- WH: Russian Revolution/P1- Socio Economic Causes
- WH: Russian Revolution/P2- Political Causes, Events, Outcomes
- WH-WW1/P1: First World War: Background events
- WH-WW1/P2: First World War- Events Summary
- WH-WW1/P3: First World War- Causes Summary
- WH-WW1/P4: First World War- Outcomes Summary
Pratik Nayak continues further with the world history lecture series- this time Russia revolution and first world world.
- The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a very important political event of the 20 th Century. For the first time, Karl Marx’s idea of socialism and Proletariat revolution became a reality. Russia was a big and powerful country. Even Napoleon Bonaparte could not conquer Russia in 1812. However, during the beginning of the 20 th Century Russia was no longer a powerful country. During this time Russia was ruled by the Romanov dynasty. Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia at the time of the Revolution. During his rule Russia faced serious domestic and international problems. Eventually, a series of political events led to the overthrow of the Tsarist rule by October Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik Party headed by Lenin led the revolution. Thus, Russia became USSR [Union of Soviet Socialist Republics], which lasted until its disintegration in 1991
- Russia withdrew from the First World War. Later, formal peace was signed with Germany later. The estates of the landlords, the
- During the Russian revolution, the Church and the Tsar were confiscated and transferred to peasants’ societies to be allotted to peasant families to be cultivated without hired labour. The control of industries was transferred to committees of workers. By the middle of 1918, banks and insurance companies, large industries, mines, water transport and railways were nationalised. Foreign debts were refused and foreign investments were confiscated. A Declaration of the Rights of Peoples was issued conferring the right of self-determination upon all nationalities. A new government, called the Council of People’s Commissars, headed by Lenin was founded. These first acts of the new government began the era of socialism
- The fight among the European countries to control and establish new colonies led to the First World War.
- The late 19th century was a period of intense nationalism. Many nations developed myths of superiority over other peoples. Each country wanted to have colonies to add to its prestige and power. Writers and speakers in England, France and Germany opened institutions to promote the idea of imperialism. European countries took great pride in calling their territories as empires
- The late 19th century was a period of intense nationalism. Many nations developed myths of superiority over other peoples. Each country wanted to have colonies to add to its prestige and power. Writers and speakers in England, France and Germany opened institutions to promote the idea of imperialism. European countries took great pride in calling their territories as empire
- In the minds of many Europeans, imperialist expansion was very noble. They considered it a way of bringing civilization to the ‘backward peoples of the world. Explorers and adventurers, as well as missionaries helped in spreading imperialism
- Ultimately, The fight among the European countries to control and establish new colonies led to the First World War
There were many causes for the World War I. The most important cause was the system of secret alliances. Before 1914 Europe was divided into two camps. It was Germany which created the division in European politics before World War I. In order to isolate France, Germany entered in to an alliance with Austria. Bismarck formed the three Emperors Leagueby making alliance with Russia. Later Germany did not care for Russia. Hence Russia left. But Germany continued its alliance with Austria alone. This was known as Dual alliance. After Italy joined in this alliance, it became a Triple alliance
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During the war Germany and her allies were called Central Powers. England and her allies were called Allied Powers. Germany entered the war to defend Austria. Shortly all the powers in the hostile camps were automatically drawn into the war. Turkey and Bulgaria joined the war on the side of Germany. Italy left the Triple Alliance and joined the opposite camp with the idea of recovering Italian territories under Austrian control. England joined the war against Germany. There was bitter fighting on the French soil. The Battle of Verdun decided the fortunes of the war in favour of the Allies. Germany started submarine warfare in a large scale. All the laws relating to naval warfare were thrown out
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The war wrought its havoc on the economics of the participating countries. It may be remembered that about 25 nations had joined the allies at the time of the outbreak of war. The victors felt the devastating effects of the war even before the cessation. All these nations were burdened with the national debts. The world economy was in shambles. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailleson 28th June 1919. It was a dictated peace and Germany had by then become even too weak to protest. She lost everything. Germany and her allies suffered most since they had to pay heavy sums to the victorious allies as reparation debts. Austria Hungary signed the Treaty of St. Germaine. Hungary signed the Treaty of Trianon with the allies in 1920. Bulgaria had accepted the Treaty of Neuliyin 1919. Turkey, which sided with Germany during the war, signed the Treaty of Sevresin 1920
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go to link Next lecture: Interwar years, Rise of Hitler and Mussolini, 2nd world war.