1. Prologue
  2. [Block-1] Polity
    1. Polity: Basics of Constitution & Comparing Constitution
    2. Polity: The Executive
    3. Polity: Legislature & Elections
    4. Polity: Separation of Powers
    5. Polity: Federalism & Local governance
    6. Polity: Bodies
  3. [Block-2] Welfare Schemes & Policies for sectors, services
    1. Welfare: Policies & Schemes, Poverty Hunger
    2. Welfare: Social Services: Health, Edu, HRD
    3. Welfare: Sectoral Policies (Economy related)
  4. [Block-3] Governance & groups
    1. Governance: Accountability & E-Gov
    2. Groups: Civil Services, NGO, SHG, Pressure Groups
  5. [Block-4] IR Diplomacy
    1. IR/Diplomacy: Neighbors
    2. IR/Diplomacy: Not-Neighbors but affecting interests
    3. IR/Diplomacy: Institutions, Groupings, Agreements
    4. Appendix: Linear Paper GSM2-2022
    5. Appendix: Model Answer pe Free Lecture & Powerpoint
    6. Appendix: Syllabus of UPSC Mains-GSM2 General Studies Paper2

Prologue

In 2013, UPSC changed the syllabus-pattern of Mains examination and the number of general studies (GS) papers were increased from two to four. Out of them, GS Paper-2 deals with Polity, Governance, Welfare and International-Relations (IR).

Category GSM2 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Polity Basic Str. 10 12.5 37.5 12.5 15 10 15 0 10 10
Polity Comparing 0 0 0 0 0 15 10 10 15 15
Polity Executive 10 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Polity Legislature & Elections 10 12.5 0 12.5 40 20 30 35 30 30
Polity Separation of Power 10 12.5 12.5 12.5 10 15 20 15 20 25
Polity Fed-Local 30 12.5 25 37.5 10 30 15 40 25 25
Polity Bodies 20 25 25 25 15 25 25 15 15 10
Welfare Welfare &
Protection
20 25 0 0 10 10 15 0 25 10
Welfare Poverty &
Hunger
10 0 12.5 0 25 30 10 30 0 25
Welfare Edu,Health,HDI 20 25 25 37.5 10 10 10 25 10 15
Welfare Eco.Reform 0 12.5 0 12.5 15 10 30 0 0 10
Governance Accountability & E-Gov 20 0 25 25 10 25 10 20 15 0
Governance NGO,Pressure,IAS 20 25 37.5 25 40 0 10 10 35 15
IR Neighbours 50 12.5 25 12.5 10 0 0 0 25 10
IR Non-Neighbours
& Diaspora
10 0 12.5 12.5 30 25 40 25 10 0
IR Inst., Group,
Agreements
10 50 12.5 25 10 25 10 25 15 40

[Block-1] Polity

Polity: Basics of Constitution & Comparing Constitution

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Historical underpinnings & evolution; Features, amendments, significant provisions, basic structure; Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with other countries’

Right of movement and residence throughout the territory of India are freely available to the Indian citizens, but these rights are not absolute. Comment(“भारत के सम्पूर्ण क्षेत्र में निवास करने और विचरण करने का अधिकार स्वतंत्र रूप से सभी भारतीय नागरिकों को उपलब्ध है, किन्तु ये अधिकार असीम नहीं हैं।” टिप्पणी कीजिए । (150 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए))) 2022
Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected.(भारत और फ्रांस के राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचित होने की प्रक्रिया का आलोचनात्मक परीक्षण कीजिए । ) 2022
Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Right to Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India. (250 words) [संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका और भारत संविदानों में, समता के अधिकार की धारणा की विशिष्ट विशेषताओं का विश्लेषण कीजिए। ] 2021
‘Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. (150 words) [‘संवैधानिक नैतिकता’ की जड़ संविधान में ही निहित है और इसके तात्विक फलकों पर आधारित है। ‘संवैधानिक नैतिकता’ के सिध्दांत की प्रासंगिक न्यायिक निर्णयों की सहायता से विवेचना कीजिए। 2021
(COMPARING Constitution) The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. (हाल के समय में भारत और यु. के. की न्यायिक व्यवस्थाएं अभिसरणीय एवं अपसरणीय होती प्रतीत हो रही है l दोनों राष्ट्रों की न्यायिक कार्यप्रणालियों के आलोक में अभिसरण तथा अपसरण के मुख्या बिंदुओं को आलोकित कीजिए l) 2020
“Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its amending power? (“संविधान का संशोधन करने की संसद की शक्ति एक परिसीमित शक्ति है और इसे आत्यंतिक शक्ति के रूप में विस्तृत नहीं किया जा सकता है |” इस कथन के आलोक में व्याख्या कीजिए की क्या संसद संविधान के अनुछेद 368 के अंतर्गत अपनी संशोधन की शक्ति का विशदीकरण करके संविधान के मूल ढांचे को नष्ट कर सकती है ?) (15m 250 words) 2019
(COMPARING Constitution) What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism?(धर्मनिरपेक्षता को भारत के संविधान के उपागम से फ्रांस क्या सिख सकता है ? )(10m 150 words) 2019
(COMPARING Constitution) India and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenants on which the two political systems are based. 2018
Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? 2018
Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy. 2017
Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the preamble. Are they defendable in the present circumstances stances? 2016
Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizens a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy. 2015
Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard. 2015
Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulations on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution and Judgement(s) of the Apex Court in this regard. 2015
What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss. 2014
Discuss Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution. 2013

Polity: The Executive

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Executive (structure, organization, functioning);
  • Ministries and Departments (of Union and State govts.)
Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha:(राज्य सभा के सभापति के रूप में भारत के उप-राष्ट्रपति की भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए ) 2022
Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse. 2014
The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far the efficacy of a government then is inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss. 2014

Polity: Legislature & Elections

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein);
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
Discuss the procedures to decide the disputes arising out of the election of a Member of the Parliament or State Legislature under The Representation of the People Act, 1951. What are the grounds on which the election of any returned candidate may be declared void? What remedy is available to the aggrieved party against the decision? Refer to the case laws. (लोक प्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम, 1951 के अन्तर्गत संसद अथवा राज्य विधायिका के सदस्यों के चुनाव से उभरे विवादों के निर्णय की प्रक्रिया का विवेचन कीजिए। किन आधारों पर किसी निर्वाचित घोषित प्रत्याशी के निर्वाचन को शून्य घोषित किया जा सकता है ? इस निर्णय के विरुद्ध पीड़ित पक्ष को कौन-सा उपचार उपलब्ध है ? वाद विधियों का सन्दर्भ दीजिए। ) 2022
Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct.(आदर्श आचार-संहिता के उद्भव के आलोक में, भारत के निर्वाचन आयोग की भूमिका का विवेचन कीजिए। 15 ) 2022
Explain the constitutional provisions under which Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations. (250 words) [उन संवैधानिक प्रावधानों को समझाइए जिनके अंतर्गत विधान-परिषदें स्थापित होती हैं। उपयुक्त उदाहरणों के साथ विद्वान-परिषदों के कार्य और वर्तमान स्थिति का मूल्यांकन कीजिए। ] 2021
Do Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. [क्या विभागों से संबंधित संसदीय स्थायी समितियाँ प्रशासन को अपने उँगलियों पर रखती हैं और संसदीय नियंत्रण के लिए सम्मान-प्रदर्शन हेतु प्रेरित करती हैं ? उपयुक्त उदाहरणों के साथ ऐसी समितियों के कार्यों का मूल्यांकन कीजिए।] (250 words) 2021
‘Once a Speaker, Always a Speaker’! Do you think this practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India? (‘एकदा स्पीकर, सदैव स्पीकर’! क्या आपके विचार अध्यक्ष पद की निष्पक्षता के लिए इस कार्यप्रणाली को स्वीकारना चाहिए? भारत में संसदीय प्रयोजन की सुदृढ़ कार्यशैली के लिए इसके क्या परिणाम हो सकते हैं?) 2020
“There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of Peoples Act”. Comment. (“लोक प्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम के अंतर्गत भ्रष्ट आचरण के दोषी व्यक्तिओं को आयोग ठहराने की प्रक्रिया के सरलीकरण की आवश्यकता है” l टिप्पणी कीजिए l) 2020
Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible. (विगत कुछ दशकों में राज्य सभा एक ‘उपयोगहीन स्टैपनी टायर’ से सर्वाधिक उपयोगी सहायक अंग में रूपांतरित हुआ है l उन कारकों तथा कसेहतरों को आलोकित कीजिए जहाँ यह रूपांतरण दृष्टिगत हो सकता है l) 2020
Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss. (राष्ट्रीय विधि निर्माता के रूप में अकेले एक संसद-सदस्य की भूमिका अवनति की और है, जिसके फलस्वरूप वादविवादों की गुणता और उनके परिणामों पर प्रतिकूल प्रभाव पड़ भी चूका है | चर्चा कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification. (किन आधारों पर किसी लोक प्रतिनिधि को, लोक प्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम, 1951 के अधीन निरर्हित किया जा सकता है ? उन उपचारों का भी उल्लेख कीजिए जो ऐसे निरर्हित व्यक्ति को अपनी निरर्हिता के विरुद्ध उपलब्ध हैं | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work?  Discuss, in this context, the role or the Estimates Committee. 2018
In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? 2018
‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss. 2017
To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful? 2017
The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof. 2017
The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss. 2016
The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed? 2014
The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law, which was legislated but with a different intention? 2013

Polity: Separation of Powers

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Separation of Powers (between different organs, dispute redressal mechanisms, institutions);
  • Judiciary (structure, organisation functioning)
The most significant achievement of modern law in India in the constitutionalization of environmental problems by the Supreme Court. Discuss this statement with the help of relevant case laws.(“भारत में आधुनिक कानून की सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण उपलब्धि सर्वोच्च न्यायालय द्वारा पर्यावरणीय समस्याओं का संविधानीकरण है ।” सुसंगत वाद विधियों की सहायता से इस कवन की विवेचना कीजिए) 2022
Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature.(राज्यपाल द्वारा विधायी शक्तियों के प्रयोग की आवश्यक शर्तों का विवेचन कीजिए । विधायिका के समक्ष रखे बिना राज्यपाल द्वारा अध्यादेशों के पुनःप्रख्यापन की वैधता की विवेचना कीजिए । ) 2022
Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness.(150 words) [विविधता, समता और समावेशिता सुनिश्चित करने के लिए उच्चतर न्यायपालिका में महिलाओं के प्रतिनिधित्व को बढ़ाने की वांछनियता पर चर्चा कीजिए।] 2021
To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India? (150 words) [आपकी दृष्टि में, भारत में कार्यपालिका की जवाबदेही को निश्चित करने में संसद कहाँ तक समर्थ है ?] 2021
Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. (न्यायिक विधायन, बहरतीय संविधान में परिकल्पित शक्ति पृथक्करण सिद्धांत का प्रतिपक्षी है l इस संदर्भ में कार्यपालक अधिकरणों को दिशा-निर्देश देने की प्रार्थना करने सम्बन्धी, बड़ी संख्या में दायर होने वाली, लोक हित याचिकाओं का न्याय औचित्य सिद्ध कीजिये l) 2020
Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain. (क्या आपके विचार में भारत का संविधान शक्तियों के कठोर पृथक्करण के सिध्दान्त को स्वीकार नहीं करता है, बल्कि यह ‘नियंत्रण एवं संतुलन’ के सिध्दान्त पर आधारित है ? व्याख्या कीजिए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain. (न्यायालयों के द्वारा विधायी शक्तियों के वितरण से सम्बंधित मुद्दों को सुलझाने से, ‘परिसंघीय सर्वोच्चता का सिध्दान्त’ और ‘समरस अर्थान्वयन’ उभर कर आए हैं | स्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. 2018
Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. 2017
What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution? 2016
Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of powers doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances, analyze whether the decisions of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate ordinances be repealed? 2015
Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. 2014
The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution. Discuss critically. 2013

Polity: Federalism & Local governance

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Functions & responsibilities of the Union and the States; issues and challenges of federal structure;
  • Devolution of powers and finances to local levels; challenges therein.
To what extent, in your opinion, has the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots ?(आपकी राय में, भारत में शक्ति के विकेन्द्रीकरण ने जमीनी स्तर पर शासन-परिदृश्य को किस सीमा तक परिवर्तित किया है ? (150 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए)) 2022
While the national political parties in India favour centralisation, the regional parties are in favour of State autonomy. Comment.(“भारत में राष्ट्रीय राजनैतिक दल केन्द्रीयकरण के पक्ष में हैं, जबकि क्षेत्रीय दल राज्य स्वायत्तता के पक्ष में ।” टिप्पणी कीजिए। ) 2022
How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position? (150 words) [भारत के 14वें वित्त आयोग की संस्तुतियों ने राज्यों को अपनी राजकोषीय स्थिति सुधारने में कैसे सक्षम किया है ?] 2021
The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) regarding lodging an FIR and conducting probe within a particular State is being questioned by various States. However, the power of the States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India. (250 words) [एक राज्य-विशेष के अन्दर प्रथम सूचना रिपोर्ट दायर करने तथा जांच करने के केन्द्रीय अन्वेषण ब्यूरो (सी. बी. आइ.) के क्षेत्राधिकार पर कई राज्य प्रश्न उठा रहे हैं . हालांकि, सी. बी. आइ. जांच के लिए राज्यों द्वारा दी गई सहमति को रोके रखने की शक्ति आत्यंतिक नहीं है। भारत संघीय ढाँचे के विशेष संदर्भ में विवेचना कीजिए।] 2021
How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer. (आपके विचार में सहयोग, स्पर्धा एवं संगर्ष ने किस प्रकार से भारत में महासंघ को किस सीमा तक आकर दिया है? अपने उत्तर को प्रमाणित करने के लिए कुछ हालिया उद्धत कीजिए l) 2020
Indian Constitution exhibits centralising tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts. (राष्ट्र की एकता और अखण्डता बनाये रखने के लिये भारतीय संविधान केन्द्रीयकरण करने की प्रवृति प्रदर्शित करता है l महामारी अधिनियम, 1897; आपदा प्रबंधन अधिनियम, 2005 तथा हाल में पारित किये गए कृषि क्षेत्र के अधिनियमों के परिप्रेक्ष्य में सुस्पष्ट कीजिए l) 2020
The strength and sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funds’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. (‘भारत में स्थानीय निकायों की सुदृढ़ता एवं संपोषिता ‘प्रकार्य, कार्यकर्ता व कोष’ की अपनी रचनात्मक प्रावस्था से ‘ प्रकार्यात्मकता’ की समकालिक अवस्था की ओर स्थानान्तरित हुई है l हाल के समय में प्रकार्यात्मकता की दृष्टी से स्थानीय निकायों द्वारा सामना की जा रही अहम् चुनौतियों को आलोकित कीजिए l) 2020
“The reservation of seats for women in the institutions of local self- government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian Political Process.” Comment. (“स्थानीय स्वशासन की संस्थाओं में महिलाओं के लिए सीटों के आरक्षण का भारत के राजनितिक पराक्रम के पितृतंत्रात्मक अभिलक्षण पर एक सिमित प्रभाव पड़ा है |” टिपण्णी कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. 2018
Assess the importance of Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects. 2018
“The local self-government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”. Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation. 2017
Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics? 2016
To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “Temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity. 2016
Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss. 2016
The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings. 2015
In absence of a well-educated and organized local level government system, `Panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instruments of governance. Critically discuss. 2015
Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss. 2014
Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the `Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution. 2013
Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss. 2013
Constitutional mechanisms to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss. 2013

Polity: Bodies

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts; Constitutional Bodies (powers, functions and responsibilities); Statutory, Regulatory and Quasi-judicial bodies

Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body.(राष्ट्रीय पिछड़ा वर्ग आयोग के सांविधिक निकाय से संवैधानिक निकाय में रूपांतरण को ध्यान में रखते हुए इसकी भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए) 2022
Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. (250 words) [यद्यपि मानवाधिकार आयोगों ने भारत में मानव अधिकारों के संरक्षण में काफी हद तक योगदान दिया है, फिर भी वे ताकतवर और प्रभावशालियों के विरुद्ध अधिकार जात्ताने में असफल रहे हैं। इनकी संरचनात्मक और व्यवहारिक सीमाओं का विश्लेषण करते हुए सुधारात्मक उपायों के सुझाव दीजिए।] 2021
Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a Commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. (एक आयोग के सांविधानिकीकरण के लिए कौन-कौन से चरण आवश्यक हैं? क्या आपके विचार में राष्ट्रीय महिला आयोग का सांविधानिकता प्रदान करना भारत में लैंगिक न्याय एवं सशक्तिकरण और अधिक सुनिश्चित करेगा? कारन बताइए l) 2020
“The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees, nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain. (केन्द्रीय प्रशासनिक अधिकरण जिसकी स्थापना केन्द्रीय सरकार के कर्मचारियों द्वारा या उनके विरुद्ध शिकायतों एवं परिवादों के निवारण हेतु की गई थी, आजकल एक स्वतंत्र न्यायिक प्राधिकरण के रूप में अपनी शक्तियों का प्रयोग कर रहा है |” व्याख्या कीजिए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
“The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss. (“महान्यायवादी भारत की सरकार का मुख्या विधि सलहाकार और वकील होता है |” चर्चा कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
“The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. 2018
How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. 2018
Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer. 2017
Exercise of CAC’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s Policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction. 2016
What is a quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples. 2016
What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through the recent Ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss. 2015
“For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous.” Discuss in the light of the experiences in recent past. 2015
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of the above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards. 2014
The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators. 2014
Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances. 2013
The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify. 2013

[Block-2] Welfare Schemes & Policies for sectors, services

Figure 1: this graph shows trend for both block#2 and block#3

Welfare: Policies & Schemes, Poverty Hunger

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Welfare Schemes (centre, states; performance, mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for protection of vulnerable sections);

Reforming the government delivery system through the Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme is a progressive step, but it has its limitations too. Comment.(प्रत्यक्ष लाभ अंतरण योजना के माध्यम से सरकारी प्रदेय व्यवस्था में सुधार एक प्रगतिशील क़दम है, किन्तु इसकी अपनी सीमाएँ भी हैं टिप्पणी कीजिए।) 2022
Besides the welfare schemes, India needs deft management of inflation and unemployment to serve the poor and the underprivileged sections of the society. Discuss.(कल्याणकारी योजनाओं के अतिरिक्त भारत को समाज के वंचित वर्गों और ग़रीबों की सेवा के लिए मुद्रास्फीति और बेरोज़गारी के कुशल प्रबंधन की आवश्यकता है। चर्चा कीजिए । ) 2022
The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 remains only a legal document without intense sensitisation of government functionaries and citizens regarding disability. Comment.(दिव्यांगता के संदर्भ में सरकारी पदाधिकारियों और नागरिकों की गहन संवेदनशीलता के बिना दिव्यांगजन अधिकार अधिनियम, 2016 केवल विधिक दस्तावेज़ बनकर रह जाता है। टिप्पणी कीजिए) 2022
“Besides being a moral imperative of a Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” Analyse.(150 words) [“एक कल्याणकारी राज्य की नैतिक अनिवार्यता के अलावा, प्राथमिक स्वास्थ्य संरचना धारणीय विकास की एक आवश्यक पूर्व शर्त है।” विश्लेषण कीजिए। ] 2021
“Though women in post-Independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and feminist movement has been patriarchial.” Apart from women education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu? (250 words) [“यद्यपि स्वातंत्र्योत्तर भारत में महिलाओं ने विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में उत्कृष्टता हासिल की है, इसके बावजूद महिलाओं और नारीवादी आन्दोलन के प्रति सामाजिक दृष्टिकोण पितृसत्तात्मक रहा है।” महिला शिक्षा और महिला सशक्तिकरण की योजनाओं के अतिरिक्त कौन-से हस्तक्षेप इस परिवेश के परिवर्तन में सहायक हो सकते हैं ?] 2021
“The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyse the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report. (“केवल आय पर आधारित गरीबी के निर्धारण में गरीबी का आपतन और तीव्रता अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है” l इस सन्दर्भ में संयुक्त राष्ट्र बहुआयामी गरीबी सूचकांक की नवीनतम रिपोर्ट का विश्लेषण कीजिए l ) 2020
“Micro-Finance as an anti-poverty vaccine, is aimed at asset creation and income security of the rural poor in India”. Evaluate the role of Self Help Groups in achieving the twin objectives along with empowering women in rural India. (“सूक्ष्म-वित्त एक गरीबी-रोधी टिका है जो भारत में ग्रामीण दरिद्र की परिसंपत्ति निर्माण और आयसुरक्षा के लिए लक्षित है” l स्वयं सहायता समूहों की भूमिका का मूल्यांकन ग्रामीण भारत में महिलाओं के सशक्तिकरण के साथ साथ उपरोक्त दोहरे उद्देश्यों के लिए कीजिए l ) 2020
There is a growing divergence in the relationship between poverty and hunger in India. The shrinking of social expenditure by the government is forcing the poor to spend more on Non- Food essential items squeezing their food – budget.- Elucidate. (भारत में निर्धनता और भूख के बीच संबंध में एक बढ़ता हुआ अंतर है | सरकार द्वारा सामाजिक व्यय को संकुचित किए जाना, निर्धनों को अपने खाद्य बजट को निचोड़ते हुए खाद्येतर अत्यावश्यक मुद्दों पर अधिक व्यय करने के लिए मजबूर कर रहा है | स्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
‘In the context of neo-liberal paradigm of development planning, multi-level planning is expected to make operations cost effective and remove many implementation blockages.’-Discuss. (‘विकास योजना के नव-उदारी प्रतिमान के संदर्भ में, आशा की जाती है की बहु-स्तरी योजनाकरण संक्रियाओं को लागत प्रभावी बना देगा और अनेक क्रियान्वयन रुकावटों को हटा देगा |’ चर्चा कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
The need for cooperation among various service sector has been an inherent component of development discourse. Partnership bridges bring the gap among the sectors. It also sets in motion a culture of ‘Collaboration’ and ‘team spirit’. In the light of statements above examine India’s Development process. (विभिन्न सेवा क्षेत्रकों के बीच सहयोग की आवश्यकता विकास प्रवचन का एक अन्तर्निहिति घटक रहा है | साझेदारी क्षेत्रकों के बीच पल बनती है | यह ‘सहयोग’ और ‘टीम भावना’ की संस्कृति को भी गति प्रदान कर देती है | उपरोक्त कथनों के प्रकाश में भारत के विकास प्रक्रम का परिक्षण कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
Performance of welfare schemes that are implemented for vulnerable sections is not so effective due to absence of their awareness and active involvement at all stages of policy process – Discuss. (सुभेद्य वर्गों के लिए क्रियान्वित की जाने वाली कल्याण योजनाओं का निष्पादन उनके बारे में जागरूकता के न होने और निति प्रक्रम की सभी अवस्थाओं पर उनके सक्रिय तौर पर सम्मिलित न होने के कारन प्रभावी नहीं होता है | – चर्चा कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSCJ) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. 2018
Multiplicity of various commissions for the vulnerable sections or the society leads to problems or overlapping jurisdiction and duplication of functions. Is it better to merge all commissions into an umbrella Human Rights Commission? Argue your case. 2018
Does the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 ensure effective mechanism for empowerment and inclusion of the intended beneficiaries in the society? Discuss 2017
Two parallel run schemes of the Government viz. the Adhaar Card and NPR, one as voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable growth. 2014
Do government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economics? 2014
The basis of providing urban amenities in rural areas (PURA) is rooted in establishing connectivity. Comment. 2013
Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms. Comment. 2013

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Poverty and hunger issues

How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack or availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? 2018
Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges for good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far successive governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement. 2017
‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India. 2017
Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty levels over time. Do you agree? Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators. 2015
The Central Government frequently complains on the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate. 2013

Welfare: Social Services: Health, Edu, HRD

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Social Sector & Social Services (health, education, human resources – issues in development, management);

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 remains inadequate in promoting incentive-based system for children’s education without generating awareness about the importance of schooling. Analyse.(स्कूली शिक्षा के महत्त्व के बारे में जागरूकता उत्पन्न किए बिना, बच्चों की शिक्षा में प्रेरणा-आधारित पद्धति के संवर्धन में निःशुल्क और अनिवार्य बाल शिक्षा का अधिकार अधिनियम, 2009 अपर्याप्त है। विश्लेषण कीजिए। ) 2022
“‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (150 words) [“व्यावसायिक शिक्षा और कौशल परिक्षण को सार्थक बनाने के लिए ‘सीखते हुए कमाना (अर्न व्हाइल यू लर्न)’ की योजना को सशक्त करने की आवश्यकता है।” टिप्पणी कीजिए।] 2021
In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. (सामजिक विकास की संभावनाओं को बढ़ने के क्रम में, विशेषकर जराचिकित्सा एवं मातृ स्वास्थ्य देखभाल के क्षेत्र में सुदृढ़ और पर्याप्त स्वास्थ्य देखभाल सम्बन्धी नीतियों की आवश्यकता है l विवेचन कीजिए l) 2020
National Education Policy 2020 is in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goal-4 (2030). It intends to restructure and reorient education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (राष्ट्रीय शिक्षा निति 2020 धारणीय विकास लक्ष्य-4 (२०3०) के साथ अनुरूपता में है l उसका ध्येय भारत में शिक्षा प्रणाली की पुनःसंरचना और पुनःस्थापना है l इस कथन का समालोचनात्मक निरिक्षण कीजिए l ) 2020
Despite Consistent experience of High growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (उच्च संवृद्धि के लगातार अनुभव के बावजूद, भारत के मानव विकास के निम्नतम संकेतक चल रहे हैं | उन मुद्दों का परिक्षण कीजिए, जो संतुलित और समावेशी विकास को पकड़ में आने नहीं दे रहे हैं | )(10m 150 words) 2019
Appropriate local community-level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All ‘ in India. Explain. 2018
‘To ensure effective implementation of policies addressing water, sanitation and hygiene needs, the identification of beneficiary segments is to be synchronized with the anticipated outcomes’ Examine the statement in the context of the WASH scheme. 2017
Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation. 2016
“Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable? 2016
Professor Amartya Sen has advocated important reforms in the realms of primary education and primary health care. What are your suggestions to improve their status and performance? 2016
The quality of higher education in India requires major improvements to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of higher and technical education in the country? Discuss. 2015
Public health system has limitations in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that the private sector could help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives would you suggest? 2015
An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement. 2014
Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges. 2014
The concept of Mid Day Meal (MDM) scheme is almost a century old in India with early beginnings in Madras Presidency in pre-independent India. The scheme has again been given impetus in most states in the last two decades. Critically examine its twin objectives, latest mandates and success. 2013
Identify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are related to health. Discuss the success of the actions taken by the Government for achieving the same. 2013

Welfare: Sectoral Policies (Economy related)

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Government Policies & Interventions for development of various sectors (issues in their design, implementation)

The Gati-Shakti Yojana needs meticulous coordination between the government and the private sector to achieve the goal of connectivity. Discuss.(गति-शक्ति योजना को संयोजकता के लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए सरकार और निजी क्षेत्र के मध्य सतर्क समन्वय की आवश्यकता है। विवेचना कीजिए) 2022
“Policy contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate ‘protection and prevention of degradation’ to environment.” ” Comment with relevant illustration. 2018
Explain the salient features of the constitution(One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’? 2017
Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demands of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization started in 1991? What can the government do to be responsive to this important change? 2016
Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons. 2014

[Block-3] Governance & groups

Governance: Accountability & E-Gov

  1. GS2 Syllabus Topic: Important aspects of governance; Transparency and accountability (institutional and other measures); Citizens Charter;
  2. GS2 Syllabus Topic: E-Governance (applications, models, successes, limitations, potential)
Has digital illiteracy, particularly in rural areas, coupled with lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification. (250 words) [क्या ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में विशेष रूप से, डिजिटल निरक्षरता ने सुचना एवं संचार प्रौद्योगिकी (आइ. सी. टी.) की अल्प-उपलब्धता के साथ मिलकर सामाजिक-आर्थिक विकास में बाधा उत्पन्न किया है ? औचित्य सहित परिक्षण कीजिए ] 2021
“Recent amendments to the Right to Information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss. (“सुचना का अधिकार अधिनियम में किये गए हालिया संशोधन सुचना आयोग की स्वायतता और स्वतंत्रता पर गंभीर प्रभाव डालेंगे” l विवेचना कीजिए l) 2020
“The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of government”. Discuss. (” चौथी औद्योगिक क्रांति (डिजिटल क्रांति) के प्रादुर्भाव ने ई-गवर्नन्स को सरकार का अविभाज्य अंग बनाने में पहल की है” l विवेचन कीजिए l) (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिये) 2020
Implementation of information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Projects / Programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors, and suggest measures for their effective implementation. (सुचना और संप्रेषण प्रौद्योगिकी (आई.सी.टी.) आधारित परियोजनाओं / कार्यक्रमों का कार्यान्वयन आम तौर पर विशेष महत्वपूर्ण कारकों की दृष्टी से ठीक नहीं रहता है | इन कारकों की पहचान कीजिए और उनके प्रभावी कार्यान्वयन के उपाय सुझाइए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
E-Governance is not only about utilization of the power of new technology, but also much about critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information Explain. 2018
Citizens’ Charter is an ideal instrument of organizational transparency and accountability, but. it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness or the Citizens Charter. 2018
Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people. 2017
“Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system are inter-dependent.” Discuss their relationship with each other in context of India. 2016
In the integrity index of Transparency International, India stands very low. Discuss briefly the legal, political, economic, social and cultural factors that have caused the decline of public morality in India. 2016
In the light of the Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in corporate governance to ensure transparency, accountability. 2015
“If amendment bill to the Whistleblowers Act, 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed, there may be no one left to protect.” Critically evaluate. 2015
Though Citizen’s charters have been formulated by many public service delivery organizations, there is no corresponding improvement in the level of citizens’ satisfaction and quality of services being provided. Analyze. 2013
‘A national Lokpal, however strong it may be, cannot resolve the problems of immorality in public affairs’. Discuss. 2013

Groups: Civil Services, NGO, SHG, Pressure Groups

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  1. Development Processes & Development industry (role of NGOs, SHGs, groups & associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders)
  2. Pressure Groups & Formal, Informal associations (and their role in the polity)
  3. Role of Civil Services in a democracy.
NGO Do you agree with the view that increasing dependence on donor agencies for development reduces the importance of community participation in the development process ? Justify your answer.(क्या आप इस मत से सहमत हैं कि विकास हेतु दाता अभिकरणों पर बढ़ती निर्भरता विकास प्रक्रिया में सामुदायिक भागीदारी के महत्व को घटाती है ? अपने उत्तर के औचित्य को सिद्ध कीजिए । ) 2022
NGO-SHG Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty and malnutrition be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (150 words) [ क्या लैंगिक असमानता, गरीबी और कुपोषण के दुष्चक्र को महिलाओं को स्वयं सहायता समूहों को सूक्ष्म वित्त (माइक्रोफाइनेन्स) प्रदान करके तोड़ा जा सकता है ? सोदाहरण स्पष्ट कीजिए। ] 2021
NGO-SHG Can Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations present an alternative model of public service delivery to benefit the common citizen? Discuss the challenges of this alternative model. (250 words) [क्या नागरिक समाज और गैर-सरकारी संगठन, आम नागरिक को लाभ प्रदान करने के लिए लोक सेवा प्रदायगी का वैकल्पिक प्रतिमान प्रस्तुत कर सकते हैं ? इस वैकल्पिक प्रतिमान की चुनौतियां की विवेचना कीजिए।] 2021
Pressure Group “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies. (150 words) [“भारत में सार्वजनिक निति बनाने में दबाव समूह महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाते हैं।” समझाइए की व्यवसाय संघ, सार्वजनिक नीतियों में किस प्रकार योगदान करते हैं।] 2021
Civil Services “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in Civil Service for strengthening democracy. (“आर्थिक प्रदर्शन के लिए संस्थागत गुणवत्ता एक निर्णायक चालक है” l इस संदर्भ में लोकतंत्र को सुदृढ़ करने के लिए सिविल सेवा में सुधारों के सुझाव दीजिए l) 2020
Pressure Group What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy- makers in India and how effective are these methods? (भारत में निति निर्माताओं को प्रभावित करने के लिए किसान संगठनों द्वारा क्या-क्या तरीके अपनाए जाते हैं और वे तरीके कितने प्रभावी हैं ? ) (10m 150 words) 2019
Nothing asked from this topic. 2018
Civil Services Initially Civil Services in India were designed to achieve the goals of neutrality and effectiveness, which seems to be lacking in the present context. Do you agree with the view that drastic reforms are required in Civil Services. Comment 2017
NGO-SHG ‘The emergence of Self Help Groups(SHGs) in contemporary times points to the slow but steady withdrawal of the state from developmental activities’. Examine the role of the SHGs in developmental activities and the measures taken by the Government of India to promote the SHGs. 2017
Pressure Group How do pressure groups influence Indian political process? Do you agree with this view that informal pressure groups have emerged as powerful than formal pressure groups in recent years? 2017
NGO-SHG Examine critically the recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976. 2015
NGO-SHG The Self-Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programmes. Elucidate. 2015
NGO-SHG How can the role of NGOs be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints. 2015
NGO-SHG The penetration of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine. 2014
NGO-SHG The legitimacy and accountability of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their patrons, the micro-finance outfits, need systematic assessment and scrutiny for the sustained success of the concept. Discuss. 2013
Pressure Group Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regards to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. 2013
Pressure group “In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement. 2016
Civil Services Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organisation been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine. 2014
Civil Services “Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture have hampered the process of socio-economic development in India.” Comment. 2016

[Block-4] IR Diplomacy

IR/Diplomacy: Neighbors

GS2 Syllabus Topic: India and its Neighbourhood (relations)

India is an age-old friend of Sri Lanka.’ Discuss India’s role in the recent crisis in Sri Lanka the light of the preceding statement.(भारत श्रीलंका का बरसों पुराना मित्र है।’ पूर्ववर्ती कथन के आलोक में श्रीलंका के वर्तमान संकट में भारत की भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए।) 2022
“The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of a China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. (150 words) [“संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, चीन के रूप में एक ऐसे अस्तित्व के खतरे का सामना कर रहा है जो तत्कालीन सोवियत संघ की तुलना में अधिक चुनौतीपूर्ण है।” विवेचना कीजिए। ] 2021
‘China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbor. 2017
“Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal affairs of several member-states by Pakistan are not conducive for the future of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples. 2016
Project `Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of the Indian Government to improve relationship with its neighbors. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss. 2015
Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India-Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchanges could help generate goodwill between the two countries? Discuss with suitable examples. 2015
With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China. 2014
The proposed withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests. 2013
What do you understand by ‘The String of Pearls’? How does it impact India? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this. 2013
The protests in Shahbag Square in Dhaka in Bangladesh reveal a fundamental split in society between the nationalists and Islamic forces. What is its significance for India? 2013
Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India? 2013
In respect of India — Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. 2013
What is meant by Gujral doctrine? Does it have any relevance today? Discuss. 2013

IR/Diplomacy: Not-Neighbors but affecting interests

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed and Developing countries on India (India’s interests, diaspora)

“If the last few decades were of Asia’s growth story, the next few are expected to be of Africa’s.” In the light of this statement, examine India’s influence in Africa in recent years. (150 words) [“यदि विगत कुछ दशक एशिया के विकास की कहानी के रहे, तो परवर्ती कुछ दशक अफ्रीका के हो सकते हैं।” इस कथन के आलोक में , हाल के वर्षों में अफ्रीका में भारत के प्रभाव का परिक्षण कीजिए। ] 2021
‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples. (‘अमेरिका एवं यूरोपीय देशों की राजनीती और अर्थव्यवस्था में बहरतीय प्रवासियों को एक निर्णायक भूमिका निभानी है” l उदाहरणों सहित टिप्पणी कीजिए l) (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिये) 2020
What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. (भारत-रूस रक्षा समझौतों की तुलना में भारत-अमेरिका रक्षा समझौतोंकी क्या महत्ता है ? हिन्द-प्रशान्त महासागरीय क्षेत्र में स्थायित्व के संदर्भ में विवेचना कीजिए l ) 2020
‘The time has come for India and Japan to build a strong contemporary relationship, one involving global and strategic partnership that will have a great significance for Asia and the world as a whole.’ Comment. (‘भारत और जापान के लिए समय आ गया है की एक ऐसे मजबूत समसामयिक संबंध का निर्माण करें, जिसका वैश्विक एवं रणनीतिक साझेदारी को आवेष्टित करते हुए एशिया एवं सम्पूर्ण विश्व के लिए बड़ा महत्व होगा |’ टिपण्णी कीजिए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
“The long-sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalised Nations has disappeared on account of its new found role in the emerging global order”. Elaborate. (‘उभरती हुई वैश्विक व्यवस्था में, भारत द्वारा प्राप्त नव-भूमिका कारण, उत्पीड़ित एवं उपेक्षित राष्ट्रों के मुखिया के रूप में दीर्घ काल से संपोषित भारत की पहचान लुप्त हो गई है |’ विस्तार से समझाइये | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
“What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find for India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self- esteem and ambitions” Explain with suitable examples. (‘भारत और यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स के बीच संबंधो में खटास के प्रवेश का कारण वाशिंगटन का अपनी वैश्विक रणनीति में अभी तक भी भारत के लिए किसी ऐसे स्थान की खोज करने में विफलता है, जो भारत के आत्म-समादर और महत्वाकांक्षा को संतुष्ट कर सके |’ उपयुक्त उदाहरणों के साथ स्पष्ट कीजिए | ) (15m 250 words) 2019
In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to this situation? 2018
‘India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss. 2018
The question of India’s Energy Security constitutes the most important part of India’s economic progress. Analyze India’s energy policy cooperation with West Asian Countries. 2017
Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South-East Asian countries’ economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South- East Asia in this context 2017
Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post-Cold War international scenario. 2016
Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pros and cons. Critically examine. 2015
Economic ties between India and Japan while growing in the recent years are still far below their potential. Elucidate the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth. 2013

IR/Diplomacy: Institutions, Groupings, Agreements

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Important International institutions, agencies, for a (structure, mandate); Bilateral, Regional, Global groupings & Agreements (involving and/or affecting India)

Do you think that BIMSTEC is a parallel organisation like the SAARC? What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the two? How are Indian foreign policy objectives realized by forming this new organisation?(आपके विचार में क्या बिमस्टेक (BIMSTEC ) सार्क (SAARC) की तरह एक समानांतर संगठन है ? इन दोनों के बीच क्या समानताएँ और असमानताएँ हैं ? इस नए संगठन के बनाए जाने से भारतीय विदेश नीति के उद्देश्य कैसे प्राप्त हुए हैं ?) 2022
How will I2U2 (India, Israel, UAE and USA) grouping transform India’s position in global politics ?(भारत, इजरायल, संयुक्त अरब अमीरात और संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका) समूहन वैश्विक राजनीति में भारत की स्थिति को किस प्रकार रूपांतरित करेगा ? ( 250 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए) ) 2022
Clean energy is the order of the day. Describe briefly India’s changing policy towards climate change in various international fora in the context of geopolitics.(स्वच्छ ऊर्जा आज की ज़रूरत है।’ भू-राजनीति के सन्दर्भ में, विभिन्न अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मंचों में जलवायु परिवर्तन की दिशा में भारत की बदलती नीति का संक्षिप्त वर्णन कीजिए ) 2022
Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. What importance does it hold for India?(250 words) [एस. सी. ओ. के लक्ष्यों और उद्देश्यों का विश्लेषणात्मक परिक्षण कीजिए। भारत के लिए इसका क्या महत्व है ?] 2021
The newly tri-nation partnership AUKUS is aimed at countering China’s ambitions in the Indo-Pacific region. Is it going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region? Discuss the strength and impact of AUKUS in the present scenario.(250 words) [भारत-प्रशांत महासागर क्षेत्र में चीन की महत्वाकांक्षाओं का मुकाबला करना नई त्रि-राष्ट्र AUKUS का उद्देश्य है। क्या यह इस क्षेत्र में मौजूदा साझेदारी का स्थान लेने जा रहा है ? वर्तमान परिदृश्य में, AUKUS की शक्ति और प्रभाव की विवेचना कीजिए।] 2021
‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad)’ is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss. (‘चतुर्भुजीय सुरक्षा संवाद (क्वाड)’ वर्तमान समय में स्वयं को सैनिक गठबंधन से एक व्यापारिक गट में रूपात्नरित कर रहा है – विवेचना कीजिए l ) 2020
Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the Covid-19 pandemic. (कोविड-19 महामारी के दौरान स्वास्थ्य सुरक्षा प्रदान करने में विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन (डब्लू.एच.औ) की भूमिका का समलोचनात्मक परिक्षण कीजिए l) (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिये) 2020
‘Too little cash, too much politics, leaves UNESCO fighting for life.’ Discuss the statement in the light of US’ withdrawal and its accusation of the cultural body as being ‘anti-Israel bias’. (‘आवश्यकता से कम नगदी, अत्यधिक राजनीति ने यूनेस्को को जीवन-रक्षण की स्थिति में पहुंचा दिया है |’ अमेरिका द्वारा सदस्यता परित्याग करने और सांस्कृतिक संस्था पर ‘इजराइल विरोधी पूर्वाग्रह’ होने का दोषारोपण करने के प्रकाश में इस कथन की विवेचना कीजिए | ) (10m 150 words) 2019
A number or outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone to interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018. 2018
What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? 2018
What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it. 2017
“The broader aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries.” Discuss in the Indian perspective. 2016
What are the aims and objectives of the McBride Commission of the UNESCO? What is India’s position on these? 2016
Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UN Security Council. 2015
The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact should such agreements have on India’s interests? 2014
Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. 2014
India has recently signed to become founding a New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) .How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the significance of these two Banks for India. 2014
WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. 2014
The World Bank and the IMF, collectively known as the Bretton Woods Institutions, are the two inter-governmental pillars supporting the structure of the world’s economic and financial order. Superficially, the World Bank and the IMF exhibit many common characteristics, yet their role, functions and mandate are distinctly different. Elucidate. 2013

Appendix: Linear Paper GSM2-2022

  1. The most significant achievement of modern law in India in the constitutionalization of environmental problems by the Supreme Court. Discuss this statement with the help of relevant case laws.(“भारत में आधुनिक कानून की सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण उपलब्धि सर्वोच्च न्यायालय द्वारा पर्यावरणीय समस्याओं का संविधानीकरण है ।” सुसंगत वाद विधियों की सहायता से इस कवन की विवेचना कीजिए) 10m 150w
  2. Right of movement and residence throughout the territory of India are freely available to the Indian citizens, but these rights are not absolute. Comment(“भारत के सम्पूर्ण क्षेत्र में निवास करने और विचरण करने का अधिकार स्वतंत्र रूप से सभी भारतीय नागरिकों को उपलब्ध है, किन्तु ये अधिकार असीम नहीं हैं।” टिप्पणी कीजिए । (150 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए))) 10m 150w
  3. To what extent, in your opinion, has the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots ?(आपकी राय में, भारत में शक्ति के विकेन्द्रीकरण ने जमीनी स्तर पर शासन-परिदृश्य को किस सीमा तक परिवर्तित किया है ? (150 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए)) 10m 150w
  4. Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha:(राज्य सभा के सभापति के रूप में भारत के उप-राष्ट्रपति की भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए ) 10m 150w
  5. Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body.(राष्ट्रीय पिछड़ा वर्ग आयोग के सांविधिक निकाय से संवैधानिक निकाय में रूपांतरण को ध्यान में रखते हुए इसकी भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए) 10m 150w
  6. The Gati-Shakti Yojana needs meticulous coordination between the government and the private sector to achieve the goal of connectivity. Discuss.(गति-शक्ति योजना को संयोजकता के लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए सरकार और निजी क्षेत्र के मध्य सतर्क समन्वय की आवश्यकता है। विवेचना कीजिए) 10m 150w
  7. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 remains only a legal document without intense sensitisation of government functionaries and citizens regarding disability. Comment.(दिव्यांगता के संदर्भ में सरकारी पदाधिकारियों और नागरिकों की गहन संवेदनशीलता के बिना दिव्यांगजन अधिकार अधिनियम, 2016 केवल विधिक दस्तावेज़ बनकर रह जाता है। टिप्पणी कीजिए) 10m 150w
  8. Reforming the government delivery system through the Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme is a progressive step, but it has its limitations too. Comment.(प्रत्यक्ष लाभ अंतरण योजना के माध्यम से सरकारी प्रदेय व्यवस्था में सुधार एक प्रगतिशील क़दम है, किन्तु इसकी अपनी सीमाएँ भी हैं टिप्पणी कीजिए।) 10m 150w
  9. India is an age-old friend of Sri Lanka.’ Discuss India’s role in the recent crisis in Sri Lanka the light of the preceding statement.(भारत श्रीलंका का बरसों पुराना मित्र है।’ पूर्ववर्ती कथन के आलोक में श्रीलंका के वर्तमान संकट में भारत की भूमिका की विवेचना कीजिए।) 10m 150w
  10. Do you think that BIMSTEC is a parallel organisation like the SAARC? What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the two? How are Indian foreign policy objectives realized by forming this new organisation?(आपके विचार में क्या बिमस्टेक (BIMSTEC ) सार्क (SAARC) की तरह एक समानांतर संगठन है ? इन दोनों के बीच क्या समानताएँ और असमानताएँ हैं ? इस नए संगठन के बनाए जाने से भारतीय विदेश नीति के उद्देश्य कैसे प्राप्त हुए हैं ?) 10m 150w
  11. Discuss the procedures to decide the disputes arising out of the election of a Member of the Parliament or State Legislature under The Representation of the People Act, 1951. What are the grounds on which the election of any returned candidate may be declared void? What remedy is available to the aggrieved party against the decision? Refer to the case laws. (लोक प्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम, 1951 के अन्तर्गत संसद अथवा राज्य विधायिका के सदस्यों के चुनाव से उभरे विवादों के निर्णय की प्रक्रिया का विवेचन कीजिए। किन आधारों पर किसी निर्वाचित घोषित प्रत्याशी के निर्वाचन को शून्य घोषित किया जा सकता है ? इस निर्णय के विरुद्ध पीड़ित पक्ष को कौन-सा उपचार उपलब्ध है ? वाद विधियों का सन्दर्भ दीजिए। ) 15m 250w
  12. Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature.(राज्यपाल द्वारा विधायी शक्तियों के प्रयोग की आवश्यक शर्तों का विवेचन कीजिए । विधायिका के समक्ष रखे बिना राज्यपाल द्वारा अध्यादेशों के पुनःप्रख्यापन की वैधता की विवेचना कीजिए । ) 15m 250w
  13. While the national political parties in India favour centralisation, the regional parties are in favour of State autonomy. (“भारत में राष्ट्रीय राजनैतिक दल केन्द्रीयकरण के पक्ष में हैं, जबकि क्षेत्रीय दल राज्य स्वायत्तता के पक्ष में ।” टिप्पणी कीजिए। ) 15m 250w
  14. Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected.(भारत और फ्रांस के राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचित होने की प्रक्रिया का आलोचनात्मक परीक्षण कीजिए । ) 15m 250w
  15. Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct.(आदर्श आचार-संहिता के उद्भव के आलोक में, भारत के निर्वाचन आयोग की भूमिका का विवेचन कीजिए। 15 ) 15m 250w
  16. Besides the welfare schemes, India needs deft management of inflation and unemployment to serve the poor and the underprivileged sections of the society. Discuss.(कल्याणकारी योजनाओं के अतिरिक्त भारत को समाज के वंचित वर्गों और ग़रीबों की सेवा के लिए मुद्रास्फीति और बेरोज़गारी के कुशल प्रबंधन की आवश्यकता है। चर्चा कीजिए । ) 15m 250w
  17. Do you agree with the view that increasing dependence on donor agencies for development reduces the importance of community participation in the development process ? Justify your answer.(क्या आप इस मत से सहमत हैं कि विकास हेतु दाता अभिकरणों पर बढ़ती निर्भरता विकास प्रक्रिया में सामुदायिक भागीदारी के महत्व को घटाती है ? अपने उत्तर के औचित्य को सिद्ध कीजिए । ) 15m 250w
  18. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 remains inadequate in promoting incentive-based system for children’s education without generating awareness about the importance of schooling. Analyse.(स्कूली शिक्षा के महत्त्व के बारे में जागरूकता उत्पन्न किए बिना, बच्चों की शिक्षा में प्रेरणा-आधारित पद्धति के संवर्धन में निःशुल्क और अनिवार्य बाल शिक्षा का अधिकार अधिनियम, 2009 अपर्याप्त है। विश्लेषण कीजिए। ) 15m 250w
  19. How will I2U2 (India, Israel, UAE and USA) grouping transform India’s position in global politics ?(भारत, इजरायल, संयुक्त अरब अमीरात और संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका) समूहन वैश्विक राजनीति में भारत की स्थिति को किस प्रकार रूपांतरित करेगा ? ( 250 शब्दों में उत्तर दीजिए) ) 15m 250w
  20. Clean energy is the order of the day. Describe briefly India’s changing policy towards climate change in various international fora in the context of geopolitics.(स्वच्छ ऊर्जा आज की ज़रूरत है।’ भू-राजनीति के सन्दर्भ में, विभिन्न अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मंचों में जलवायु परिवर्तन की दिशा में भारत की बदलती नीति का संक्षिप्त वर्णन कीजिए ) 15m 250w

Appendix: Model Answer pe Free Lecture & Powerpoint

Appendix: Syllabus of UPSC Mains-GSM2 General Studies Paper2

  • Historical underpinnings & evolution; Features, amendments, significant provisions, basic structure of Constitution
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts; Constitutional Bodies (powers, functions and responsibilities); Statutory, Regulatory and Quasi-judicial bodies
  • Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with other countries’
  • Functions & responsibilities of the Union and the States; issues and challenges of federal structure;
  • Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein)
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Separation of Powers (between different organs, dispute redressal mechanisms, institutions); Judiciary (structure, organisation functioning)
  • Executive (structure, organisation, functioning); Ministries and Departments (of Union and State govts.)
  • Welfare Schemes (centre, states; performance, mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for protection of vulnerable sections); Poverty and hunger issues
  • Government Policies & Interventions for development of various sectors (issues in their design, implementation)
  • Social Sector & Social Services (health, education, human resources – issues in development, management)
  • Transaparency and accountability (institutional and other measures); Citizens Charter
  • E-Governance (applications, models, successes, limitations, potential)
  • Important aspects of governance;
  • Role of Civil Services in a democracy.
  • Development Processes & Development industry (role of NGOs, SHGs, groups & associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders)
  • Pressure Groups & Formal, Informal associations (and their role in the polity)
  • Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed and Developing countries on India (India’s interests, diaspora)
  • Important International institutions, agencies, for a (structure, mandate); Bilateral, Regional, Global groupings & Agreements (involving and/or affecting India)
  • India and its Neighbourhood (relations)