[Model Answer] UPSC GSM3-2018/Q11: How principles of NITI Aayog different from Planning Commission? (15 marks) incl. HINDI ANSWER

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  1. Prologue
  2. Question in UPSC Mains GSM3-2018
  3. Brainstorming
  4. Introduction (Origin of organizations)
  5. Conclusion (summarize & appreciate NITI)
  6. Mistakes/Pitfalls
  7. Model Answer in Hindi

Prologue

  • I have been publishing model answers for the previous UPSC mains question papers, at https://mrunal.org/mains
  • Until now I had published the first ten questions of the 2018’s GS mains paper 3,  so, now  continuing forward with the 11th question:

Question in UPSC Mains GSM3-2018

Q. How are the principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile Planning Commission in India? (Asked in 250 words, 15 marks, GSM3-2018)

भारत में नीति आयोग द्वारा अनुसरण किए जा रहे सिद्धांत इससे पूर्व के योजना आयोग द्वारा अनुसरित सिद्धांतो से किस प्रकार भिन्न है?

Brainstorming

NITI Aayog versus Planning Commission

  • Since the question is about organisations, we can give their origin. Observe the wording of the question you will see that spotlight is on “Niti Aayog” and therefore it is more apt to  give the origin of Niti Aayog.
  • However, because the word limit is 250 words so we should also give the introduction of planning commission just to pad up the answer. If it was a 125 words question, then only Niti Aayog origin would have sufficed without giving the origin of Planning Commission.
  • In the body, we can write about how they differ in their work principles while keeping the spotlight on NITI without excessive criticism of Planning Commission.
  • And finally, we can make a summary type conclusion that “in above manners, NITI differs from PC.”

Introduction (Origin of organizations)

  • (Origin PC & NITI) Inspired from the USSR / Soviet Model, PM Nehru had established a Planning Commission in 1950 to design the five year plans for India. In 2015, it was replaced by a new organisation named National Institution for Transforming India (NITI)  by PM Modi.
  • The principles followed by these two organisations differ from each other in the following dimensions:

Mrunal Comments:  It is desirable that you give the full form of Niti Aayog when you mention it for the first time. You should also remember foundation years of both organizations. If you want to pad up the answer you can further use adjectives like neither of them is Constitutional or statutory. But care should be taken this question is not about describing their organizational structure, but about their working principles. Don’t use ‘PC’ as an abbreviation for Planning Commission, because that’s not the officially recognized abbreviation.

Body: Cooperative federalism

NITI Aayog has regularly constituted committee of State Chief Minister(s) to examine important issues such as:

  • 2015: Restructuring of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS, Shivraj Singh Chauhan, the then Madhya Pradesh CM)
  • 2016: Digital Payment (Chandrababu Naidu, the then Andhra CM),
  • 2019: Transforming Indian agriculture (Devendra Fadnavis, Maharashtra CM).

The involvement of chief ministers in the planning process of India improves the spirit of cooperative federalism and participatory planning. Whereas committees of the Planning Commission were usually headed by union ministers or technocrates.

Mrunal Comments: 

  1. I have given names of the chief ministers for illustration. In the exam you are not required to mention it.
  2. Since I mentioned the CSS for the first time, its full form was required.
  3. Our approach is to show how many NITI is different in an appreciated tone, but, there is no need to bash / criticize the planning commission. It’s sufficient to say,  planning commissions committee is headed by Union Ministers and technocrates you don’t have to explicitly add that has “thus, Planning Commission’s approach was not conducive to cooperative federalism.”
  4. PC is a non-human body so instead of writing ‘Planning Commission’s committees’, you should write ‘Committees of the Planning Commission

Body: Competitive federalism

NITI Aayog has prepared online dashboards to rank the states on various indicators of development such as

  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index: Where the states are classified into Aspirant, Performer, Front Runner, and Achiever category depending on their progress.
  • Similarly, it has prepared Health Index, School Education Quality Index, Digital Transformation Index etc.
  • 2018: NITI Aayog launched Aspirational District Programs for monitoring the progress of backward districts on 49 key performance indicators (KPIs) related to health, nutrition, education, agriculture, water resources, financial inclusion, skill development, infrastructure etc.
  • Ordinary citizens, journalists, opposition parties and researchers can easily access such online indices and thereby it increases the accountability of the state governments in terms of funding vs progress. Such indices also brings out the competitive nature of federalism because of the ranking among the states.

While planning commission also released the state-wise data related to number of people below the poverty line (BPL), infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality ratio (MMR) etc. But the nature of ranking, performance measurement and simplified presentation for the ordinary people was missing.

Mrunal Comments:

  1. Avoid Planning Commission bashing  with extreme words like “Planning Commission never released any data.” Yes they released the data but the nature of presentation did not encourage competitive federalism.
  2. I have given the examples of indices  for illustration in real exam you can compress the examples
  3. Observe the full forms for SDG, IMR and MMR because they’re mentioned for the first time.
  4. Notice that IMR is a rate whereas MMR is a ratio. Plural of Index is ‘Indices’. You should be conscious of such small things because evaluator-professors sometimes tend to be pedantic (ज़रूरत से ज़्यादा पंडिताऊ/ नुक्स निकालने वाले.) about such terms and it irritates them a lot, when they see a student making mistake.

Body: Strategic Disinvestment / Privatization

  • Strategic Disinvestment  means the selling Government shareholding to such proportions that private entity gets the managing control of the company. NITI Aayog suggested strategic disinvestment  of many sick / loss making Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) such as Air India, Pawan Hans Helicopter, Scooters India etc.
  • Since Planning Commission was formed with the ideals of NehruvianSocialism, it ordinarily did not advocate for privatisation but rather revival for the sick CPSEs.

Mrunal Comments:

  1. Observe the full form of CPSE given because we are using the term for the first time. Then in the last sentence only CPSE abbreviation will suffice.
  2. Here you don’t have to go into the merits / demerits of privatization versus revival of a sick industry. Because that is not the question. Question is simply to highlight how the approach of Niti Aayog was different from Planning Commission.
  3. You also do not have to criticise Planning Commission that since it did not advocate the privatization of Air India so lot of public money was lost in this loss making airline.

Body: Nutritional security not just food security

  • NITI ViceChairman is the head of the National Council for POSHAN Abhiyaan.  POSHAN Abhiyaan aims to make India malnutrition free India by 2022 with focus on pregnant women, mothers and children;  Food Fortification with Vitamins & Micronutrients, advocacy for dietdiversity.
  • Whereas Planning Commission’s focus had largely been on food security in terms of ‘calorie security’ through selling of subsidized foodgrains to poor families.

Mrunal Comments:

Observe the moderate phrase ‘focus had largely been on food security’ instead of saying ‘‘focus had been completely on food security only’ Because even the Congress government had launched SABLA  and other programs for nutritional needs of the adolescent girls and women But in terms of specific targets and deadlines, they were rather vague than POSHAN.

Body: NITI is Think-Tank not a mere Planner

As a ‘think-tank’, Niti Aayog has helped the government

  1. In framing various policies on clean energy, methanol based economy, infrastructure human development etc.
  2. In framing various bills and model acts on agricultural land leasing, livestock selling etc.
  3. In framing the Output Outcome Monitoring Framework to monitor the implementation of Govt schemes.
  4. It suggested price deficiency payments to reform the agriculture minimum support price (MSP) mechanism. Government has implemented this through PM-AASHA scheme.
  5. In framing 3 years Action Agenda (2017 to 2019-20). NITI Aayog is also working on Seven Year Strategy and Fifteen Year Vision documents.

In contrast, Planning Commission confined itself mainly to the formation of Five Year Plans.

Mrunal Comments:

  1. MSP full form
  2. Again keep your spotlight on the Niti Aayog instead of criticizing Planning Commission that it did not give any output monitoring Framework for the government schemes,  which resulted into launching of truckload of schemes after schemes without any substantial progress on the poverty removal etc.

Body: Openness & Interactivity

  • NITI Aayog regularly organizes seminars, workshops, conferences for idea exchange with industries and academicians.
  • In comparison, the Planning Commission was more of a ‘closed / introvert / bureaucratic body’ (अंतर्मुखी) in terms of interaction with outsiders.

Body: Catalyst for Innovation and Startups

  • NITI runs Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and SETU to help startups. NITI is developing National Program on Artificial Intelligence.
  • While the Planning Commission also advocated ICT, eGovernance and technological innovations,  but its focus area had been mostly confined to the public administration part, instead of the economy and Startup ecosystem.

Mrunal Comments:

  • Observe i’ve not written “PC didnot encourage innovation.” avoid extreme words. Answer should not be about bashing PC, but keeping spotlight on NITI.
  • Anyways, these are more than sufficient points, in real exam not possible to recollect all points so it’ll automatically compress down to 250 words.

Conclusion (summarize & appreciate NITI)

From the aforementioned points, it is evident that

  1. NITI’s approach is more modernised, forward-looking, less bureaucratic  and less status-quo oriented than the erstwhile Planning Commission.
  2. With such initiatives, NITI Aayog is playing a pivotal role of a think-tank for economic growth, human development and good governance in India.

Mistakes/Pitfalls

  1. As I repeatedly mention in the body-comments, spotlight should be on appreciating Niti Aayog but not on bashing or criticizing the Planning Commission. Your paper may get evaluated by some professor who may have been a part of some committee of Planning Commission in the past. He may get very educated agitated by reading such criticism.
  2. In the conclusion appreciate the Niti Aayog in general terms without the tones of “Modi-Bhakti” in it like “It is the most significant step taken in the history of India,  NITI Aayog is going to completely  eliminate the poverty by 2030, Planning Commission had deprived India of its economic growth opportunity, Niti Aayog is the right step in undoing that historical injustice” etc.
  3. “Prime Minister is the chairman in both organizations, while  day-to-day administration is looked after by Dy. Chairman / Vice Chairman”.  but here the question is how their working principle differ you are not asked to identify how their organisational structure is similar or different.

Model Answer in Hindi

प्रस्तावना  (योजना आयोग एवं नीति आयोग का उद्भव)-

  • यू० एस ०एस० आर० / सोवियत मॉडल से प्रभावित प्रधानमंत्री नेहरू द्वारा भारत में पंचवर्षीय योजनाओं की रूपरेखा तैयार करने के उद्देश्य से योजना आयोग की स्थापना 1950 में की गई।प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी द्वारा वर्ष 2015 में  इसे ‘राष्ट्रीय भारत परिवर्तन संस्था’ द्वारा विस्थापित किया गया।
  • दोनों ही संस्थान सिद्धांतों के आधार पर निम्नलिखित आयामों पर भिन्नता रखते हैं:-

सहकारी संघवाद

नीति आयोग नियमित तौर पर राज्य मुख्यमंत्रियों की समिति को महत्वपूर्ण मुद्दों की समीक्षा हेतु गठित करता है,  जैसे की:-

  • 2015 में –  केंद्र द्वारा प्रायोजित होने वाली योजनाओं की पुनर्संरचना हेतु (मध्य प्रदेश के तत्कालीन मुख्यमंत्री शिवराज सिंह चौहान की अध्यक्षता में)
  • 2016 में – डिजिटल भुगतान हेतु (आंध्र प्रदेश के तत्कालीन मुख्यमंत्री चंद्रबाबू नायडू की अध्यक्षता में)
  • 2019 में-  भारतीय कृषि के रूपांतरण में (महाराष्ट्र के तत्कालीन मुख्यमंत्री श्री देवेंद्र फडणवीस के अध्यक्षता में)

मुख्यमंत्रियों की योजना निर्माण की प्रक्रिया में भागीदारी, सहकारी संघवाद एवं सहयोगात्मक योजना के सिद्धांत को मजबूत करता है जबकि योजना आयोग के संदर्भ में इस प्रकार की समितियों का गठन केंद्रीय मंत्रियों या विशेषज्ञों की अध्यक्षता में किया जाता था।

प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक संघवाद

नीति आयोग द्वारा ऑनलाइन डैशबोर्ड तैयार किए गए हैं, जिनमें राज्यों को उनके विकास के विभिन्न संकेतको के आधार पर रैंकिंग दी गई है। जैसे की:

  • भारत की सतत विकास लक्ष्य सूचकांक- इसमें राज्यों को विविध श्रेणियों में उनकी प्रगति के आधार पर वर्गीकृत किया गया है।
  • इसी प्रकार स्वास्थ्य सूचकांक, स्कूली शिक्षा गुणवत्ता सूचकांक, डिजिटल ट्रांसफॉरमेशन सूचकांक इत्यादि भी नीति आयोग द्वारा ही जारी किए जाते हैं।
  • वर्ष 2018 में  नीति आयोग द्वारा आकांक्षी जिला कार्यक्रम की शुरुआत की गई, जिसमे पिछड़े जिलों की स्वास्थ्य, पोषण, शिक्षा, कृषि, जल संसाधन, वित्तीय समावेशन, कौशल विकास, अवसंरचना इत्यादि 49 मुख्य निष्पादन संकेतको (KPI) के अनुसंधान में निगरानी की जा रही है।
  • सामान्य नागरिक, पत्रकार, विपक्षी राजनीतिक दलों एवं शोधकर्ताओं इन सूचकांकों को आसानी से वेबसाइट पर देख सकते है. यह राज्य सरकारों की “लागत बनाम विकास” के संदर्भ में उनके उत्तरदायित्व को बढ़ा देते है. तथा, ऐसे सूचकांक राज्यों को रैंकिंग प्रदान करते हुए प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक संघवाद को सामने लाते हैं।
  • यधपि योजना आयोग भी राज्य-वार गरीबी रेखा, शिशु मृत्यु दर, मातृ मृत्यु दर जैसे आंकड़े प्रदर्शित करता था, परंतु रैंकिंग प्रदर्शन  एवं सामान्य व्यक्ति के समझने योग्य प्रदर्शन की प्रकृति का सरल तरीका अनुपलब्ध था।

सामरिक विनिवेश / निजीकरण

  • सामरिक विनिवेश का तात्पर्य यह है की सरकारी कंपनीओ  में सरकार की हिस्सेदारी को इतना कम कर देना, ताकि प्रबंधन का पूर्ण नियंत्रण निजी क्षेत्र के हाथ में चला जाए।
  • नीति आयोग द्वारा घाटे में जा रही या आर्थिक रूप से बीमार कई लोक उपक्रमों (जैसे एयर इंडिया,पवन हंस हेलीकॉप्टर, स्कूटर इंडिया इत्यादि) को सामरिक विनिवेश हेतु लाने का सुझाव दिया गया है।
  • जबकि योजना आयोग नेहरू के समाजवाद की उपज थी। इसने सामान्यत: निजीकरण का पक्ष नहीं लिया बल्कि आर्थिक रूप से बीमार केंद्रीय लोक उपक्रमों को पुनर्जीवित करने की सलाह दी।

पोषण सुरक्षा, ना  केवल खाद्य सुरक्षा

  • नीति आयोग के उपाध्यक्ष राष्ट्रीय पोषण अभियान परिषद के प्रमुख है। पोषण अभियान का उद्देश्य वर्ष 2022 तक भारत को कुपोषण मुक्त करना है एवं इसका मुख्य लक्ष्य गर्भवती महिलाएं, माताएं एवं बच्चे है. यह पोषण अभियान  विटामिन एवं माइक्रोन्यूट्रिएंट्स से पूरक खाद्य सामग्री एवं संतुलित आहार में विविधता लाने के लिए प्रयत्नशील है.
  • जबकि योजना आयोग की खाद्य सुरक्षा  मुख्यत:  “कैलोरी सुरक्षा” के इर्दगिर्द घूमती थी, जिसके अंतर्गत गरीब परिवारों को कम दर पर अनाज को उपलब्ध कराया जाता था।

नीति आयोग एक विचार मंच है ना कि एक योजनाकार

एक विचार मंच के रूप में नीति आयोग ने सरकार को  निम्न प्रकार से सहायता की है:

  1. स्वच्छ ऊर्जा, मेथेनॉल आधारित अर्थव्यवस्था, अवसंरचना एवं मानव संसाधन के विकास हेतु नीतियां बनाना,
  2. कृषि भूमि को पट्टे पर देना, पशुधन की बिक्री जैसे मुद्दों पर अधिनियम और राज्यों के लिए मॉडल बिल का आधारभूत ढांचा तैयार करना |
  3. सरकारी योजनाओं के कार्यान्वयन को सुनिश्चित करने हेतु निगरानी तंत्र को तैयार करना।
  4. इसके द्वारा ‘मूल्य न्यूनता भुगतान’ का सुझाव दिया गया था जिसके द्वारा कृषि हेतु न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य में सुधार किया गया। सरकार द्वारा इसे पीएम आशा योजना द्वारा कार्यान्वित किया जा रहा है।
  5. नीति आयोगने  3 साल के कार्यवृत्त (2017 से 2019-20) को तैयार किया है । आयोग में 7 वर्ष की रणनीति एवं 15 वर्ष के दूरदर्शी उद्देश्य पर भी कार्य कर रहा है।

जबकि, योजना आयोग ज्यादातर स्वयं  को केवल पंचवर्षीय योजनाओं को बनाने तक ही सीमित रखता था।

खुलापन और  विचार-विमर्श

  • नीति आयोग द्वारा नियमित रूप से सम्मेलनों, कार्यशालाओं, सेमिनारों (संगोष्ठीयों) का आयोजन किया जाता है ताकि उद्योगपतियों एवं अकादमिक सदस्यों के साथ विचारों का आदानप्रदान हो सके।
  • बाहरी लोगों से साथ इसप्रकार के पारस्परिक संवाद के संदर्भ में देखा जाए तो योजना आयोग नीति आयोगसापेक्ष में बहुत ही बंद / अंतर्मुखी एवं नौकरशाही रवैये वाली संस्था प्रतीत होती है।

नवाचार एवं स्टार्टअप

  • अटल नवाचार मिशन एवं सेतु योजनाओ द्वारा नीति आयोग स्टार्टअप  की मदद कर रहा है।
  • नीति आयोग कृत्रिम आसूचना के राष्ट्रीय कार्यक्रम पर भी कार्यरत है।

जबकि योजना आयोग सूचना एवं संचार तकनीकी (आई.सी.टी.), ई-गवर्नेंस एवं तकनीकी  में नवाचार को प्रोत्साहित करता था लेकिन इसका मुख्य केंद्र अर्थव्यवस्था और स्टार्ट अप परितंत्र के स्थान पर ‘लोक प्रशासन’ तक ही सीमित था।

उपसंहार

उपरोक्त बिंदुवार तर्कों के आधार पर यह स्पष्ट है कि

  • नीति आयोग अधिक दूरदर्शी एवं आधुनिक है |
  • नीति आयोग योजना आयोग के विपरीत यथापूर्व स्थिति में कम रहने वाला तथा नौकरशाही द्वारा कम हावी है।
  • अपनी नई पहल से नीति आयोग एक वैचारिक मंच की भूमिका निभा रहा है जो,भारत जैसे देश के लिए आर्थिक संवृद्धि, मानव संसाधन एवं सुशासन के क्षेत्र में प्रकाशपुंज साबित होगी।

Visit Mrunal.org/Mains for more on the Art of Answer-Writing.

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7 Comments on “[Model Answer] UPSC GSM3-2018/Q11: How principles of NITI Aayog different from Planning Commission? (15 marks) incl. HINDI ANSWER”

  1. Thanks a lot for such an explanation.

  2. Sir, I am preparing IAS without coaching. Suggest me appropriate path to this journey.

  3. Thank you, sir. It’s really good to see that you r still active on your own site. You are a real teacher. I n many like me still follow mrunal.org.

  4. Sir this is a gud move. . .i request pls keep the hindi medium continue. . .i was waiting for this from long time

  5. हिंदी Answer vदेने के लिए बहुत बहुत धन्यवाद sir

    1. Thank you sir for putting things in simple language

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