapist out of prison on bail so he could “mediate” with his victim and heal their rift. The Judge observed following

  • victim has become mother of a child, But as on date, she is nobody’s wife. So, she is an unwed mother. Now there is a big question mark looming large before [the victim] as well as her child, who is completely innocent.
  • Therefore, mediation was the best option in this case, noting that he had recommended it on another occasion earlier this year, with the rapist agreeing to marry the victim, a case now heading toward a “happy conclusion.”

Answer following:

  1. Mediation is normally used to resolve marital or commercial disputes. To what extend can it be used in violent crimes?
  2. In the cases where a child is borne out of rape, what should be the primary objective of the judiciary- (A) punishment for the rapist or (B) compassion for the child? And why?

Case Study #2: “right” aptitude for NGO-giri?

You’re running an NGO for the street children. You’ve given a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper for the post of a “Coordinator” in your NGO. Following people turn up: Who among them will you chose for the job? and why?

CandidateSpecialty
Zafar SupariSays he spent all of his childhood working at a highway dhaba, where he mixed up with wrong company of friends and began petty theft, smuggling and substance abuse. He was sent to juvenile home, but an NGO helped him in rehabilitation process, he managed to complete graduation. At present he is working as a chai-walla in a call center but unlike Dev Patel, he couldn’t reach Kaun Banegaa Crorepati  therefore as Career backup Plan-B, he wants to join NGO to help others.
Kashi TrivediSays he has been associated with local political unit for a decade. He is fedup with politics but wants to continue social service. He cites his experience in “how to deal with petty-bureaucrats and similar political elements” as his plus point. He also claims to have ‘contacts’ in the state secretariat to get your NGO more funding for projects for street-children.
Samar SinghRetired IPS officer. Says he knows the drug abuse, child-trafficking, forced-begging, prostitution and associated network. He can help rescuing street-kids trapped in such things and rehabilitate them. He too promises to have ‘contacts’ in state secretariat go get more funds released for your NGO.
Shanaya SinghaniaRecently completed MBA from a premiere institution. Her father is a multi-millionaire hotel-tycoon, but she’s compassionate towards the plight of the poor since her childhood and wants to do something to help them. She says she can get celebrities for various activities of your NGO, thereby increase your media exposure and donations flow.

Descriptive Questions

  1. “To walk among the kings and not lose the common touch- is a kind attitude required from the civil servants.” Elaborate.
  2. “I call him religious who understands the suffering of others- Gandhi”. Discuss.
  3. Differentiate between following terms: compassion, empathy, sympathy, and discuss their importance in public services.
  4. Discuss the importance of cinema in inculcating values of empathy and compassion. Suggest three movies that should be included in the syllabus of school, college and civil service training syllabus respectively.
  5. Examine the factors behind nuisance of ragging in India colleges. What should be done to change the attitude of seniors towards juniors?
  6. Do you agree with following statements? Yes / No and WHY?
    1. In the present day materialistic society with cut-throat competition, it is impractical for an individual to develop empathy towards others. It is the responsibility of the state to look after the weak and the desolate.
    2. There is no correlation between suffering, empathy and good behavior. India has many politicians who started life in abject-poverty, and amassed wealth by robbing the poor-strata during their political career.
    3. Empathy is a virtue, but it should not be a guiding judicial principle.

In the next part (E3/P3) we’ll look at the last set of foundation values for civil service viz. neutrality and non-partisanship.
Visit Mrunal.org/Ethics for more study material on Ethics.

Mrunal recommends

  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books
  2. Environment by ShankarIAS
  3. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  4. Art & Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English)
  5. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  6. Bipin Chandra: Post Independence
  7. Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma
  8. MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning
  9. Disha’s Topicwise Paperset (Hindi | English)
  10. School Atlas
  11. Mains: Language papers
  1. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci
  2. Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English)
  3. Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English)
  4. Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar
  5. Objective General English SP Bakshi
  6. Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe
  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha


So far 40 Comments posted

  1. Shruti

    Mediation is normally used to resolve marital or commercial disputes. To what extend can it be used in violent crimes?

    A- Rape is a grave crime. Mediation in cases of such grave and violent crimes goes against the spirit of justice. Such crimes are not just against the victim but against the society and under no circumstance criminal jurisprudence can be overlooked in such cases. There is a high probability that the victim accepts such terms under pressure and the convict is faking willingness to marry the victim as a safe option to get released. Such a judement would speak for a weak society where women are left at the mercy of a criminal. Hence allowing for mediation in such a case goes against the spirit of justice and dignity of a woman. Rather than allowing for mediation the court must ensure a dignified life for the woman and her child by providing her with suitable opportunities and timely rehabilitation.

    1. Santhosh

      What you have said is correct. But in this case it is the victim who is the sufferer most.
      Why mediation in this case?
      Victim is a woman with a child born out of rape. Unwed.

      Consider : Livelihood of the victim, living in a society who mostly don’t care for others, child’s future without proper support, victim’s psychological impact on child

      Government can give interim relief to the victim and her child but in long term?
      Government cannot monitor.

      What to consider with the rapist before mediation?
      Is this is the first crime that he has committed or a regular .
      Under what circumstances he has committed the crime ( drunken, with consciousness etc )
      Background of the rapist. (Education,Social, economical, ability to work and earn)

      If all this are satisfactory, then punishment can be compromised for the sake of victim and child.

      Punishment is to realise that they have committed a crime and should do in future. If this mediation helps to realise that then in my point of view, it is what the judge should ensure.

    2. pawan

      v good answer

  2. Mudi

    @ Mrunal Sir, plez reccomend a book/ study material for Ethics integrity & Aptitude Papaer

  3. m.patel

    sir please solve the problem..ppt is not download in mediafire..

  4. Subhash

    Hi Mrunal,
    Can you please upload the Ethics PPT on ‘server2’ also? Unable to download from Mediafire.

    thanks
    Subhash

    1. M

      yes, you are right Unable to download from Mediafire

  5. Manjunath T

    Sir what software do you use to create timelines?

  6. pragya

    i too agree with ms shruti, i mean its pathetic how can someone willingly accept that person who had done such a draconian act…its unfortunate that judges sitting at temple of justice gives such kind of rulings….where is right to equality here, one is free to do anythng n one is bound to follow everythng…..

    1. Anuj

      Yes, agree with Pragya & Shurti.

  7. Ghanshyam

    very good points by shruti

  8. rocker

    ive got 126 in paper 2 & 56 in paper 1……
    can anyone tell me what are my chances?

    1. Vinayak

      AAj result aa raha hai check urself

  9. JK

    thanks a lot for such lucid ,creative ,innovative ,informative ,analytic and simplified explanation of important topics of ethics …..:)
    eagerly awaiting for the next part…….

  10. Vaishali Kamboj

    Sir is there any good book available in the market for Ethics?

  11. pappyfizz

    is there anyone from allahabad…my ssc centre is there…..

  12. Ashok

    Today result coming

  13. kunal

    In cases, where a child is born out of rape, what should be the prime objective of the judiciary- A) punishment for the rapist, B) compassion for the child? Why?

    Ans: The judiciary’s prime objective is delivery of fair, just and timely judgement. Compassion for the weaker, minority and vulnerable sections of society is also and integral part of it in order to safeguard their interest, provide equality of opportunity and bring them at par with other developed sections of the society as talked by the constitution in its various provision including Directive Principles of the State Policy.
    A) Punishment of the rapist is quintessential for the following reason:
    1- It will send a clear and strong message that such crimes are totally unacceptable, non negotiable, intolerable and non-compoundable.
    2- It will deter the others with similar mindset from committing crimes.
    3- The faith of people in the judiciary will be intact.
    4- If the judiciary goes lenient on the rapist, the victim along with the whole society will feel dejected, unfairly treated.

    B) Compassion for the child is also necessary because:
    1- A child born out of rape is generally looked upon down in the society, so a compassionate act towards the child, who is totally innocent, will serve the justice.
    2- Such a compassionate act should be done by providing care, honour, respect and a quality life for the child and the victim.
    3- People and society should be made aware of respecting and caring the child and the victim as they are the ones who are innocent.

    1. ABHI

      bro your points are good but if we have to chose one option, then???

  14. Kapil

    Pre result to b declared today…

  15. 007

    mrunal bhat mediafire is not working since many days…give another link to download ppt of ethics

  16. Kg

    Pre Result to be declared at 9:00 PM today.

  17. ias cracker

    result today at 8 homies

  18. R k jaiswal

    My roll number is 44338.
    Please informe my civil services exam result 2015

  19. vivek yadav

    result is out. dostooooo

  20. AM

    Results are out. Thank you very much Mrunal. I am in the list. Appreciate your help.
    Thanks
    AM

  21. samaresh

    what is the cut off both civils/IFoS this time?
    all the best to those who cleared prelims!

  22. raj

    CUTOFF MIGHT BE 95+

  23. Shakyamuni

    Select UPSC PRE 2015

  24. Mr.X

    Lexicon ethics book

  25. ravikar dwivedi

    sir when will current affairs from June will be updated ?

  26. Priya

    Kavan Sir, Please provide ppt for the remaining topics asap. Thanks in advance…

  27. Akshay

    ri8 shruti…i too agry with u as this will encourage the criminality…such type of justice says rape woman and marry her!!!

  28. Govind

    Mediation can be sued in such crimes as women themselves have been wearing vulgar dresses and causing nuisance to society. Women cannot be always treated as victims rather it must be decided on case by case basis. There are many incidents when women put false rape cases on men.

    So to ensure fair justice, strict laws must be made on those women who cause nisance for the society by spreading vulgarity. For false rape and molestation cases, women must be given death penalty. Even for wearing vulgar dresses in public, they must serve at leat 7-10 years to ensure that the judiciary sends out a string message against such criminal women.

  29. y

    zafar supari: becz he had been a street child so he has empathy on this base of empathy he has now compassion to serve children .where’s others have mere sympathy or show off. plz comment if any-

  30. rakhi

    In the #case 2 I think Samar Singh will b apt choice ,being ex IPS officer he tackle all the illegalities properly

  31. Golam Rashid

    Just excellent

  32. M.Vinod Naik

    in the second case study to serve the NGO should required empathy and compassion.Here compassion is greater then the empathy.In the given four cases Mr Jafer Says he spent all of his childhood working at a highway dhaba.So he know the pain of the children they are in the steat he do work with empathy and compassion.so he is the prifarable candidate.

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