- HFS12/P1: Rajagopalachari Formula (1944) Desai-Liaquat Pact (1945)
- HFS12/P2: Wavell Plan (1945) Indian National Army (INA)
- HFS12/P3: Cabinet Mission (1946), Mountbatten Plan (1947) & Partition
- To avoid any future constitutional disaster, C. Rajagopalachari came out with a ‘Sporting Offer’ on 29 August 1940, to persuade his colleagues in the Congress to accept a Muslim League Prime Minister with a right to nominate persons of his own choice in the national Government. His purpose was to promote an agreement with the Muslim League with a view to attain independence for the country
- Gandhi was convinced that the British Government would not grant independence to India unless and until the Congress and the League had reached some accord as to the country’s future government and immediate formation of an interim National Government. Therefore, Gandhiji advised Sapru and Bhulabhai J. Desai, a constitutional lawyers of great eminence, to continue the talks for settlement.
- Desai was the leader of the Congress Parliamentary Party in the Central Assembly and also a personal old friend of the Deputy Leader of the Muslim league, Nawabzar Liaquat Ali Khan, who was also the General-Secretary of the League since 1937. Desai and Liaquat Ali Khan held a series of discussions and drew the following private and confidential proposals for cooperation between the Congress and the League.
- Lord Wavell anticipated that after the Allies victory in sight it would be difficult to deny or delay the transfer of power. Therefore, he hastened to prepare conditions for it, but communal settlement between the Congress and the league seemed impossible. On February 13, 1944, Lord Wavell delivered his first important speech addressing the joint session of the Central Legislature. The important point in the speech was the emphasis on “united country enjoying complete and unqualified self-government as a willing partner of the British Commonwealth”.
- The Rise of INA: During the course of the Second World War, armed revolutionary activities continued to take place. The role of Subhas Chandra Bose towards such activities is incomparable. On 2 July 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the President of Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army. He gave the country the slogan of Jai Hind. The names of the INA’s three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade and Nehru Brigade. The women’s wing of the army was named after Rani Laxmibai.
- The Indian National Army marched towards Imphal after registering its victory over Kohima. After Japan’s surrender in 1945, the INA failed in its efforts. Under such circumstances, Subhas went to Taiwan. Then on his way to Tokyo he died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash. The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soldiers.
- After the Second World War, Lord Atlee became the Prime Minister of England. On 15 March, 1946 Lord Atlee made a historic announcement in which the right to self-determination and the framing of a Constitution for India were conceded. Consequently, three members of the British Cabinet – Pathick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander – were sent to India. This is known as the Cabinet Mission.
- Mountbatten Plan (1947) On 20 February l947, Prime Minister Atlee announced in the House of Commons the definite intention of the British Government to transfer power to responsible Indian hands by a date not later than June 1948. Thus, to effect the transference of that power Atlee decided to send Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy to India.
- Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India’s Viceroy on 24 March 1947. The partition of India and the creation of Pakistan appeared inevitable to him. After extensive consultation Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947. The Congress and the Muslim League ultimately approved the Mountbatten Plan.
- The Radcliff Boundary Commission drew the boundary line separating India and Pakistan. On 15th August 1947 India, and on the 14th August Pakistan came into existence as two independent states. Lord Mountbatten was made the first Governor General of Independent India, whereas Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General of Pakistan.
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