[AW/GSM3] Art of Answer writing: Minor Forest Produce (MFP) significance & challenges for Tribal economy: Model Answers in English & Hindi

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  1. Prologue
  2. Answer: Introduction (Definition)
  3. Significance
  4. Challenges behind subdued impact
  5. Conclusion
  6. Hindi Answer Writing

Prologue

To get best mileage out of this article series:

  1. First study the question topic from books and web resources.
  2. Answer each question in 200 words in 8 minutes in blue or black pen only.
  3. For answer writing use unruled A4 sized papers with 1-inch margin on all sides.
  4. Then read the remaining article.
  5. The following Mock Question is meant for UPSC General Studies Mains Paper 3’s syllabus topics 1) Resources mobilization and inclusive growth, 2) Food processing industry, 3) Topics related to environmental conservation

Question: Discuss the significance of minor forest produce in improving the lives of the tribal population of India. Critically examine the reasons behind the subdued impact of existing initiatives of the government in this regard. (200 words)

Minor Forest Produce & Tribal Welfare

Answer: Introduction (Definition)

Minor forest produce are the economic commodities growing naturally in a forest and sold for purpose other than timber and fuel. Examples include bamboo, wild honey, gum, lac, waxes, resins, Amla (myrobalan), tamarind, karanj, seeds of Mahuwa and sal etc.

Significance of Minor Forest Produce

  1. MFP provide food, medicines and cash income to the forest dwellers.
  2. Forest terrain is not conducive for cash cropping, and jhum cultivation provides only subsistence level income. MFP constitutes ~40% of the annual income of a tribal family, thus giving them financial cushion during the lean seasons.
  3. It has strong linkage to women’s financial empowerment as most of the MFP are collected and sold by women, while men of the house migrate to cities and other states as laborers.
  4. While logging and poaching harm biodiversity and environment, MFP gathering is an environmentally sustainable economic activity.

Challenges behind subdued impact

While both union and the state governments run various schemes for the collection, processing and sale of MFP, it has not significantly improved the livelihood of the tribal population because:

  1. Although tribals themselves collect the MFP, they’re not allowed to sell it in open market. The state controls this activity via a system of leases and permits-  often given on political consideration, resulting ng into a monopsony system [too many sellers vs a single buyer.]
  2. Such trader then cheats the locals by 1) manipulating the weights and 2) denying fair remunerative prices 3) lending money at exorbitant interest and taking away their produce as a form of payment.
  3. While Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996 and Forest Rights act 2006 empowered the Gram Sabha to have final say in the matters of MFP, but it has not improved the scenario because: 1) Lack of awareness and networking with the corporate sector; 2) Hijacking of the decision making by the assertive members with vested financial interests or political motives to maintain the status quo.
  4. Government also formed Large Agriculture Multipurpose Societies (LAMPs) but bottlenecks related to supply chain, logistics and skills prevent full value addition to the raw material.
  5. TRIFED are not equipped to handle that level of marketing and distribution at national and international level.
  6. While MFP based health supplements fetch premium prices within India and abroad, but the procurement prices are not revised at regular interval. Thus, companies’ profits are not trickling to the primary collectors.
  7. The primitive collection methods permanently damage the trees, thereby reducing the quality of material in subsequent years, and making this activity environmentally unsustainable.

Conclusion

Sustainable development goals require India to 1) end poverty in all forms everywhere 2) provide full and decent work for all 3) achieve gender equality. MFP is one of the significant solution to achieve these, if the aforementioned lacunas are addressed on priority basis.
Notes

  1. Question is about economic utility of MFP in tribal life so don’t waste words on explaining the actual medicinal or nutritional value of MFP.
  2. Length is ~350 words, but in real life not possible to recollect all those points so automatically it’ll be compressed to 200 words.
  3. While it’s possible to dig internet to find out exact names and years of various schemes and policies of MFP, but in real exam that is neither feasible nor required. [becoming UPSC topper doesn’t require perfect answers but “less bad answers” than others.]
  4. In ‘discuss’ type questions, you should write summary type conclusion and for ‘examine’ type questions, the conclusion should be of ‘finding’ type. But here, same question requires you to do both, so better to just end on a positive note by linking the answer to either SDG or DPSP.

Hindi Answer Writing

प्रश्न: भारत की जनजातीय आबादी के जीवन में सुधार में लघु वनउपजो के महत्व पर चर्चा करें। इस संबंध में सरकार के मौजूदा प्रयासों की मंद/फीकी असर के पीछे के कारणों की गंभीरता से जांच करें। (200 शब्द)

This answer has very basic level English, which you can translate on your own. I’ll only give the keyphrases and sentences.

परिचय: (व्याख्या से)

लघु वनउपज जंगलमें प्राकृतिक रूप से पैदा होने वाली ऐसी आर्थिक वस्तुए है, जिन्हें इमारती लकड़ी और इधन के अलावा के उपयोगों के लिए बेचा जाता है. उ.दा. बाँस, जंगली शहद, इमली, लाख, आंवला; तथा करंज, साग व् महुआ के बीज इत्यादि.

लघु वनउपज का महत्व

  1. वन निवासियों को भोजन, दवाएं और नकद आय प्रदान करती है।
  2. जंगलोमें नकदी फसल उगाना संभव नही, और झूम पध्धति की खेती गुज़र-बसर के लिए जरूरी पैसा भी मुश्किल के दिला सकती है. अत: लघु वनउपज आदिवासी परिवारों की सालाना आमदनी का एक महत्वपूर्ण स्त्रोत है.
  3. महिला सशक्तिकरण का आयाम- प्राय: महिला उन्हें बटोरती व् बेचती है, जब पुरुष रोजगार की तलाश में शहरोमें/ दुसरे राज्यों में जाते है.
  4. आमदनी के लिए शिकार करने या पेड़ काटने से पर्यावरण को नुकसान. जबकि लघु वनउपज संपोषणीय आर्थिक प्रवृति है.

समस्याए:

  1. लघु वनउत्पाद सीधा बाजारमें नही बेच सकते, राज्य की परमिट प्रकियामें प्राय:  राजनीतिक तत्व हावी रहते है.
  2. इसे बटोरने वाले आदिवासीओ का बिचौलियों और अनैतिक व्यापारियों द्वारा नापतोलमें ठगी व् व्याजखोरी द्वारा शोषण होता है.
  3. अनुसूचित क्षेत्रों पर पंचायतों के प्रावधान विस्तार अधिनियम (पे.सा.) 1996 व् वन अधिकार अधिनियम, 2006 के तहत वैसे तो लघुवन उत्पाद बाबत सभी अधिकार ग्राम सभा को दिए गये है, किन्तु
    1. जागरूकता व् कोर्पोरेट्स के साथे सीधे नेटवर्क की कमी;
    2. निहित वित्तीय हितों या राजनैतिक उद्देश्यों के लिए ग्राम सभा के मुखर सदस्य फेंसलो पे आधिपत्य जमा देते है, और शोषणवाली यथास्थिति बनाए रखते है.
  4. न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य (MSP) में नियमित रूप से संशोधन /सुधार नही किया जाता. अत: यधपि स्वास्थ्यपूरक चीजो के स्वरूपमें ये लघु वनउपज ऊँचे दामोमें अंतिम ग्राहक को तो बेचीं जाती है, किन्तु मुनाफे की रकम निजी कम्पनियो से आदिवासी तक नही पहुचती.
  5. सरकार ने बड़ी कृषि बहुउद्देशीय समितियां (एलएएमपी) बनाईं, लेकिन आपूर्ति श्रृंखला, रसद और कौशल से जुड़ी बाधाओ के चलते कच्चे माल ज्यादा मूल्य वृध्दि करना मुश्किल रहता है.
  6. भारतीय जनजातीय सहकारी विपणन विकास संघ मर्यादित (ट्राईफेड) राष्ट्रिय तथा आंतराष्ट्रीय स्तर पर निजी कम्पनियो की टक्करका विपणन और वितरण (marketing and distribution) करने के लिए अक्षम है.
  7. लघु वनउपज बटोरने का पारंपरिक तरीका पेड़ो को नुकसान पहुंचाता है, उत्पाद की गुणवत्ता कम करता है.

सार

सतत विकास लक्ष्यों के अंतर्गत भारत ने १) हर किस्म की गरीबी निवारण, २) सभी के लिए रोजगार के अवसर, ३) लिंग समानता को हांसिल करना है. इन सभी के लिए लघु वनउत्पाद एक महत्वपूर्ण साधन बन सकते है, यदि उपरोक्त मुद्दों पर अग्रिमता से कदम उठाये जाए.

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27 Comments on “[AW/GSM3] Art of Answer writing: Minor Forest Produce (MFP) significance & challenges for Tribal economy: Model Answers in English & Hindi”

  1. Best explanation. Thanks Mrunal sir! with love.

  2. Can we have it on daily basis like just 1 question on daily basis and by this way we’ll be able to cover 70 top class questions and their well researched and concise answers.. pllsss..

  3. Though it’s like asking too but can you please cover some important issues in question answer format especially for economics and governance portion……… it will be a great help mrunal Bhai.please give a thought to it.

  4. Can we have it on daily basis… plss…

  5. Sir When will you start videos on Budget and Economic Survey from Mains Perspective?
    Also sir do i need to watch your BES 17 series also for mains 2017 as you have talked about prelims in those videos.
    Reply Awaited and thanks in advance :)

  6. Sir….please explain…..difference between….examine, critically examine, discuss etc…..words for answer writting

  7. Guruji , Article print karne wala option restore kar dijiye. plz.

  8. Janaab, there is a reason that Mrunal Sir has deleted print option. He wants all of us to WRITE n not to print. So my advice, shut up n WRITE.

  9. Sir bahut shandar Hindi or English dono me.

  10. Mrunal Guruji

    When would u start video lecture coverage of Economic Survey 2016-17 Volume II released recently ?

    1. oct. ke first week bola hai sir ne

  11. Sir, please make some video lectures for mains 2017.

  12. THANKS SIR, KINDLY START IT ON DAILY BASIS.

  13. thanks sir …for hindi

  14. Can someone here provide service preference given in DAF.i dont hv any idea about services except top 5 ias ips ifs irs.plz suggest

  15. AT LEAST IF YOU CAN PROVIDE QUALITY QUESTIONS, THAT WOULD BE A GREAT HELP.

  16. Thank you for providing text based article. It is very helpful and less time consuming. ?More things can be covered in less time.

  17. please hindi aur nhi answer writing uplabdh karaye

  18. Thank you for the kind information. Regards

  19. why pdf download in chrome version is disabled..i am not able to download the important topics……….please do something…

  20. Sir the Answer on Minor forest produce is in 440 words….is it ok to go for long answer or cut it short to word limits

  21. Sir apfc 2018 ki vacancy exam date ka kuch clear hai kya

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