Non-sociology candidates can also do selective study of some of these files for GS, Essay, Interview preparation, depending on their time n mood (e.g. MPS 003 Democracy and Development, MSOE-003 Diaspora, ESO-16 Social problems of India).

  1. Prologue
  2. Essential (Free) softwares and instructions
  3. Download links
  4. INDEX IGNOU BA Sociology
    1. ESO-11: The Study of Society
    2. ESO-12 Society in India
    3. ESO-13 Sociological Thought
    4. ESO-14 Society and Stratification
    5. ESO-15 Society and Religion
    6. ESO-16 Social Problems in India
  5. Index IGNOU MA Sociology
    1. MPS-003 India Democracy and Development
    2. MSO-001 Sociological Theories and Concepts
    3. MSO-002 Research Methodologies and Methods
    4. MSO-003 Sociology of Development
    5. MSO-004 Sociology in India
    6. MSOE-001 Sociology of Education
    7. MSOE-002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities
    8. MSOE-003 Sociology of Religion
    9. MSOE-004 Urban Sociology
  6. Syllabus: UPSC Sociology (Mains) Paper 1
  7. Syllabus: UPSC Sociology (Mains) Paper 2


Internet contains lot of (legally) free and important study-material for various optional subjects of UPSC. This is my attempt to combine everything at once place for quick convenient download. This article contains download links following:

  1. IGNOU BA and MA Sociology (Direct download of whole sets/courses, no registration required)
  2. Last 34 years’ official UPSC mains question papers for Sociology (1979-2012)
  3. Topper Kshitij Tyagi (AIR 148/CSE 2011)’s handwritten notes for Sociology paper 1
  4. NCERT Sociology class 12 (Two books)
  5. NIOS study material for Sociology

Keep in mind that not everything covered under IGNOU BA/MA would be relevant for the given subject. For example, IGNOU MA Public Administration contains lengthy course on Human Resources, but majority of its chapters are not included in the UPSC’s Public Administration syllabus. Therefore, while preparing for optional subjects, whatever you study from IGNOU (or any book), always keep the UPSC syllabus in mind.

Essential (Free) softwares and instructions

  1. Majority of these PDF files provides direct copying of text. => That means you can use Mrunal’s autonotemaker to quickly make notes and mindmaps out of it, just use mouse curose to highlight a particular line /phrase and my software will copy copy its text in a separate file. for more instructions click me
  2. Foxit PDF reader. (necessary prerequisite for using Mrunal’s autonotemaker) click me
  3. 7-zip (for unzipping the files) click me

Download links

Material Download Link
NCERT Class 11: Introducing Sociology Click ME
NCERT Class 11: Understanding Society Click ME
NCERT Class 12 Sociology (Two Books) Click ME
NIOS Sociology Click ME
Kshitij Tyagi’s Notes for Sociology Paper I Click ME
Last 34 years’ official UPSC sociology papers (1979-2012) Click ME
IGNOU BA Sociology (English) Click ME
IGNOU MA Sociology (English) Click ME

Note: In case of IGNOU, the material is subdivided into courses, just double click on zip files and they’ll start downloading. The index of each course is given below. (That way even non-sociology candidates can also decide if they need any particular file that could help in their GS/Essay/Interview).
How to download


ESO11: The Study of Society

  1. Nature and Scope of Sociology
  2. Basic Concepts in Sociology
  3. Simple Societies
  4. Complex Societies
  5. Family
  6. Marriage
  7. Kinship
  8. Nature of Socialisation
  9. Agencies of Socialisation
  10. Processes of Education
  11. Educational Institutions
  12. Economy and Technology
  13. Production Processes
  14. Distribution Processes
  15. Consumption Pattern
  16. Stateless Societies
  17. State in Traditional Societies
  18. State in Modern Societies
  19. State and Other Institutions
  20. Religious Beliefs and Practices
  21. Culture I : Main Characteristics
  22. Culture II : Diversity and Change
  23. Values
  24. Norms
  25. Concepts of Social Structure
  26. Social Roles
  27. Social Networks
  28. Social Functions
  29. Social Stratification
  30. Social Control
  31. Social Deviance
  32. Social Conflict
  33. Social Change
  34. Social Development

ESO-12 Society in India

  1. Unity and Diversity
  2. Rural Social Structure
  3. Village and the Outside World
  4. Patterns of Urbanisation
  5. Urban Social Structure
  6. Family and its Types
  7. Marriage and its Changing Patterns
  8. Kinship-I
  9. Kinship-II
  10. Rural Economy
  11. Urban Economy
  12. Rural and Urban Poverty
  13. National Politics
  14. Regional and State Polities
  15. Hindu Social Organisation
  16. Muslim Social Organisation
  17. Christian Social Organisation
  18. Sikh Social Organization
  19. Zoroastrian Social Organisation
  20. Caste Structure and Regional Patterns
  21. Caste – Continuity and Change
  22. The Scheduled Castes
  23. Class in India
  24. Backward Classes
  25. Tribes Social Structure – I
  26. Tribes Social Structure-II
  27. Religion in Tribal Societies
  28. Tribes and Modernization in India
  29. Status of Women in India
  30. Women s movements in India
  31. Women and Work
  32. Women and Education
  33. Contemporary Women s Issues  Health and Legal Aspects
  34. Ethnic Relations and Conflicts
  35. Social Movements
  36. Development Planning and Change
  37. Ecology and the Future of Society

ESO-13 Sociological Thought

  1. Emergence Of Sociology In Europe
  2. Founding Fathers – I
  3. Founding Fathers-II
  4. History And Development Of Sociology In India -I
  5. History And Development Of Sociology In India – II
  6. Historical Materialism
  7. Forces, Relations and Modes of Production
  8. Class and Class Conflict
  9. Dialectics and Social Change
  10. Sociology as Science
  11. Comparative Method
  12. Collective Representations
  13. Forms of Social Solidarity
  14. Ideal Types
  15. Religion And Economy
  16. Power And Authority
  17. Rationality
  18. Methodology  Marx, Durkheim And Weber
  19. Religion  Durkheim And Weber
  20. Division of Labour — Durkheim And Marx
  21. Capitalism  Weber & Marx
  22. Concept of Culture and Function-Malinowski
  23. Magic, Science and Religion — Malinowski
  24. Concept of Social Structure Radcliffe
  25. Concept of Function -Radcliffe-Brown
  26. A Critique of Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown
  27. The Concept Of Social System — Parsons
  28. Functionalism And Social Change — Parsons
  29. Manifest And Latent Function — Merton
  30. Theory Of Reference Group — Merton
  31. Critique Of Parsons And Merton

ESO-14 Society and Stratification

  1. Social Stratification- Meaning and Approaches
  2. Approaches to Social Stratification
  3. Caste and Class in India
  4. Stratification- Implications of Gender and Ethnicity
  5. Marx and Weber
  6. Parsons and Davis
  7. Coser and Dahrendorf on Social Classes
  8. Theories of Stratification- Towards A Synthesis Lenski, Luhmann, Berghe
  9. Ethnicity as a Basis of Stratification
  10. Tribal Ethnicity- The North-East
  11. Religious Ethnicity- The Case of the Punjab
  12. Linguistic Ethnicity in India
  13. Gender as a Basis of Discrimination
  14. Formation of Gender Identities
  15. Gender Status and Power
  16. Women’s Empowerment- Some Illustrations
  17. The Basis of Caste Hierarchy- Purity and Pollution
  18. Dimensions of Caste- Rituals and Power
  19. Caste Identity- Attributional and Interactional Approaches
  20. Caste Dynamics- Economic and Political
  21. Status of Dalits
  22. Other Backward Classes
  23. Scheduled Tribes
  24. Marginalised Groups and Their Changing Status
  25. Agrarian Class Structure
  26. Industrial Classes
  27. Middle Classes in India
  28. Class Conflict
  29. Concepts and Forms of Social Mobility
  30. Social Mobility in Caste and Class
  31. Factors and Forces of Social Mobility
  32. Consequences of Social Mobility

ESO-15 Society and Religion

  1. Sociology and the Study of Religion
  2. Evolutionary Theories of Religion
  3. Functionalist Theories of Religion
  4. The Study of Religious Beliefs
  5. The Study of Religious Symbols
  6. Comparative Sociological Theories of Ritual
  7. Ritual-I- A Case Study from Africa
  8. Ritual-II- A Case Study from South-East Asia
  9. Civil Religion
  10. Religion and the Economic Order
  11. Religion and Politics/State
  12. Religious Organisations- Sects, Cults and Denominations
  13. Religious Specialists- Shamans, Priests and Prophets
  14. Religion- Social Stability and Change
  15. Fundamentalism- Some Case Studies
  16. Secularism and Secularisation
  17. Religious Pluralism in India- As Fact and Value
  18. Tribal Religion- Two Case Studies
  19. Hinduism
  20. Jainism and Buddhism
  21. Christianity
  22. Islam
  23. Sikhism
  24. Medieval Religious Movements I- Bhakti and Sufism
  25. Medieval Religious Movements I- Veerashaivism
  26. Modern Religious Movements II- Arya Samaj
  27. Modern Religious Movements II- Ramakrishna Mission
  28. Life Cycle Rituals-I- Birth and Marriage
  29. Life Cycle Rituals-II- Death
  30. Social Significance of Pilgrimages
  31. Social Significance of Religious Festivals
  32. Fundamentalism, Communalism and Secularism

ESO-16 Social Problems in India

  1. Social Transformation and Problems
  2. Approaches and Paradigms
  3. Social ProblemsThe Indian Context
  4. Social Demography
  5. Migration
  6. Urbanisation
  7. Changing Family Structure
  8. Unemployment
  9. Labour Industrial
  10. Labour Rural
  11. Labour Women
  12. Labour Children
  13. Poverty and its Social Dynamics
  14. Crime and Delinquency
  15. Drug Addiction and Alcoholism
  16. Violence and Terrorism
  17. Children
  18. Youth Identity And Alienation
  19. Women
  20. The Aged
  21. Scheduled Castes
  22. Scheduled Tribes
  23. Minorities
  24. Ethnicity
  25. Land Access, Control and Management
  26. Water Access, Control and Management
  27. Forests Access, Control and Management
  28. Role of the State and Other Associations


MPS-003 India Democracy and Development

  1. National Movement
  2. Development Models
  3. Constitution And Social Transformation
  4. Diversity
  5. Inequality
  6. Political Economy
  7. Economy-Structure And Growth
  8. Legislature
  9. Bureaucracy, Police, Army
  10. Judiciary
  11. Federalism
  12. Self Government
  13. Political Parties
  14. Workers And Peasents
  15. Media
  16. Interest Groups
  17. Caste, Regligion, Language
  18. Civil Society
  19. Human Development
  20. Gender
  21. Regional Imbalances
  22. Migration
  23. Environment
  24. Economic Reforms
  25. Religious Politics
  26. Ethnicity
  27. Democracy And Development-Assessment

MSO-001 Sociological Theories and Concepts

  1. Social Theory and its Context
  2. Concept and Theory
  3. Theory and Paradigm
  4. Social Construction of Reality
  5. Concept and Theories of Structure
  6. Structure and Function
  7. Structure, Function and Neo-Functionalism
  8. The Conceptual and Theoretical Issues of Power
  9. Class and Legitimacy
  10. Power- Functional Perspective
  11. Power and Institutions
  12. Power/Knowledge
  13. Evolution, Development and Function of Capitalism
  14. Rationality, Work and Organisation
  15. Entrepreneurship and Capitalism
  16. Freedom and Liberty
  17. Alienation
  18. Sovereignty
  19. State; Power as Elaborated by Marx, Weber, Parsons and Others
  20. Citizenship
  21. Civil Society and Democracy
  22. Conceptualising Ethnicity
  23. Construction of Identities
  24. Boundaries and Boundary Maintenance
  25. Concepts of Difference and Inequality
  26. Class
  27. Gender and Social Stratification
  28. Theories of Origin of Caste System
  29. Theories of Modernisation and Modernity
  30. Tradition and Modernity
  31. Post Structuralism and Post Modernism

MSO-002 Research Methodologies and Methods

  1. Logic of Inquiry in Social Research
  2. Empirical Approach
  3. Diverse Logic of Theory Building
  4. Theoretical Analysis
  5. Issues of Epistemology
  6. Philosophy of Social Science
  7. Positivism and its Critique
  8. Hermeneutics
  9. Comparative Method
  10. Feminist Approach
  11. Participatory Method
  12. Types of Research
  13. Methods of Research
  14. Elements of Research Design
  15. Sampling Methods and Estimation of Sample Size
  16. Measures of Central Tendency
  17. Measures of Dispersion and Variability
  18. Statistical Inference- Tests of Hypothesis
  19. Correlation and Regression
  20. Survey Method
  21. Survey Design
  22. Survey Instrumentation
  23. Survey Execution and Data Analysis
  24. Field Research – I
  25. Field Research – II
  26. Reliability, Validity and Triangulation
  27. Qualitative Data Formatting and Processing
  28. Writing up Qualitative Data
  29. Using Internet and Word Processor
  30. Using SPSS for Data Analysis Contents
  31. Using SPSS in Report Writing
  32. Tabulation and Graphic Presentation- Case Studies
  33. Guidelines to Research Project Assignment

MSO-003 Sociology of Development

  1. Development and Progress-Economic and Social Dimensions
  2. Change, Modernisation and Development
  3. Social, Human and Gender Development
  4. Sustainable Development
  5. Modernisation
  6. Liberal Perspective on Development
  7. Marxian Perspective on Development
  8. Gandhian Perspective on Development
  9. Dependency Theory of Underdevelopment
  10. Social and Human Development
  11. Gender Perspective on Development
  12. Micro-Planning
  13. Ecology, Environment and Development
  14. Ethno-Development
  15. Population and Development
  16. India
  17. Canada
  18. Zimbabwe
  19. Brazil
  20. Economic, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation
  21. Liberalisation and Structural Adjustment Programme
  22. Globalisation, Privatisation and Indigenous knowledge
  23. WTO, GATT, GATS- Capital and Human Flows
  24. Dimensions of Knowledge Society- Issues of Access and Equity
  25. Critique of Knowledge Society
  26. Changing Roles of Media and ICTs on Employment
  27. Dam and Displacement
  28. Green Peace Movement
  29. People Science Movement
  30. Civil Society Movements and Grassroots Initiatives

MSO-004 Sociology in India

  1. Social Background of the Emergence of Sociology in India
  2. Emergence of the Discipline -Issues and Themes
  3. Village Studies in India
  4. The Colonial Perspective
  5. Brahminical Perspective
  6. View from the Field
  7. Ambedkar and Lohia on Caste
  8. Census Perspective
  9. The Household and the Family
  10. The Household as a Cooperative—Conflicting Unit
  11. Marriage and Its Changing Patterns
  12. Descent and Alliance Approaches to the Study of Kinship in India
  13. Agrarian Classes and Categories
  14. The Working Class
  15. The Middle Class
  16. Gender, Caste and Class
  17. Tribe, Territory and Common Property Resources
  18. Tribe and Caste
  19. Elwin and Ghurye’s Perspectives on Tribes
  20. Social Differentiation among Tribes
  21. Religion and Politics
  22. Religion and Culture
  23. Cohesive and Divisive Dimensions of Religion
  24. Secularisation
  25. Urbanization
  26. Migration
  27. Industrialisation
  28. Globlisation
  29. Social Movements- Meanings and Dimensions
  30. Types of Social Movements
  31. Peasants Movements
  32. New Social Movements

MSOE-001 Sociology of Education

  1. The Concept of Education
  2. Theoretical Approaches
  3. Thinkers on Education- I
  4. Thinkers on Education- II
  5. Education Knowledge and Power
  6. Politics of Educational Curriculum
  7. Education, Nation-building, State and Ideology
  8. Education and Socialization
  9. Education and Social Change
  10. Education and Social Mobility
  11. Role of Education in Social and Human Development  Emerging Perspectives
  12. Role of Education for Empowerment of the Marginalized
  13. Education and the Policy of Positive Discrimination and Affirmative Action
  14. Education Pluralism and Multiculturalism
  15. Education in SAARC Countries Case Studies-1
  16. Education in Europe  Case Studies-2
  17. Education  Expansion and Growth
  18. Constitutional Provisions and Educational Policies in India
  19. Universalization of Elementarv Education
  20. Crises in lndian Higher Education
  21. Expansion of Professional Education and Private Sector
  22. WTO, GATS, ICTS and Higher Education
  23. Education  Social Commitment vs. Commodification
  24. Social and Philosophical Foundations of Open and Distance Learning
  25. Critical Issues in Open and Distance Learning
  26. ODL Problems and Prospects

MSOE-002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities

  1. Conceptual Understanding of Indian Diaspora and Transnational Studies
  2. Approaches to the Study of Indian Diaspora
  3. Diasporic Communities of the World
  4. Migration and Settlement of Indians Abroad
  5. Indian Emigration During Colonial Rule
  6. Post Independence Patterns of Migration
  7. Indians in the Carribean
  8. Indian Diaspora in Africa
  9. Indian Diaspora in South and South East Asia
  10. Indian Diaspora in Europe
  11. Indian Diaspora in the New World   North America
  12. Indians in Australia, New Zealand and Fiji
  13. Indian Diaspora in West Asia
  14. Immigration and Emigration Policies and their Implications
  15. lndian State and Diaspora
  16. Socio-Cultural Linkages Between lndian Diaspora
  17. lndian Diaspora-Homeland Linkages
  18. lndian Diaspora in Cyberspace
  19. Films
  20. Indian Diasporic Writing
  21. Popular Perception
  22. Identity, Nation-State and Diaspora
  23. Sub-National Identities and Diaspora
  24. Globalisation, Nationalism and Transnational Communities

MSOE-003 Sociology of Religion

  1. Religion – Sociological Perspectives
  2. Anthropological Approaches
  3. Historical and Comparative Approach
  5. Marxian Theory
  6. Durkheim and Functionalism
  7. Weber and the Question of Meaning
  8. M N Srinivas – The Coorgs
  9. Evans Pritchard- The Nuer
  10. T N Madan- Non- Renunciation
  11. Sudhir Kakar- Shamans, Mystics and Doctors
  12. Peter Berger- Phenomenology of Religion
  13. Clifford Geertz- Cultural Analysis
  14. Levi-Strauss– Totemism
  15. Sikhism
  16. Jainism and Buddhism
  17. Christianity
  18. Islam
  19. Hinduism
  20. Secularism and Secularization
  21. Communalism and Fundamentalism
  22. Religious Conversion
  23. Transcendental Meditation
  24. Hare Krishna Movement
  25. Radhasoami Satsang
  26. Sai baba of shirdi

MSOE-004 Urban Sociology

  1. What is Urban Sociology
  2. Urban Centre, Urbanisation and Urban Growth
  3. City and Metropolis
  4. Rural-Urban Continuum
  5. Invasion, Succession, Concentration, Centralization and Segregation
  6. Models of Urban Growth   Concentric Zones, Sectors, Multiple Nuclei, Explai tative, Syrn bolic
  7. Social Area Analysis and Recent Advances
  8. Ancient, Medieval and Colonial Cities  Case Studies
  9. Typologies of Cities
  10. Temporal Evolution of Ancient, Modern, Pre-Industrial and Industrial Cities
  11. Functional Classification of Cities Commercial, Administrative and Pilgrimage Towns
  12. Trends and Pattern of Urbanisation
  13. Development of Urban Sociology
  14. Urban Sociology in lndia
  15. Level, Trends and Patterns
  16. Marriage, Family and Kinship
  17. Traditional Neighbourhoods and Modern Cities
  18. Urban lnf luences on Rural Areas
  19. Formal Sector
  20. Urban Informal Sector
  21. Changing Occupational Structure and Impact of Economic Liberalization
  22. Poverty
  23. Slums
  24. Environment and Infrastructure
  25. Local Self Government and the Emergence of Voluntary Organisation
  26. Urban Planning
  27. Media and Urban Governance

Syllabus: UPSC Sociology (Mains) Paper 1

  1. Sociology – The Discipline:
    1. Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
    2. Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
    3. Sociology and common sense.
  2. Sociology as Science:
    1. Science, scientific method and critique.
    2. Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
    3. Positivism and its critique.
    4. Fact value and objectivity.
    5. Non- positivist methodologies.
  3. Research Methods and Analysis:
    1. Qualitative and quantitative methods.
    2. Techniques of data collection.
    3. Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
  4. Sociological Thinkers:
    1. Karl Marx
      1. Historical materialism
      2. mode of production
      3. alienation
      4. class struggle.
    2. Emile Durkheim
      1. Division of labour
      2. social fact
      3. suicide
      4. religion
      5. Society
    3. Max Weber
      1. Social action
      2. ideal types
      3. authority
      4. bureaucracy
      5. Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
    4. Talcolt Parsons
      1. Social system
      2. pattern variables.
    5. Robert K. Merton
      1. Latent and manifest functions
      2. conformity and deviance
      3. reference groups.
    6. Mead – Self and identity.
  5. Stratification and Mobility:
    1. Concepts
      1. equality
      2. inequality
      3. hierarchy
      4. exclusion
      5. poverty
      6. Deprivation
    2. Theories of social stratification
      1. Structural functionalist theory
      2. Marxist theory
      3. Weberian theory
    3. Dimensions
      1. Social stratification of class
      2. status groups
      3. gender
      4. ethnicity and race.
    4. Social mobility
      1. open and closed systems
      2. types of mobility
      3. Sources and causes of mobility.
  6. Works and Economic Life:
    1. Social organization of work in different types of society
      1. slave society,
      2. feudal society,
      3. industrial /capitalist society.
      4. Formal and informal organization of work.
      5. Labour and society.
  7. Politics and Society:
    1. Sociological theories of power.
    2. Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
    3. Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
    4. Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
  8. Religion and Society:
    1. Sociological theories of religion.
    2. Types of religious practices:
      1. animism
      2. monism
      3. pluralism
      4. sects
      5. cults.
    3. Religion in modern society
      1. religion and science
      2. secularization
      3. religious revivalism
      4. fundamentalism.
  9. Systems of Kinship:
    1. Family, household, marriage.
    2. Types and forms of family.
    3. Lineage and descent.
    4. Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
    5. Contemporary trends.
  10. Social Change in Modern Society:
    1. Sociological theories of social change.
    2. Development and dependency.
    3. Agents of social change.
    4. Education and social change.
    5. Science, technology and social change.

Syllabus: UPSC Sociology (Mains) Paper 2

#1: Introducing Indian Society:

  1. Perspectives on the study of Indian society:
    1. Indology (GS. Ghurye).
    2. Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
    3. Marxist sociology (A R Desai).
  2. Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
    1. Social background of Indian nationalism.
    2. Modernization of Indian tradition.
    3. Protests and movements during the colonial period.
    4. Social reforms.

#2: Social Structure

  1. Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
    1. The idea of Indian village and village studies.
    2. Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
  2. Caste System:
    1. Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GSGhurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
    2. Features of caste system.
    3. Untouchability – forms and perspectives.
  3. Tribal communities in India:
    1. Definitional problems.
    2. Geographical spread.
    3. Colonial policies and tribes.
    4. Issues of integration and autonomy.
  4. Social Classes in India:
    1. Agrarian class structure.
    2. Industrial class structure.
    3. Middle classes in India.
  5. Systems of Kinship in India:
    1. Lineage and descent in India.
    2. Types of kinship systems.
    3. Family and marriage in India.
    4. Household dimensions of the family.
    5. Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
  6. Religion and Society:
    1. Religious communities in India.
    2. Problems of religious minorities.

#3: Social Changes in India:

  1. Visions of Social Change in India:
    1. Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
    2. Constitution, law and social change.
    3. Education and social change.
  2. Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
    1. Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation
    2. schemes.
    3. Green revolution and social change.
    4. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
    5. Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
  3. Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
    1. Evolution of modern industry in India.
    2. Growth of urban settlements in India.
    3. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
    4. Informal sector, child labour.
    5. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
  4. Politics and Society:
    1. Nation, democracy and citizenship.
    2. Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
    3. Regionalism and decentralization of power.
    4. Secularization.
  5. Social Movements in Modern India:
    1. Peasants and farmers movements.
    2. Women’s movement.
    3. Backward classes & Dalit movement.
    4. Environmental movements.
    5. Ethnicity and Identity movements.
  6. Population Dynamics:
    1. Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
    2. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
    3. Population policy and family planning.
    4. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
  7. Challenges of Social Transformation:
    1. Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
    2. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
    3. Violence against women.
    4. Caste conflicts.
    5. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
    6. Illiteracy and disparities in education.

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