[Download] UPSC Mains-2016: General Studies Paper-3: Economy, Agriculture, Science-Tech, Environment, Diaster incl. Hindi & Past Topicwise papers since syllabus change

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UPSC Paperset
  1. Instructions for UPSC Mains 2016 GS Paper-3
  2. GSM3-2016: Question paper in linear format incl. Hindi
  3. Observations / Analysis: GS Mains paper3 (2016)
  4. Relevance of Mrunal.org / Bogus marketing propaganda
  5. Topicwise Papers since Syllabus Change
    1. [Block #1] Economy
      1. Growth and Resource mobilization
      2. Economy: Budget
      3. Economy: Investment and Infrastructure
      4. Economy: Liberalization
    2. [Block#2] Agriculture
      1. Food: Cropping-irrigation
      2. Food: E-tech. in aid of farmers
      3. Food: Food processing industry
      4. Food: Land reforms
      5. Food: MSP
    3. [Block #3] Science
      1. Disaster Management
      2. Environment and Pollution Control
      3. Science-Tech: Awareness
      4. Science-Tech: Indians
    4. [Block#4] Security
      1. Security: Terrorism, Extremists (LWE, NE)
      2. Security: org. crime & money laundering
      3. Security: Cyber security and social media
      4. Security- Security forces
      5. Security: Cross border

Instructions for UPSC Mains 2016 GS Paper-3

  • UPSC conducted general studies paper 3 of civil services mains examination on 6th December 2016
  • Duration: 3 hours; Maximum Marks: 250
  • Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting questions:
  • There are TWENTY questions printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH. Each Question carries 12.5 marks.
  • All the questions too compulsory.
  • Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QC4) Booklet in the space provided.
  • No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  • Word limit in questions, wherever specified should be adhered to.
  • Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

GSM3-2016: Question paper in linear format incl. Hindi

Answer all the following questions. Each question is to be answered in not more than 200 words. Each question carries equal marks.

  1. How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?
    भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में वैश्वीकरण के परिणामस्वरूप औपचारिक क्षेत्र में रोजगार कैसे कम हुए? क्या बढ़ती हुई अनोपचारिकता देश के विकास के लिए हानिकारक है?
  2. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?
    भारत में महिला सशक्तिकरण के लिए जेंडर बजटिंग अनिवार्य है | भारतीय प्रसंग में जेंडर बजटिंग की क्या आवश्यकताए एवं स्थिति है?
  3. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.
    प्रधान मंत्री जन धन योजना (पी एम जे डी वाई ) बेंकरहितों को संस्थागत वित्त में लाने के लिए आवश्यक है |क्या आप सहमत है कि इससे भारतीय समाज के गरीब तबके के लोंगों का वित्तीय समावेश होगा? अपने मत की पुष्टि के लिए तर्क प्रस्तुत कीजिये |
  4. What are ‘Smart Cities? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.
    ‘स्मार्ट शहरों ‘ से क्या तात्पर्य है? भारत के शहरी विकास में इनकी प्रासंगिकता का परीक्षण कीजिए | क्या इससे ग्रामीण तथा शहरी भेदभाव में बढ़ोत्तरी होगी? पी॰ यू॰ आर॰ ए॰ एवं आर॰ यू॰ आर॰ बी॰ ए॰ एन॰ मिशन के संदर्भ में ‘स्मार्ट गाँव ’ के लिए तर्क प्रस्तुत कीजिये?
  5. Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.
    भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था के विकास में एफ॰ डी॰ आई॰ की आवश्यकता की पुष्टि कीजिए | हस्ताक्षरित समझोता – ज्ञापनो तथा वास्तविक एफ॰ डी॰ आई॰ के बीच अंतर क्यो है? भारत में वास्तविक एफ॰ डी॰ आई॰को बढ़ाने के लिए सुधारात्मक कदम सुझाइये |
  6. Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.
    भारतीय संदर्भ में समवेशी विकास में निहित चुनोतियों, जिनमे लापरवाह और बेकार जनशक्ति शामिल है, पर टिप्पणी कीजिये | इन चुनोतियों का सामना करने के उपाय सुझाइये |
  7. What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency.
    जल-उपयोग दक्षता से आप क्या समझते है? जल-उपयोग दक्षता को बढ़ाने में सूक्ष्म सिचाई की भूमिका का वर्णन कीजिए |
  8. What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture.
    एलीलोपैथी क्या है? सिंचित कृषि-क्षेत्रों की प्रमुख फसल पद्धतियों में इसकी भूमिका का वर्णन कीजिए |
  9. Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India.
    कृषि विकास में भूमि सुधारों की विवेचना कीजिए | भारत में भूमि सुधारों की सफलता के लिए उत्तरदायी कारकों को चिन्हित कीजिए |
  10. Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
    भारतीय कृषि की प्रकृति की अनिश्चितताओं पर निर्भरता के मद्देनजर, फसल बीमा की आवश्यकता की विवेचना कीजिए और प्रधान मंत्री फसल बीमा योजना (पी॰ एम॰ एफ॰ बी॰ वाई॰ ) की मुख्य विशेषताओं का उल्लेख कीजिए |
  11. Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).
    देश की नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा के स्त्रोतों के सन्दर्भ में इनकी वर्तमान स्थिति और प्राप्त किए जाने वाले लक्ष्यों का विवरण दीजिये | प्रकाश उत्सर्जक डायोड (एल॰ ई॰ डी॰ ) पर राष्ट्रीय कार्यक्रम के महत्त्व की विवेचना संक्षेप में कीजिए |
  12. Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?
    अन्तरिक्ष विज्ञान और प्रौधौगिकी के क्षेत्र में भारत की उपलब्धियों की चर्चा कीजिये | इस प्रौधौगिकी का प्रयोग भारत के सामाजिक-आर्थिक विकास में किस प्रकार सहायक हुआ है?
  13. Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country.
    अतिसूक्ष्म प्रौधौगिकी (नैनो टेक्नोलॉजी) 21वी शताब्दी की प्रमुख प्रौधौगिकियों में से एक क्यो है? अतिसूक्ष्म विज्ञान और प्रौधौगिकी पर भारत सरकार के मिशन की प्रमुख विशेषताओं तथा देश के विकास के प्रक्रम में इसके प्रयोग के क्षेत्र का वर्णन कीजिए |
  14. Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.
    बड़ी परियोजनाओ के नियोजन के समय मानव बस्तियों का पुनर्वास एक महत्वपूर्ण परिस्थितिक संघात है , जिस पर सदेव विवाद होता है | विकास की बड़ी परियोजनाओ के प्रस्ताव के समय इस संघात को कम करने के लिए सुझाए गए उपायों पर चर्चा कीजिये |
  15. The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods. highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
    कई वर्षों से उच्च तीव्रता की वर्षा के कारण शहरों में बाढ़ की बारंबारता बढ़ रही है | शहरी क्षेत्रों में बाढ़ के कारणों पर चर्चा करते हुए इस प्रकार की घटनाओं के दौरान जोखिम कम करने की तैयारियों की क्रियाविधि पर प्रकाश डालिए |
  16. With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand.
    राष्ट्रीय आपदा प्रबंधन प्राधिकरण (एन॰ डी॰ एम॰ ए॰ ) के सुझावों के संदर्भ में , उत्तराखंड के अनेकों स्थानो पर हाल ही में बादल फटने की घटनाओं के संधात को कम करने के लिए अपनाए जाने वाले उपायों पर चर्चा कीजिये |
  17. The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions.
    “उग्र अनुसरण ” एवं “शल्यक प्रहार” पदों का प्रयोग प्राय: आतंकी हमलों के विरुद्ध सैन्य कार्यवाही के लिए किया जाता है | इस प्रकार की कार्यवाहियो के युद्धनीतिक प्रभाव की विवेचना कीजिए |
  18. “Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement.
    “पिछले कुछ दशकों से आतंकवाद एक प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक उधोग के रूप में उभर रहा है |” उपर्युक्त कथन का विश्लेषण कीजिए |
  19. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management.
    दुर्गम क्षेत्र एवं कुछ देशों के साथ शत्रुतापूर्ण संबंधो के कारण सीमा प्रबंधन एक कठिन कार्य है | प्रभावशाली सीमा प्रबंधन की चुनोतियों एवं रणनीतियों पर प्रकाश डालिए |
  20. Use of Internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major concern. How have these have misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat.
    गैर-राज्यों अभिकर्ताओं द्वारा इंटरनेट एवं सोशल मीडिया का विध्वंसकारी गतिविधियों हेतु प्रयोग सुरक्षा के लिए एक वृहद चिंता का विषय है | हाल ही में इनका दुष-प्रयोग किस प्रकार हुआ है? उपर्युक्त खतरे को नियंत्रित करने के लिए प्रभावकारी सुझाव सुझाइये |

Observations / Mains 2016 Analysis of GS paper-3 (2016)

Mains 2016 Analysis GSM Paper-3 (2016)-overall

2013-152016
2015: 20 questions, each worth 12.5 marks and 200 words.Same.
2015: asked skill India and labour reforms.Same theme repeated here in GSM2 and GSM3.
Although mentioned in syllabus but never asked about cropping or irrigation system.First time asked -Two Easy and one difficult question

  1. Micro-irrigation and Fasal Bima: both easy questions since already covered in Economic survey so every clearing prelims ought to have prepared.
  2. Allelopathy- Tough question. You either know or don’t know:  Allelopathic plants release special chemicals that influence the evolution and distribution of other species. These term is sporadically mentioned in theHindu articles of 2013, 14 etc. For prelims- some technical topics from agri. are expected because IFoS and CSE are combined, but here they’ve separate mains exams. तो साला इतना डिटेल में कोन प्रिपेर करता है? That too for a 200 words answer!
Food processing related qs: Each year min. One question. And 2015 was a peak- three questions 1) SCM 2) livestock/dairy 3) e-commerce.Nothing. All that affection of food-Processing now shifted to actual cropping and irrigation!
Nothing asked on land reforms after a single question in 2013.Makes comeback. But, covered both in my articles as well as Ms. Rajtanil’s lecture.
2015: nothing related to MSP or farm subsidies.Nothing. Despite CEA Arvind Surbamanian’s recommendations on 1) PPP for procurement of pulses 2) DBT for cultivating pulses in irrigated land.
Thankfully nothing from PPP after 2013 and 14.
Disaster  Management each year minimum one question asked.Examiner’s Diaster-worry increased further and remains ‘current affairs’ oriented. Two questions

  1. Urban floods: Chennai Nov’2015
  2. Uttarakhand cloudburst: June 2016.
Environment section focuses on combo of any of these themes 1) energy (thermal or renewable) 2) EIA 3) riversContinued with combo of

  1. EIA: sub topic rehabilitation. Theory based.
  2. Renewable energy target: Can be said ‘current’ based due to Modi’s ambitious plan of adding   175GW renewable energy by 2022, special coverage of it by Eco.survey, Kurukshetra vis a vis theHindu’s criticism that it is unachievable target.
“Science tech” (not involveing Indians): min. 1 question asked each year.Nothing asked.
“Science Tech” (involving Indians)- last year IRNSS desi GPS asked
  • Affection amplifies : one question on space and one on Nano- both asking about Government initivative and its positive impact on country’s development.
  • While Essay-2016 had negative worded topics on terminator-3 the rise of machine but GS3 examiner seems positive in the wording of the questions…. “how this will benefit”?
Security: 2013 & 15- focused on naxal. 2015 & 16 focused on terrorism.Already asked every angle worth asking on Naxal. So back to terrorists. Two questions 1) surgical strike 2) terrorism as a competitive industry.
  • 2013 & 15 – focused on cyber warfare and cyber armed force.
  • Used to ask “technical” IT questions such as digital signature, cloud hosting.
  • “non-technical” questions from IT/social media.
  • Like 2013, focus shifts back to social medial. Earlier asked its dangers (2013) now asked for its guidelines.
Border management- 2014 way too complex and trivial things asked such as civil aviation law, 78 degree east.This time straight forward question

  1. hot pursuit and surgical strike.
  2. Border management in difficult terrain.
2015: this happened with Namami gange and a few other topics.
  • Both in prelims-2016 and Mains-2016, there seems to be a trend of asking ‘current’ affairs that are way past their expiry date.
  • Be it MARS MoM, Jan Dhan, jobless growth, smart cities.

Recycling of questions

Recycling topics, syllabus exchange program between GSM1,2,3 within same year and among Different years

Among yearWithin same year
  • 2013: PURA asked in GSM2
  • 2015: smart villages asked in GSM1
  • 2016: With smart city, PURA, Rurban all three asked within same question!
  • GSM1-2016: Urban floods asked
  • GSM3-2016: again Urban Flood mitigation asked.

Many more such examples you’ll find in 2015 paper analysis as well.

Bookie mentality

  • 2015: Bookie mentality has worked- asked about earthquake (since Nepal), about ISIS.
  • This time it also worked for “urban floods’ after Chennai floods. Asked twice- GS1 and GS3 in the same year!
  • Backfired in budget reforms- because instead of asking about merger of plan non-plan; rail-general or shifting of date or year- they’ve asked about Gender budget.
  • Although this year’s survey put heavy emphasis on JAM vs BAPU but no questions related to subsidies. But then again 2015- already asked DBT. So double bluff- in some places they’ll repeatedly ask same things continuously for two years first in GSM3 then in Essay or GSM2, and at some they won’t.
  • Double bluff: in surgical strike (asked within the year when the topic was hot).

Contours are visible

While GSM2 remains an Achilles heel, GSM3 it’s possible to prepare in  a systematic fashion because over last four exams, the syllabus contours and the ‘extend’ of coverage is clear. For example:

What do they ask from economy, resource mobilization and growth topic?
  • (1) skill-HRD (2) Growth concepts – capitalistic growth, inclusive growth, jobless growth.
  • In GS3: They’re not going in to ‘technical’ topics economy such as RBI/SEBI/IRDA’s new rules for xyz things. At max some question under regulatory bodies in Paper-2, but not here in paper-3.
What do they ask from Budgeting topic?The focal point is usually something that’ll improve Government’s financial resources- whether DBT, GST or FRBM.
Cropping, irrigationOnly one exam old topics. Shapes yet to develop.
Science techHow given innovation is relevant to India.
What do they ask in environment each year?Three major themes (1) water (2) energy (3) EIA. If it’s air pollution- that’ll go to GS1.
Security, border management, social media
  • Social media: non-technical topics.
  • LWE: all the relevant angles already asked. So in future if anything is asked then it’ll be merely recycling of old question – similar to PURA, smart villages and smart cities.
  • Terrorism: something from current affairs.

Economic Survey is king

If you’re following the economic survey since last two years, then pretty much entire economy portion within GSM3 can be approached.

  • Be it informal jobs within formal sector.
  • Be it FASAL Bima Yojana, importance of micro-irrigation
  • Be it smart cities.
  • Be it even National LED program!

Relevance of Mrunal.org / Bogus marketing propaganda

Since Eco.survey is king and I’ve uploaded lecture recordings of both previous surveys so whatever causalities occurred in GSM2, they’re avenged here.

GSM3-2016 QuestionHow much?covered in Mrunal.org
Attracting more FDI12.5BES162/P04. including GAAR, PoEM, tax-terrorism.
Informal jobs in MNCs12.5BES164/P04. including regulatory cholesterol
What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency.12.5BES164/P1
Fasal Bima Yojana12.5BES164/P3
Renewable energy targets- achievements and National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).12.5BES165/P2 and P4
Land reforms in India12.5Lecture: G8/P4. and article series under Mrunal.org/polity
Social media and non-state actors.4IR1/P1- partially covered in ISIS.
Jan Dhan’s importance in Financial inclusion.12.5L1/P8- including other dimensions of Financial including viz. credit, insurance and investment.
inclusive growth of careless and useless manpower12.5L5/P5; ML3/HRD ppt on national policy on entrepreneurship
‘Smart Cities and  Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.12.5L7/P8; ML1/P2
Urban floods- reasons and how to reduce risk?12.5ML16/GSM1
Total129Nearly 52% of the paper was covered!
urban floods: not only mock question but model answer was taught as well!

एक ही बाढ़ में दो बार पाप धुल गये (2016: GSM1, GSM3)

Topicwise Papers since Syllabus Change

In 2013, UPSC changed the syllabus-pattern of Mains examination and the number of general studies (GS) papers were increased from two to four. Out of them, GS Paper-3 deals with Economy, Agriculture, Environment, Disaster management, science technology and security. Here are the topicwise sorted questions since the pattern change:

CategorySubcategory2013201420152016
Economy &
Infra.
Growth102537.525
Budget30012.512.5
Liberlization2025012.5
Infra, Invest1037.512.525
Agriculture &
Food Industry
land Reform100012.5
Cropping00037.5
MSP-PDS2012.500
E-Tech in aid0012.50
Food Processing1012.537.50
Science
& Environment
& Disaster
Sci.Tech4012.5250
Sci.Tech (Indian)02512.525
Environment35252525
Disaster1012.512.525
SecurityDevelop vs Exterm.10012.512.5
Border1062.52525
Cyber Security2502512.5
Money Laundering10000
Total250250250250

[Block #1] Economy

Topics related to economy, infrastructure, investment
Analysis UPSC Mains GS Mains GSM Paper-3 (2016)economy

Growth and Resource mobilization

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Indian Economy (issues re: planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development, employment); Inclusive growth and issues therein

Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.2016
Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.2016
The nature of economic growth in India in described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer.2015
Craze for gold in Indians have led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme.2015
Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss.2014
With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new companies bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the bill and their implications.2013
“Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.2015
While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.2014

Economy: Budget

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Government Budgeting

Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?2016
In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss.2015
What are the reasons for introduction of Fiscal responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness.2013
What is meaning of the term tax-expenditure? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences budgetary policies of the government.2013
Discussion the rationale for introducing Good and services tax in India. Bring out critically the reasons for delay in roll out for its regime.2013

Economy: Investment and Infrastructure

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Infrastructure (energy, ports, roads, airports, railways); Investment models

What are ‘Smart Cities? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.2016
Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.2016
There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.2015
The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialisation and agriculture in India?2014
National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard.2014
Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?2014
Adaptation of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model.2013

Economy: Liberalization

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Effects of Liberalisation on the economy; Changes in Industrial policy & their effects on industrial growth

How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?2016
Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?2014
Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalised. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?2014
Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indian. Are the competing with the MNCs satisfactorily?2013
Discuss the impact of FDI entry into multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy.2013
Though India allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in what is called multi brand retail through joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI even after a year, has not picket up. Discuss the reasons.2013

[Block#2] Agriculture

Topics related to farming, food processing and food security
Analysis UPSC Mains GS Mains GSM Paper-3 (2016) agriculture

Food: Cropping-irrigation

What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency.2016
What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture.2016
Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)2016

Food: E-tech. in aid of farmers

GS3 Syllabus Topic: e-technology to aid farmers;s Technology missions;

How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regards?2015

Food: Food processing industry

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Food processing and related industries in India (scope & significance, location, upstream-downstream requirements, supply chain management); storage, transport & marketing of agro-produce and related issues & constraints; Economics of animal-rearing

Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sectors in India2015
In view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non-viable for a majority of farmers, should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.2015
What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks?2015
There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.2014
India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement.2013

Food: Land reforms

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Land Reforms in India

Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India.2016
Establish the relationship between land reform, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in Indian Economy. Discussion the difficulty in designing and implementation of the agriculture friendly land reforms in India.2013

Food: MSP

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Farm subsidies and MSP and issues therein (direct and indirect); PDS (objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, issues of buffer stocks & food security)

“In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constrain and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?2014
Food security bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO2013
What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and state levels? Critically analyze the agriculture subsidy regime with the reference to the distortions created by it.2013

[Block #3] Science

Topics related to environment, science-tech and disaster management
Analysis UPSC Mains GS Mains GSM Paper-3 (2016) disaster

Disaster Management

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Disasters & Disaster Management

The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods. highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.2016
With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand.2016
The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects.2015
Drought has been recognised as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.2014
How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management. As an administrator ,what are key areas that you would focus in a disaster management2013

Environment and Pollution Control

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Environmental conservation; Environmental pollution and degradation; Environmental Impact Assessment

ThemeQuestionYear
Energy- RNWGive an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).2016
EIARehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.2016
Energy-ThermalWhat are the consequences of illegal mining? Discuss the ministry of environment and forests’ concept of “GO AND NO GO” zones for coal mining.2013
Energy- RNWTo what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry?2015
Energy- RNWShould the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.2014
Thermal energyEnvironmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.2014
Thermal energyWrite a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problems of conventional energy.2013
RiverWhat do you understand by run of the river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project?2013
RiverThe Namami Gange and National mission for clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?2015
RiverEnumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India?2013

Science-Tech: Awareness

GS3 Syllabus Topic: S&T developments and everyday applications & effects; Awareness in fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nanotech, Biotech, IPR issues

India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which has a database containing formatted information on more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in the country’s fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pros and cons making this database publicly available under open-source licensing2015
What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation.2015
In a globalised world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms – copyrights, patents and trade secrets.2014
What do you understand by Umpire decision review in cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicon tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system?2013
What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured? Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industry2013
Bring out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to section 3(d) in the India n Patent Law, 1970. Discuss how it has been utilized by Supreme court in its judgment rejecting Novartis patent application for “Glivec”. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision.2013
How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology.2013
What do you understand by fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits.2013

Science-Tech: Indians

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Achievements of Indians in S&T; Indigenisation of technology & development of new technology

Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?2016
Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country.2016
What do you understand by ‘Standard Positioning Systems’ and ‘Protection Positioning Systems’ in the GPS era? Discuss the advantages India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites.2015
Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as our business operations, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer oriented. Critically comment.2014
Can overuse and the availability of antibiotics without doctor’s prescription, the contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved.2014

[Block#4] Security

Topics related to security, crime, extremism
Analysis UPSC Mains GS Mains GSM Paper-3 (2016) terrorism

Security: Terrorism, Extremists (LWE, NE)

GS3 Syllabus Topic:

  1. Linkages between Development & spread of Extremism;
  2. Linkages of Organized crime and Terrorism
  3. Linkages of Pakistan and Terrorism
“Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement.2016
The persisting drives of the government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements with Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci, discuss the corrective strategies needed to win the left wing extremism (LWE) doctrine affected citizens back into the mainstream of social and economic growth.2015
Religious indoctrination via digital media has resulted in Indian youth joining the ISIS. What is ISIS and its mission? How can ISIS be dangerous for the internal security of our country?2015
Article 244 of Indian Constitution relates to Administration of Scheduled areas and tribal areas. Analyze the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of fifth schedule on the growth of Left Wing Extremism.2013

Security: org. crime & money laundering

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Money laundering & Prevention

Money laundering poses a serious threat to country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace?2013

Security: Cyber security and social media

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Basics of Cyber Security; Role of media and social-networking sites in internal security challenges; Internal security challenges through communication networks

Use of Internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major concern. How have these have misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat.2016
Discuss the advantage and security implications of cloud hosting of server vis-a-vis in-house machine-based hosting for government businesses.2015
Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a “Digital Armed Force” to prevent crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation.2015
What is digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Giver various salient built in features of a digital signature.2013
What are social networking site and what security implications do these sites present?2013
Cyber warfare is considered by some defense analysts to be a larger threat than even Al Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same.2013

Security- Security forces

Human rights activists constantly highlight the view that the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is a draconian act leading to cases of human rights abuses by the security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by the activists? Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by the Apex Court.2015

Security: Cross border

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Border Areas (security challenges and management thereof); Security forces & agencies (mandate); Role of External State & Non-State actors in creating internal security challenges

The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions.2016
Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management.2016
International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above the territory. What do you understand by airspace? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggests ways to contain the threat.2014
The diverse nature of India as a multireligious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which has been in her neighbourhood. Discuss along with the strategies to be adopted to counter this environment.2014
How illegal transborder migration does pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bring out the factors which give impetus to such migration.2014
In 2012, the longitudinal marking of the high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65° East to 78° east in the Arabian Sea by International Maritime organisation. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns?2014
China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What thread does it dispose for India’s security? Critically examine.2014
How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management, particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar?2013

 

Want to share your optional subject paper?
Mail it to Mrunal.faq@gmail(D0T)c0m

Mrunal recommends

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  7. Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha

27 Comments on “[Download] UPSC Mains-2016: General Studies Paper-3: Economy, Agriculture, Science-Tech, Environment, Diaster incl. Hindi & Past Topicwise papers since syllabus change”

  1. Economic Survey isn’t the only king. Your highness Mrunal is the real king for making the language and presentation so wonderful. Ever indebted to your majesty \m/

  2. What a great analysis.Thank YOU Sir. Wonderful work done.

    Bas Itnaa Yaad Rakhenge Ek Saathi Aur Bhi Thaa.

  3. thank’s sir

  4. thank u very much sir

  5. thank you Mrunal Sir…Please keep guiding for 2017….

  6. U r absolute fab,video on floods just wow,helped a lot,thnxxxx

  7. An Ocean of Thanks!!! Really Generous!!

  8. notify me new article on my email.

  9. Thanx for the urban floods video. I used it twice.

    1. hey! l am Ankit Singh l wan as like you please tell me ,how it is possible

  10. Sir thank you very much. Please do the same for economics optional.

  11. sir, please do the same for economics optional.

  12. Notes for GS

  13. thanks sir

  14. Maths mains materials ..where can I get

  15. Sir I want updates of Economy

  16. A big thank you to you for maintaining this website!

  17. Great analysis sir …..u r great….

  18. Thank you sir.. it helps us to prepare better for 2017 exam.

  19. Thank you sir..

  20. Please suggest me study material for law (optinal ). And political science (optional)

  21. Respected Sir,
    My optional is Sociology and my writing medium in mains is Gujarati so how to deal it without coaching?

    please help me sir,,,,

  22. Sir,
    I am wish to preparing for kerala administrative service exam conducted by kerala public service commission.This exam has three levels prelims Mains and interview.I am weak in english language and drafting skills.So please give me the necessary guidelines to improve my grammar,vocuabulary and writing capabilities.

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