[Download] UPSC Mains-2018 GSM3 Topicwise All Papers (2013-2018). Paper-3 tougher & more theoretic than last year

SubscribeQuestion-Papers7 Comments

Majid Hussain
  1. Instructions for UPSC Mains 2018 GSM3
  2. Mains-2018 GS3 Question Paper incl. Hindi questions
    1. Answer-Sources for UPSC Mains-2018 GSM3
    2. Weightage to Current Affairs vs Theory
    3. Opinion / Assessment Type Questions
    4. Length wise same as last year
    5. Observation / Analysis of UPSC Mains-2018 GS3 Paper
  3. Topicwise Papers since Syllabus Change
  4. [Block #1] Economy
    1. Growth and Resource mobilization
    2. Economy: Budget
    3. Economy: Investment and Infrastructure
    4. Economy: Liberalization
  5. [Block#2] Agriculture
    1. Food: Cropping-irrigation
    2. Food: Tech. in aid of farmers
    3. Food: Food processing industry
    4. Food: Land reforms
    5. Food: MSP
  6. [Block #3] Science
    1. Disaster Management
    2. Environment and Pollution Control
    3. Science-Tech: Awareness
    4. Science-Tech: Indians
  7. [Block#4] Security
    1. Security: Terrorism, Extremists (LWE, NE)
    2. Security: Cross border
    3. Security: org. crime & money laundering
    4. Security: Cyber security and social media
    5. Security- Security forces

Instructions for UPSC Mains 2018 General Studies Paper3

  • UPSC conducted general studies paper3 of civil services mains examination on 30th September 2018, Sunday.
  • Duration: 3 hours; Maximum Marks: 250
  • Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting questions:
  • There are TWENTY questions printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH. All the questions too compulsory.
  • Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QC4) Booklet in the space provided.
  • No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  • Word limit in questions, wherever specified should be adhered to.
  • Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Mains-2018 GS3 Question Paper incl. Hindi questions

Answer Q.1 to 10 in 150 words and 10 marks each:

  1. Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.    “वहनीय, विश्वसनीय, धारणीय तथा आधुनिक ऊर्जा तक पहुच संधारणीय विकास लक्ष्यों (एस. डी. जी.) को प्राप्त करने के लिए अनिवार्य है।” भारत में इस सबंध में हुई प्रगति पर टिप्पणी कीजिए।
  2. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long-term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.    केंद्रीय बजेट 2018-2019 में दिर्धकालिक पूँजी अभिलाभ कर (एल. सी. जी. टी.) तथा लाभांश वितरण कर (डी. डी. टी.) के सबंध में प्रारंभ किए गए महत्वपूर्ण परिवर्तनों पर टिप्पणी कीजिए।
  3. What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap?    न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य (एम. एस. पी.) से आप क्या अंजते है ? न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य कृषको का निम्न आय फंदे से किस प्रकार बचाव करेगा ?
  4. Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries?    फलो सब्जियों और खाध पदार्थो के आपूर्ति श्रुंखला प्रबंध में सुपरबाजारों की भूमिका की जांच कीजिए । ये बिचौलियों की संख्या को किस प्रकार खत्म कर देते है ?
  5. Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics.    प्रो. सत्येन्द्र नाथ बोस द्र।रा किए गए ‘बोस-आइन्स्टाइन सांख्यकी’ के कार्य पर चर्चा कीजिए और दर्शाइए की इसने किस प्रकार भौतिकी के क्षेत्र में क्रांति ला दी थी।
  6. What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment?    निरंतर उत्त्पपन्न  किए जा रहे फेके गए ठोस कचरे की विशाल मात्राओ का निस्तारण करने में क्या क्या बाधाए है ? हम अपने रहने योग्य परिवेश में जमा होते जा रहे जहरीले अपशिष्टों को सुरक्षित रूप से किस प्रकार हटा सकते है ?
  7. What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India    आन्द्रभूमि क्या है ? आंद्रभूमि संरक्षण के संदर्भ में ‘भूद्धिमत्तापूर्ण उपयोग’ की रामसर संकल्पना को स्पष्ट कीजिए । भारत से रामसर स्थलो के दो उदाहरणो का उद्रण दीजिए।
  8. Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?    सिक्किम भारत में प्रथम ‘जैविक राज्य’ है। जैविक राज्य के पारिस्थितिक एव आर्थिक लाभ क्या-क्या होते है ?
  9. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative. Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same.    चीन- पाकिस्तान आर्थिक गलियारे (सी. पी. ई. सी.) को चीन की अपेक्षाकृत अधिक विशाल ‘एक पट्टी एक सड़क’ पहल के एक मूलभूत भाग के रूप में देखा जा रहा है। सी. पी. ई. सी. का एक संक्षिप्त वर्णन प्रस्तुत कीजिए और भारत द्वारा उससे किनारा करने के कारण गिनाइए।
  10. Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE.    वामपंथी उग्रवाद में अधोमुखी प्रवृती दिखाई दे रही है परंतु अभी भी देश के अनेक भाग इससे प्रभावित है। वामपंथी उग्रवाद द्वारा प्रस्तुत चुनौतियों का विरोध करने के लिए भारत सरकार के दृष्टिकोण को संक्षेप में स्पष्ट कीजिए।

Answer Q.11 to 20 in 250 words and 15 marks each:

  1. How are the principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile Planning Commission in India?    भारत में नीति आयोग द्वारा अनुसरण किए जा रहे सिद्धांत इससे पूर्व के योजना आयोग द्वारा अनुसरित सिद्धांतो से किस प्रकार भिन्न है?
  2. How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?    विश्व व्यापार में संरक्षणवाद और मुद्रा चालबाजियों की हाल की परिघटनाए भारत की समष्टि-आर्थिक स्थिरता को किस प्रकार से प्रभावित करेगी?
  3. Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers?     बागवानी फार्मो के उत्पादन, उसकी उत्पादकता एव आय में वृद्धि करने में राष्ट्रीय बागवानी मिशन एन. एच.एम. की भूमिका का आकलन कीजिए। यह किसानो की आय बढ़ाने में कहा तक सफल हुआ है?
  4. How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.    गत वर्षो में कुछ विशेष फसलों पर ज़ोर ने सस्यन पेटर्नो में किस प्रकार परिवर्तन ल दिए है ? मोटे अनाजों (मिलटो) के उत्पादन और उपभोग पर बल को विस्तारपूर्वक स्पष्ट कीजिए।
  5. Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma?    क्या कारण है की हमारे देश में जैव प्रोद्योगिक के क्षेत्र में अत्यधिक सक्रियता है ? इस सक्रियता ने बायोफार्मा के क्षेत्र को कैसे लाभ पहुचाया है?
  6. With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy.    ऊर्जा की बढ़ती हुई जरूरतो के परिप्रेक्ष्य में क्या भारत को अपने नाभिकीय ऊर्जा कार्यक्रम का विस्तार करना जारी रखना चाहिए? नाभिकीय ऊर्जा से संबधित तथ्यो एव भयो की विवेचना कीजिए।
  7. How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna?     भारत में जैव विविधता किस प्रकार अलग-अलग पाई जाती है ? वनस्पतिजात और प्राणिजात के संरक्षण में जैव विविधता अधिनियम, 2002 किस प्रकार सहायक है?
  8. Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005?     भारत में आपदा जोखिम न्यूनीकरण (डी. आर. आर.) के लिए ‘सेडाई आपदा जोखिम न्यूनीकरण प्रारूप (2015-2030)’ हस्ताक्षरित करने से पूर्व एव उसके पशचात किए गए विभिन्न उपायो का वर्णन कीजिए। यह प्रारूप ‘होगों कारवाई प्रारूप 2005’ से किस प्रकार भिन्न है ?
  9. Data security has assumed significant importance in the digitized world due to rising cyber crimes. The Justice B. N. Srikrishna Committee Report addresses issues related to data security. What, in your view, are the strengths and weakness sof the Report relating to protection of personal data in cyber space?    अंकीयकृत (डिजिटाइज्ड) दुनिया में बढ़ते हुए साइबर अपराधो के कारण डाटा सुरक्षा का महत्व बहुत बढ़ गया है । जस्टिस बी. एन. श्रीकृष्णा समिति रिपोर्ट में डाटा की सुरक्षा से संबधित मुद्दो पर सोच-विचार किया गया है । आपके विचार में साइबर स्पेस में निजी डाटा की सुरक्षा से संबधित इस रिपोर्ट की खूबिया और खामिया क्या-क्या है ?
  10. India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What counter-measures should be taken to prevent the same?    संसार के दो सबसे बड़े अवैध अफ़ीम उगने वाले राज्यो से भारत की निकटता ने भारत की आंतरिक सुरक्षा चिंताओ को बढ़ा दिया है। नशीली दवाओ के अवैध व्यापार एव बंदूक बेचने, गुपचुप धन विदेश भेजने और मानव तस्करी जैसी अवैध गतिविधियो के बीच कड़ियो को स्पष्ट कीजिए। इन गतिविधियो को रोकने के लिए क्या-क्या प्रतिरोधी उपाय किए जाने चाहिए?

Answer-Sources for UPSC Mains-2018 GSM3

UPSC Mains-2018 GS Paper3: GS3 Analysis

  • From the following table, you’ll see that majority of the questions could be solved from routine preparation sources such as Yojana / Kurukshetra magazines of last two years, and the prelim books for environment, science & Tech.
  • However, this is not to suggest that paper was ‘easy’. It’s in fact bit more tougher and random than previous years, given the technical questions from Budget taxation, BoseEinstein, Biopharma etc.
Question Answer Codes
1) Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.
2) Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long-term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.
  • Budget speech document, newspaper columns. But rather tough question because these type of technical things were not asked in past, hence not prepared by students- especially for the descriptive exams.
  •  “introduced a tax on distributed income by equity oriented mutual fund at the rate of 10%. This will provide level playing field across growth oriented funds and dividend distributing funds”
  • “long term capital gains exceeding `1 lakh at the rate of 10% without allowing the benefit of any indexation. However, all gains up to 31st January, 2018 will be grandfathered”
3) What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low-income trap?
  • Was frequently in newspaper columns due to Budget speech announcement of 1.5 times higher MSP.
4) Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries?
5) Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics.
  • BoseEinstein statistics is one of two possible ways in which a collection of indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states. Traditional books don’t dwell in detail about this for 150 words.
  • You’ve to search internet for this. These type of questions were not asked in past so candidates wouldn’t have prepared it. #ATRANGIQuestion.
6) What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment?
7) What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.
  • While basic theory available in ShankarIAS’s Environment Book Available in English but ‘wise use’ context requires internetdigging.
8) Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?
9) The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative. Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same.
  • Verbatim answer available in Section H Chapter 2 issues related to China in  Pavneet Singh’s IR Book (McGraw-hill) Available in English!
10) Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE.
  • Any internal security book published by Pearson, McGrawHill, or any other publisher.
11) How are the principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile Planning Commission in India?
12) How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?
  • Newspaper columns.
13) Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers?
14) How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.
  • Was focused in Economic Survey 201415 Chapter 04 that we’ve to grow more from less, and it’s due to higher MSP in sugarcane and rice, we are facing water crisis, soil degradation, pulses inflation.
  • Benefits of Millets are scattered through various issues of Kurukshetra such as Biofortified pearlmille has higher amount of  iron and zinc nutrients to target hidden hunger of undernourished and malnourished people in India etc.
15) Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma?
  • biopharma products such as hepatitis B vaccine, human insulin, MAbs (Monoclonal Antibodies) for cancer etc. can be made cheap with developments in biodech.
  • Ans. Available in Unit IX Chapter 24 of Ravi Agrahari’s book.
16) With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy.
  • Verbatim Answer available in PartA Chapter 5 of Ravi Agrahari’s book.
17) How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna?
  • You’ve to combine the information from chapter 25 and 27 of ShankarIAS’s Environment Book Available in English
18) Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005?
19) Data security has assumed significant importance in the digitized world due to rising cyber crimes. The Justice B. N. Srikrishna Committee Report addresses issues related to data security. What, in your view, are the strengths and weaknesses of the Report relating to protection of personal data in cyber space?
  • Current Affairs item covered in theHindu, IndianExpress or Vision/Drishiti compilations.
20) India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What counter-measures should be taken to prevent the same?
  • Any internal security book published by Pearson, McGrawhill, or any other publisher.
  • Alternatively: 2nd ARC  Report #8 on Terrorism, chapter5: Terror finance.

Weightage to Current Affairs vs Theory

Area 2016 2017 2018
Theory 62.5 20 115
Current 75 40 50
Contemporary 112.5 190 85
Total Marks 250 250 250
  • In both 2016 and 2017, majority of the questions came from contemporary issues i.e. topics older than one year. But in 2017, there is heavy focus on contemporary issues, over 75% questions from this area only, wherein 2018 heavy focus on theory portion. (I count nuclear energy benefits, Ramsar sites, biodiversity act and other things as ‘theory’ and not contemporary, on the logic that you just have to go through one standard reference book to prepare it.)
  • Implications: rather than doing haay-haay for ‘latest and minutest’ current affairs, one should look back at what has been happening in last 3-5-7-10 years in contemporary perspective and the theories associated with them.

Opinion / Assessment Type Questions

Type of Question 2016 2017 2018
  • Write Opinion, assessment, suggestion, prospects.
  • Analyse impact of xyz, examine how abc’s role in achieving pqr
  • Discuss whether  good x is true but bad y is also happening.
62.5 95 105
  • Non-Opinion.
  • Just describe, narrate things as they are, steps that already taken, without judging their merit / impact.
187.5 155 145
Total Marks 250 250 250

In 2017, there is slight increase in the ‘opinion / assessment’ type questions. Same trend has continued with 2018 as well.

Length wise same as last year

2016 2017 2018
20 questions: all have to be answered in 200 words
  • 10 questions in 150 words each
  • 10 questions in 250 words each
Same as 2017
Total 4000 words. Total 4000 words. Total 4000 words.

Length wise there is no difference compared to last year, but paper is tougher because this time more ‘contemporary, opinion, analysis’ type questions where you’ve to pause, think, arrange points in logical sequence and then answer.

Observation / Analysis of UPSC Mains-2018 GS3 Paper

  • Lengthwise it’s the same like last year ten questions worth 250 words, another ten questions worth 150 words.
  • Overall, slightly more tougher and more random paper than last year. On one hand they’ve asked from HOT current topics such as 1.5xtimes MSP and Justice B. N. Srikrishna Committee Report but at the same time, random questions about taxation and sciencetech balance out those easy questions.
  • Essay2017: Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India. -2017. Now, GSM3-2018: How can MSP rescue farmers from low income trap?
  • 2016: three questions about agro / cropping, and now same Agroprem reappeared 1) organic state 2) NHM 3) millets.
  • Environmentprem intensified last year only one question, this time three questions.
  • Nothing from land reforms.
  • Till now they had been asking about generic questions from the budget. First time asked technical type question about LCGT and DDT tax provisions in the latest budget.
  • First time asked about NITI Ayog.
  • Last two years, they had been asking generic questions from Indian spacetech. Now complex question about Bose-Einstein-Statistics, that very few would have prepared for the descriptive exam.
  • Sudden and intensified interest in the energy. Two questions about energy 1) nuclear 2) renewable.
  • Overstepping the syllabus. GSM3: “Border areas security management” so, ChinaPak Economic corridor is more suitable to be asked in GSM2- which has syllabus topic “Policies of other countries affecting Indian interests.”
  • Naxal/LWE question resurfaces again after 2015 although gist of the matter is same – what has been done / should be done.

Topicwise Papers since Syllabus Change

In 2013, UPSC changed the syllabus-pattern of Mains examination and the number of general studies (GS) papers were increased from two to four. Out of them, GS Paper-3 deals with Economy, Agriculture, Environment, Disaster management, science technology and security. Here are the topicwise sorted questions since the pattern change:

[Block #1] Economy

UPSC Mains-2018 GS Paper3: economy

This block contains topics related to economy, infrastructure, investment

Growth and Resource mobilization

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Indian Economy (issues re: planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development, employment); Inclusive growth and issues therein

How are the principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile Planning Commission in India? 2018
Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential? 2017
Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports. 2017
What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth. 2017
Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion. 2016
Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges. 2016
The nature of economic growth in India in described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer. 2015
Craze for gold in Indians have led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme. 2015
Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss. 2014
With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new companies bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the bill and their implications. 2013
“Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments. 2015
While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain. 2014

Economy: Budget

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Government Budgeting

Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long-term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019. 2018
One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective. 2017
Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context? 2016
In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss. 2015
What are the reasons for introduction of Fiscal responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. 2013
What is meaning of the term tax-expenditure? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences budgetary policies of the government. 2013
Discussion the rationale for introducing Good and services tax in India. Bring out critically the reasons for delay in roll out for its regime. 2013

Economy: Investment and Infrastructure

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Infrastructure (energy, ports, roads, airports, railways); Investment models

With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy. 2018
Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. 2018
Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership(PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard. 2017
What are ‘Smart Cities? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission. 2016
Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India. 2016
There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration. 2015
The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialisation and agriculture in India? 2014
National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard. 2014
Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised? 2014
Adaptation of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model. 2013

Economy: Liberalization

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Effects of Liberalisation on the economy; Changes in Industrial policy & their effects on industrial growth

How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India? 2018
“Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate? 2017
How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country? 2016
Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base? 2014
Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalised. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run? 2014
Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indian. Are the competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? 2013
Discuss the impact of FDI entry into multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy. 2013
Though India allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in what is called multi brand retail through joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI even after a year, has not picket up. Discuss the reasons. 2013

[Block#2] Agriculture

UPSC Mains-2018 GS Paper3: Agriculture

This block contains Topics related to farming, food processing and food security

Food: Cropping-irrigation

Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State? 2018
Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers? 2018
How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption. 2018
What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system? 2017
What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency. 2016
What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture. 2016
Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) 2016

Food: Tech. in aid of farmers

GS3 Syllabus Topic: e-technology to aid farmers, Technology missions;

Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India? 2017
How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regards? 2015

Food: Food processing industry

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Food processing and related industries in India (scope & significance, location, upstream-downstream requirements, supply chain management); storage, transport & marketing of agro-produce and related issues & constraints; Economics of animal-rearing

Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries? 2018
What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers? 2017
Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sectors in India 2015
In view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non-viable for a majority of farmers, should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros and cons. 2015
What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks? 2015
There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine. 2014
India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement. 2013

Food: Land reforms

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Land Reforms in India

Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India. 2016
Establish the relationship between land reform, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in Indian Economy. Discussion the difficulty in designing and implementation of the agriculture friendly land reforms in India. 2013

Food: MSP

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Farm subsidies and MSP and issues therein (direct and indirect); PDS (objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, issues of buffer stocks & food security)

What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap? 2018
How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers? 2017
“In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constrain and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients? 2014
Food security bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO 2013
What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and state levels? Critically analyze the agriculture subsidy regime with the reference to the distortions created by it. 2013

[Block #3] Science

UPSC Mains-2018 GS Paper3: science

This block contains topics related to environment, science-tech and disaster management

Disaster Management

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Disasters & Disaster Management

Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005? 2018
On December 2004, tsumani brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. 2017
The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods. highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. 2016
With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand. 2016
The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects. 2015
Drought has been recognised as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India. 2014
How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management. As an administrator ,what are key areas that you would focus in a disaster management 2013

Environment and Pollution Control

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Environmental conservation; Environmental pollution and degradation; Environmental Impact Assessment

EIA What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment? 2018
EIA What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India. 2018
EIA How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna? 2018
EIA ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? 2017
EIA Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects. 2016
Energy-Thermal What are the consequences of illegal mining? Discuss the ministry of environment and forests’ concept of “GO AND NO GO” zones for coal mining. 2013
Energy- RNW Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). 2016
Energy- RNW To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry? 2015
Energy- RNW Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth. 2014
Thermal energy Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads. 2014
Thermal energy Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problems of conventional energy. 2013
River Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment. 2017
River What do you understand by run of the river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? 2013
River The Namami Gange and National mission for clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs? 2015
River Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? 2013

Science-Tech: Awareness

GS3 Syllabus Topic: S&T developments and everyday applications & effects; Awareness in fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nanotech, Biotech, IPR issues

Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma? 2018
Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and several burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments? 2017
India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which has a database containing formatted information on more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in the country’s fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pros and cons making this database publicly available under open-source licensing 2015
What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation. 2015
In a globalised world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms – copyrights, patents and trade secrets. 2014
What do you understand by Umpire decision review in cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicon tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system? 2013
What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured? Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industry 2013
Bring out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to section 3(d) in the India n Patent Law, 1970. Discuss how it has been utilized by Supreme court in its judgment rejecting Novartis patent application for “Glivec”. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision. 2013
How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. 2013
What do you understand by fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits. 2013

Science-Tech: Indians

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Achievements of Indians in S&T; Indigenisation of technology & development of new technology

Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics. 2018
India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically. 2017
Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India? 2017
Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development? 2016
Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country. 2016
What do you understand by ‘Standard Positioning Systems’ and ‘Protection Positioning Systems’ in the GPS era? Discuss the advantages India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites. 2015
Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as our business operations, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer oriented. Critically comment. 2014
Can overuse and the availability of antibiotics without doctor’s prescription, the contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved. 2014

[Block#4] Security

UPSC Mains-2018 GS Paper3: border security

This block contains topics related to security, crime, extremism

Security: Terrorism, Extremists (LWE, NE)

GS3 Syllabus Topic:

  1. Linkages between Development & spread of Extremism;
  2. Linkages of Organized crime and Terrorism
  3. Linkages of Pakistan and Terrorism
Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE. 2018
Mob violence is emerging as a serious law and order problem in India. By giving suitable examples, analyze the causes and consequences of such violence. 2017
The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding? 2017
The north-eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region. 2017
“Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement. 2016
The persisting drives of the government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements with Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci, discuss the corrective strategies needed to win the left wing extremism (LWE) doctrine affected citizens back into the mainstream of social and economic growth. 2015
Religious indoctrination via digital media has resulted in Indian youth joining the ISIS. What is ISIS and its mission? How can ISIS be dangerous for the internal security of our country? 2015
Article 244 of Indian Constitution relates to Administration of Scheduled areas and tribal areas. Analyze the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of fifth schedule on the growth of Left Wing Extremism. 2013

Security: Cross border

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Border Areas (security challenges and management thereof); Security forces & agencies (mandate); Role of External State & Non-State actors in creating internal security challenges

The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative. Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same. 2018
The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions. 2016
Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. 2016
International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above the territory. What do you understand by airspace? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggests ways to contain the threat. 2014
The diverse nature of India as a multireligious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which has been in her neighbourhood. Discuss along with the strategies to be adopted to counter this environment. 2014
How illegal transborder migration does pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bring out the factors which give impetus to such migration. 2014
In 2012, the longitudinal marking of the high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65° East to 78° east in the Arabian Sea by International Maritime organisation. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns? 2014
China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What thread does it dispose for India’s security? Critically examine. 2014
How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management, particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar? 2013

Security: org. crime & money laundering

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Money laundering & Prevention

India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What counter-measures should be taken to prevent the same? 2018
Money laundering poses a serious threat to country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace? 2013

Security: Cyber security and social media

GS3 Syllabus Topic: Basics of Cyber Security; Role of media and social-networking sites in internal security challenges; Internal security challenges through communication networks

Data security has assumed significant importance in the digitized world due to rising cyber crimes. The Justice B. N. Srikrishna Committee Report addresses issues related to data security. What, in your view, are the strengths and weakness sof the Report relating to protection of personal data in cyber space? 2018
Discuss the potential threats of Cyber attack and the security framework to prevent it. 2017
Use of Internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major concern. How have these have misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat. 2016
Discuss the advantage and security implications of cloud hosting of server vis-a-vis in-house machine-based hosting for government businesses. 2015
Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a “Digital Armed Force” to prevent crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation. 2015
What is digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Giver various salient built in features of a digital signature. 2013
What are social networking site and what security implications do these sites present? 2013
Cyber warfare is considered by some defense analysts to be a larger threat than even Al Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same. 2013

Security- Security forces

Human rights activists constantly highlight the view that the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is a draconian act leading to cases of human rights abuses by the security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by the activists? Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by the Apex Court. 2015
unacademy IAS coaching Bottom Banner

Mrunal recommends

7 Comments on “[Download] UPSC Mains-2018 GSM3 Topicwise All Papers (2013-2018). Paper-3 tougher & more theoretic than last year”

  1. Thank you sir.

  2. Great analysis..thank u

  3. only source of analysis which i trust..thank you SIR

  4. only source of analysis that i trust…thank you sir

  5. Probably,Bose-Einstein statistics is asked due to the celebrations of 125th birth anniversary of S.N. BOSE …….
    But,it is strange UPSC is going to such depths and interlinkings in asking questions…..
    Thanks for a beautiful analysis,sir !

  6. In the NCERT Class 12 Macroeconomics (2018 version) Chapter 2 Question 6 asks for budget and trade deficit related calculation but both the concepts are not mentioned anywhere in the text of chapter. The books mentions reprinted since 2007 but I found old PDF of same NCERT book which has formula given in chapter 2. What to do now? The latest NCERT contains questions based on concepts which have been omitted out of the chapters but says it is reprint. Please help Mrunal sir.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *