[Freedom Struggle] 1937-44: Provincial Elections, August Offer, Cripps Mission, Individual Satyagraha and Quit India Movement

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  1. HFS11/P1: Congress in Provincial Governments: Election to resignation (1937-39)
  2. HFS11/P2: August Offer (1940), Individual Satyagraha
  3. HFS11/P3: Cripps Mission (1942): Proposals of Post-Dated Cheque
  4. HFS11/P4: Quit India Movement (1942-1944): Events & Assessment

HFS11/P1: Congress in Provincial Governments: Election to resignation (1937-39)

  • In 1937 elections were held under the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935. Congress Ministries were formed in seven states of India.  On 1 September 1939 the Second World War broke out. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war.
  • The Congress vehemently opposed it and as a mark of protest the Congress Ministries in the Provinces resigned on 12 December 1939.  The Muslim League celebrated that day as the Deliverance Day.  In March 1940 the Muslim League demanded the creation of Pakistan.

provincial governments

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/oFwxI6jSFU8

HFS11/P2: August Offer (1940), Individual Satyagraha

august offer

  • During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’.  The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution.
  • Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha. Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/mJI41Ebnp5M

HFS11/P3: Cripps Mission (1942): Proposals of Post-Dated Cheque

cripp's mission

  • During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’.  The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution.  Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha. Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months.
  • The main recommendations of Cripps were: 1) The promise of Dominion Status to India, 2) Protection of minorities o setting up of a Constituent Assembly in which there would be representatives from the Princely States along with those of the British Provinces, 3) There would be provision for any Province of British India not prepared to accept this Constitution, either to retain its present constitutional position or frame a constitution of its own.
  • The major political parties of the country rejected the Cripps proposals.  Gandhi called Cripp’s proposals as a “Post-dated Cheque”. They did not like the rights of the Princely States either to send their representatives to the Constituent Assembly or to stay out of the Indian Union. The Muslim League was also dissatisfied as its demand for Pakistan had not been conceded in the proposal.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/fKHCoCtZMe4

HFS11/P4: Quit India Movement (1942-1944): Events & Assessment

quit India movement

  • The failure of the Cripps Mission and the fear of an impending Japanese invasion of India led Mahatma Gandhi to begin his campaign for the British to quit India. Mahatma Gandhi believed that an interim government could be formed only after the British left India and the Hindu-Muslim problem sorted out. The All India Congress Committee met at Bombay on 8 August 1942 and passed the famous Quit India Resolution.
  • On the same day, Gandhi gave his call of ‘do or die’. On 8th and 9th August 1942, the government arrested all the prominent leaders of the Congress.  For once, this pre-planned action of the government left the Indian people without leadership. Mahatma Gandhi was kept in prison at Poona.  Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, and other leaders were imprisoned in the Ahmednagar Fort.
  • At this time, leadership was provided by Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta and S.M.  Joshi.  The role of Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement was important.  Large number of students also left their schools and colleges to join the movement. The youth of the nation also participated in this movement with patriotism.
  • Strikes, demonstrations and public meetings were organised in various towns and cities. Slowly the movement reached the rural areas. In 1943, as the movement gained further momentum, there were armed attacks on government buildings in Madras and Bengal.
  • In 1944 Mahatma Gandhi was released from jail. Quit India Movement was the final attempt for country’s freedom. The British Government ordered for 538 rounds of firing.  Nearly 60,229 persons were jailed.  At least 7,000 people were killed. This movement paved the way for India’s freedom. It aroused among Indians the feelings of bravery, enthusiasm and total sacrifice.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/Gh3L8D7X-vI
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35 Comments on “[Freedom Struggle] 1937-44: Provincial Elections, August Offer, Cripps Mission, Individual Satyagraha and Quit India Movement”

  1. sir please give study material

  2. sir my optional is geology . please refer a book as per syllabus

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