- Syllabus of UPSC Mains-GSM4 General Studies Paper4
- [Block#1] Basic, Thinkers, EQ
- Ethics- Basic Theory
- Emotional intelligence & Allied Topics
- Thinkers, Reformers and Quotes
- [Block#2] Surroundings
- Family, Society, Education, Internet
- Case-Study: Promoting Girl education while ensuring their safety (2015)
- Case-Study: Wife-beater Boss: To do something or not? (2016)
- Social influence
- [Block#3] Job
- [Block#4A] Public organizations
- Public Org-Charter
- Public Org-Corruption
- Case Study: illegal migrants & corrupt Border officials (2022, 20m)
- Case Study: IPS & Journalist vs Mining Mafia (2022, 20m)
- Case Study: IAS vs Mining Mafia (2021, 20m)
- Case Study: Vice Principal vs College exam cheaters (2021, 20m)
- Case Study: Engineer vs Poor quality Bridge before election (2021,20m)
- Case Study: corruption in municipal construction (2020, 20m)
- Case-Study: Obliging to minister’s wishes for land-deal (2018)
- Case-Study: illegal building collapse? (2017)
- Case-Study: Opinion as honest officer (2017)
- Case-Study: “Shivaji-the Boss”: Movie plot (2016)
- Public Org-RTI / Transparency
- Case-Study: Snowden’s whistleblowing: right / wrong? (2018)
- Case-Study: PIO should do RTI stonewalling™ (2017)
- Case-Study: RTI: To hide or not to hide (2013)
- Case-Study: 5: Leaking information (2013)
- [Block#4B] International Relations (IR)
- Case Study: IR-defends export to friendly countries (2020, 20m)
- [Block#5] Private organizations / CSR
- Case Study: rejected consignment (2022, 20m)
- Case Study: Mir Jafar recruitment (2022, 20m)
- Case Study: Running Corona hospital (2021, 20m)
- Case Study: Food Processing Company’s brand image (2021, 20m)
- Case Study: CSR Funding in Amaria (2020, 20m)
- Case Study: Sexual Harassment in Pvt Company (2019) 20marks
- Case-Study: Give compensation to dead drunkard worker’s family (2017)
- Case-Study: Fake testimony to save manager? (2017)
- Case-Study: give bribe or end career (2014)
- Case-Study: Trade union issue (2015)
- Case-Study: To do Drug Research on non-profitable disease or not? (2015)
- Case-Study: To Whistle-blow against Polluting industry or not? (2016)
- Case-Study: New Project hurting lifestyle of locals? (2016)
- Appendix: Model Answer pe Free Lecture & Powerpoint
- In 2013, UPSC had changed mains syllabus. Fourth general studies paper is “ethics, integrity, aptitude”.
- Just like Demonetization, the GS4 Syllabus is noble in its objective but hastily thought and illplanned. Too many topics, verbose, repeating. Hence difficult to do any ‘trend’ analysis against previous years, if we follow the syllabus sequence given by UPSC.
- Therefore, I’ve combined and bifurcated syllabus topics; and I’m combining ‘case study’ marks within theory topics. The resultant classification is as following:
|Basic||EQ & Allied||30||10||0||10||10||20||10||10||10|
|Job||Civil Service Values||25||30||40||10||30||30||30||0||40||30|
|Pub.Org||Pub Org & Dilemma||10||60||20||30||0||70||40||30||0||50|
|Pub.Org||Code of Conduct||0||0||0||10||0||10||40||0||0|
Syllabus of UPSC Mains-GSM4 General Studies Paper4
- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in – Human Actions; Dimensions of Ethics; Ethics – in Private and Public Relationships. Human Values – Lessons from the Lives and Teachings of Great Leaders, Reformers and Administrators;
- Emotional Intelligence-Concepts, and their Utilities and Application in Administration and Governance.
- Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India and World
- Role of Family in Inculcating Values.
- Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values.
- Attitude: Content, Structure, Function; its Influence and Relation with Thought and Behaviour; Moral and Political Attitudes; Social Influence and Persuasion.
- Empathy, Tolerance and Compassion towards the weaker-sections.
- Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Service, Integrity, Impartiality and Non-partisanship, Objectivity, Dedication to Public Service
- Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas in Government and Private Institutions;
- Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration: Status and Problems; Laws, Rules, Regulations and Conscience as Sources of Ethical Guidance; Accountability and Ethical Governance; Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance;
- Probity in Governance: Concept of Public Service; Philosophical Basis of Governance and Probity; Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work Culture, Quality of Service Delivery,
- Utilization of Public Funds, Challenges of Corruption.
- Information Sharing and Transparency in Government, Right to Information,
- Corporate Governance.
- Ethical Issues in International Relations and Funding;
- Case Studies on above issues.
[Block#1] Basic, Thinkers, EQ
Ethics- Basic Theory
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Ethics and Human Interface (essence, determinants, consequences of ethics in human actions); Dimensions of ethics; Ethics in public & private relationships
|It is believed that adherence to ethics in human actions would ensure in smooth functioning of an organization/system If so, what does ethics seek to promote in human life? How do ethical values assist in the resolution of conflicts faced by him in his day-to-day functioning?(10m, 150words). ||
यह माना जाता है कि मानवीय कार्यो में नैतिकता पालन किसी व्यवस्था के सुचारु कामकाज को सुनिश्चित करेगा I यदि हाँ, तो नैतिकता मानव जीवन में किसे बढ़ावा देना चाहती है। दिन-प्रतिदिन के कामकाज मे उसके सामने आने वाले व समाधान में नैतिक मूल्य किस किस प्रकार सहायता करते हैं
|“Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have the right to do and what is right to do” (10m, 150words)
“नैतिकता यह जानना है कि आपको क्या करने का अधिकार है और क्या क्या करना उचित है”
|“Integrity is a value that empowers the human being’’. Justify with suitable illustration. (150 words)||2021|
|What does this quotations mean to you in the present context: “Falsehood takes the place of truth when it results in unblemished common good.”- Tirukkural. (150 words)||2018|
|With regard to the morality of actions, one view is that means is of paramount importance and the other view is that the ends justify the means. Which view do you think is more appropriate? Justify your answer. (150 words)||2018|
|The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life. Discuss.||2017|
|Without commonly shared and widely entrenched moral values and obligations, neither the law, nor democratic government, nor even the market economy will function properly. What do you understand by this statement? Explain with illustration in the contemporary times.||2017|
|Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being.||2016|
|Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence. (a) Discuss how they achieve this objective. (b) Giving examples, show how the two differ in their approaches.||2016|
|What is meant by ‘environmental ethics’? Why is it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics.||2015|
|Differentiate between the following (200 words); a) Law and Ethics; b) Ethical management and Management of ethics; c) Discrimination and Preferential treatment; d) Personal ethics and Professional ethics||2015|
|Human beings should always be treated as ‘ends’ in themselves and never as merely `means’. Explain the meaning and significance of this statement, giving its implications in the modern techno-economic society.||2014|
|What do you understand by ‘values’ and ‘ethics’? In what way is it important to be ethical along with being professionally competent?||2013|
|Some people feel that values keep changing with time and situation, while others strongly believe that there are certain universal and eternal human values. Give your perception in this regard with due justification.||2013|
Emotional intelligence & Allied Topics
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Emotional Intelligence (concepts, utility & application in administration & governance)
|In case of a crisis of conscience does emotional intelligence help to overcome the same without compromising the ethical and moral stand that you are likely to follow? Critically examine. (150 words)||2021|
|What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI) ? Can they be learned? discuss. (150 words)||2020|
|“Emotional Intelligence is the ability to make your emotions work for you instead of against you.” Do you agree with this view? Discuss. (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|What does this quotations mean to you in the present context: Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding. “ _ Mahatma Gandhi. (150 words)||2018|
|“In doing a good thing, everything is permitted which is not prohibited expressly or by clear implication”. Examine the statement with suitable examples in the context of a public servant discharging his/her duties. (150 words)||2018|
|How will you apply emotional intelligence in administrative practices?||2017|
|Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life. (a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours. (b) How can it be managed and controlled?||2016|
|All human beings aspire for happiness. Do you agree? What does happiness mean to you? Explain with examples.||2014|
|What is ’emotional intelligence’ and how can it be developed in people? How does it help an individual in taking ethical decisions?||2013|
|What do you understand by the term ‘voice of conscience’? How do you prepare yourself to heed to the voice of conscience?||2013|
|What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? Narrate one incident in your life when you were faced with such a crisis and how you resolved the same.||2013|
Thinkers, Reformers and Quotes
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Contributions of Moral Thinkers & Philosophers from India and world; human value lessons from great leaders, reformers & administrators
|3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you?
(b) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel that there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are father, mother and teacher.”
-APJ Abdul Kalam(10m, 150words) || 3. निम्नलिखित में से प्रत्येक उद्धरण आपके लिए क्या मायने रखता है?
(b) “अगर किसी देश को भ्रष्टाचार मुक्त होना है और सुंदर दिमाग का देश बनना है, तो मुझे दृढ़ता से लगता है कि तीन प्रमुख सामाजिक सदस्य हैं जो फर्क कर सकते हैं। वे पिता, माता और शिक्षक हैं।” -एपीजे अब्दुल कलाम (150 शब्दों में उत्तर दें)
|3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you?
(c) Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it.”-Dalai Lama (10m, 150words) || 3. निम्नलिखित में से प्रत्येक उद्धरण आपके लिए क्या मायने रखता है?
(c) अपनी सफलता का मूल्यांकन इस बात से करें कि इसे पाने के लिए आपको क्या छोड़ना पड़ा।”-दलाई लामा
|What does this quotations mean to you in the present context: “The true rule, in determining to embrace, or reject anything, is not whether it has any evil in it; but whether it has more evil than good. There are few things wholly evil or wholly good. Almost everything, especially of governmental policy, is an inseparable compound of the two; so that our best judgement of the preponderance between them is continually demanded. ” Abraham Lincoln. (150 words)||2018|
|“Every work has got to pass through hundreds of difficulties before succeeding. Those that persevere will see the light, sooner or later” – Swami Vivekananda (150 words)||2021|
|“We can never obtain peace in the outer world until and unless we obtain peace within ourselves” – Dalai Lama (150 words)||2021|
|“Life doesn’t make any sense without interdependence. We need each other, and the sooner we learn that it is better for us all” – Erik Erikson (150 words)||2021|
|What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss. (150 words)||2020|
|What are the main factors responsible for gender responsibility in India ? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard. (150 words).||2020|
|”Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand do so. If not fold your hands, bless your brothers and let them go their own way.” – Swami Vivekanand (150 words).||2020|
|“The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in service of others .” Mahatma Gandhi (150 words).||2020|
|”A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates. (150 words).||2020|
|“An unexamined life is not worth living.” – Socrates (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|“A man is but the product of his thoughts. What he thinks, he becomes.” – M.K.Gandhi (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|“Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world.” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|“Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it may perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles which direct them.” – Napoleon Bonaparte. Stating examples mention the rulers (i) who have harmed society and country, (ii) who worked for the development of society and country.||2017|
|Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of seven sins.||2016|
|Analyse John Rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian context.||2016|
|Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, Administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national Development. Discuss Kautilya’s views.||2016|
|Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realise that the State bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality. Critically analyse this statement.||2016|
|“The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.”||2015|
|We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.||2015|
|Which eminent personality has inspired you the most in the context of ethical conduct in life? Give the gist of his/her teachings giving specific examples, describe how you have been able to apply these teachings for your own ethical development.||2014|
|There is enough on this earth for every one’s need but for no one’s greed. Mahatma Gandhi.||2013|
|Nearly all men can withstand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power.—Abraham Lincoln||2013|
|I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies.—Aristotle||2013|
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Attitude (content, structure, function, influence & relation with thought & behaviour); Moral and Political Attitudes
|A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes a positive attitude in person.? (150 words).||2020|
|Attitude is an important component that goes as input in the development of human beings. How to build a suitable attitude needed for a public servant? (150 words)||2021|
|Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward.||2017|
|In the context of defense services, ‘patriotism’ demands readiness to even lay down one’s life in protecting the nation. According to you, what does patriotism imply in everyday civil life? Explain with illustrations and justify your answer.||2014|
|It is often said that ‘politics’ and ‘ethics’ do not go together. What is your opinion in this regard? Justify your answer with illustrations.||2013|
Family, Society, Education, Internet
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Role of family, society, educational institutions in inculcating values;
|“Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all-round development of an individual and social transformation”.Examine the New Education Policy,2020(NEP,2020)in light of the above statement. (150 words)||2020|
|‘Hatred is destructive of a person‘s wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation’s spirit. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words)||2020|
|The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are in conflict with traditional values. Discuss. (150 words).||2020|
|Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of modern democratic and egalitarian society. (a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today’s educated Indians. (b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants?||2016|
|Social values are more important than economic values. Discuss the above statement with examples in the context of inclusive growth of a nation.||2015|
|The current society is plagued with widespread trust-deficit. What are the consequences of this situation for personal well-being and for societal well-being? What can you do at the personal level to make yourself trustworthy?||2014|
|What factors affect the formation of a person’s attitude towards social problems? In our society, contrasting attitudes are prevalent about many social problems. What contrasting attitudes do you notice about the caste system in our society? How do you explain the existence of these contrasting attitudes?||2014|
|We are witnessing increasing instances of sexual violence against women in the country. Despite existing legal provisions against it, the number of such incidences is on the rise. Suggest some innovative measures to tackle this menace.||2014|
Case-Study: Promoting Girl education while ensuring their safety (2015)
You are recently posted as district development officer of a district. Shortly thereafter you found that there is considerable tension in the rural areas of your district on the issue of sending girls to schools.
The elders of the village feel that many problems have come up because girls are being educated and they are stepping out of the safe environment of the household. They are of the view that the girls should be quickly married off with minimum education. The girls are also competing for jobs after education, which have traditionally remained in boys’ exclusive domain, adding to unemployment amongst male population.
The younger generation feels that in the present era, girls should have equal opportunities for education and employment, and other means of livelihood. The entire locality is divided between the elders and the younger lot and further sub-divided between sexes in both generations. You come to know that in Panchayat or in other local bodies or even in busy crossroads, the issue is being acrimoniously debated.
One day you are informed that an unpleasant incident has taken place. Some girls were molested, when they were en route to schools. The incident led to clashes between several groups and a law and order problem has arisen. The elders after heated discussion have taken a joint decision not to allow girls to go to school and to socially boycott all such families, which do not follow their dictate.
- What steps would you take to ensure girls’ safety without disrupting their education?
- How would you manage and mould matriarchic attitude of the village elders to ensure harmony in the inter-generational relations? (250 words) (25 Marks)
Case-Study: Wife-beater Boss: To do something or not? (2016)
You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant, to the director of your deportment. Since you’ve joined recently, you need to learn and progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very intelligent and well-informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you respect your book and are looking forward to learn a lot from him.
Since you’ve good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work. You reached his house and you heard shouting noises before you could ring the bell. You waited for a while. After entering, boss greeted you and explained the work. But you were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his answer did not satisfy you. Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behavior is very had at home with his wife. He also beat up his wife.
His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. You see that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home. In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its consequences.
- Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.
- Report the case to the appropriate authority.
- Your own innovative approach towards the situation. (250 words)
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Social Influence and Persuasion
|How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swatchh Bharat Abhiyan?||2016|
This graph deals with block 3, 4 and 5
Sarkaari Job Values
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Civil Service aptitude & foundational values (integrity, impartiality, non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service:
|Should impartial and being non-partisan be considered indispensable qualities to make a successful civil servant? Discuss with illustrations. (150 words)||2021|
|Besides domain knowledge, a public official needs innovativeness and creativity of a high order as well, while resolving ethical dilemmas. Discuss with a suitable example. (150 words)||2021|
|Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix. (150 words)||2021|
|Identify ten essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant. Describe the ways and means to prevent non-ethical behaviour in public servants. (150 words)||2021|
|What do you understand by the term ‘public servant’? Reflect on the expected role of a public servant.(150 words, 10m)||2019|
|“In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” – Warren Buffett. What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain. (150 words)||2018|
|What is mean by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest? (150 words)||2018|
|State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the context of civil services and bring out their importance. (150 words)||2018|
|Examine the relevance of the following in the context of civil service: (a) Transparency (b) Accountability (c) Fairness and justice (d) Courage of conviction (e) Spirit of service.||2017|
|One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real life example.||2017|
|Conflict of interest in the public sector arises when (a) official duties, (b) public interest, and (c) personal interest are taking priority one above the other. How can this conflict in administration be resolved? Describe with an example.||2017|
|Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples.||2016|
|Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of ‘Conflict of Interest’. What do you understand by the term ‘Conflict of Interest’ and how does it manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of interest situation, how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples.||2015|
|How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples.||2015|
|A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also has to have a well-developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties.” Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples, where (i) an act is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically.||2015|
|Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as the bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude. A) Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits. B) Is it possible to balance the two to create a better administration for the faster development of our country?||2015|
|What does ‘accountability’ mean in the context of public service? What measures can be adopted to ensure individual and collective accountability of public servants?||2014|
|Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, but knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. What do you understand by this statement? Explain your stand with illustrations from the modern context.||2014|
|There is a heavy ethical responsibility on the public servants because they occupy positions of power, handle huge amounts of public funds, and their decisions have wide-ranging impact on society and environment. What steps have you taken to improve your ethical competence to handle such responsibility?||2014|
|What do you understand by the following terms in the context of public service? (5 terms x 3 marks each: a) Integrity b) Perseverance c) Spirit of service d) Commitment e) Courage of conviction f) Personal opinion||2013|
|Indicate two more attributes which you consider important for public service. Justify your answer. (10 marks |100 words)||2013|
Case Study: politicization of bureaucracy (2019) 20marks
In a modern democratic polity, there is a concept of the political executive and permanent executive elected people’s representatives forms the political executive and bureaucracy form the permanent executive. Ministers frame policy decisions and bureaucrats execute these. In the initial decades after independence, the relationship between the permanent executives and the political executives were characterized by mutual understanding, respect, and cooperation, without encroaching upon each other’s domain.
However, in subsequent decades, the situation has changed. There are instances of the political executive insisting upon the permanent executives to follow its agenda. Respect for an appreciation of upright bureaucrats has declined. There is an increasing tendency among the political executive to get involved in routine administrative matters such as transfers, posting etc. Under this scenario, there is a definitive trend towards ‘politicization of bureaucracy’. The rising materialism and acquisitiveness in social life has also adversely impacted upon the ethical values of both the permanent executive and the political executive.
What are the consequences of this ‘politicization of bureaucracy? Discuss. (250 words) (20 marks)
Work Culture @Office
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Work Culture
From this topic, case studies are formed instead of theoretical question. These case studies are usually related to sexual harassment, work deadline, Chalta hai mindset, pressure from above etc.
|Discipline generally implies following the order and subordination. However, it may be counter-productive for the organisation. Discuss.||2017|
Case Study: Toxic Boss (2021, 20m)
Pawan is working as an officer in the State Government for the last ten years. As a part of the routine transfer, he was posted to another department. He joined a new office along with five other colleagues. The head of the office was a senior officer conversant with the functioning of the office. As a part of general inquiry, Pawan gathered that his senior officer carries the reputation of being a difficult and insensitive person having his own disturbed family life. Initially, all seem to go well. However, after some time Pawan felt that the senior officer was belittling him and at times unreasonable. Whatever suggestions given or views expressed by Pawan in the meetings were summarily rejected and the senior officer would express displeasure in the presence of others. It became a pattern of the boss’s style of functioning to show him in bad light highlighting his shortcomings and humiliating him publicly. It became apparent that though there are no serious work-related problems/shortcomings, the senior officer was always on one pretext or the other and would scold and shout at him. The continuous harassment and public criticism of Pawan resulted in the loss of confidence, self-esteem and equanimity. Pawan realized that his relations with his senior officer are becoming more toxic and due to this, he perpetually tensed, anxious and stressed. His mind was occupied with negativity and caused him mental torture, anguish and agony. Eventually, it badly affected his personal and family life. He was no longer joyous, happy and contented even at home. Rather without any reason, he would lose his temper with his wife and other family members. The family environment was no longer pleasant and congenial. His wife who was always supportive of him also became a victim of his negativity and hostile behaviour. Due to harassment and humiliation suffering by him in the office, comfort and happiness virtually vanished from his life. Thus, it damaged his physical and mental health.
- a) What are the options available with Pawan to cope up with the situation?
- b) What approach Pawan should adopt for bringing, peace, tranquillity and a congenial environment in the office and home?
- c) As an outsider, what are your suggestions for both boss and subordinate to overcome this situation and for improving the work performance, mental and emotional hygiene?
- d) In the above scenario, what type of training would you suggest for officers at various levels in the government offices?
Case-Study: Engineer: Bogus flyover vs deadline (2013)
You are working as an Executive Engineer in the construction cell of a Municipal Corporation and are presently in-charge of the construction of a flyover. There are two Junior Engineers under you who have the responsibility of day-to-day inspection of the site and are reporting to you, while you are finally reporting to the Chief Engineer who heads the cell. While the construction is heading towards completion, the Junior Engineers have been regularly reporting that all construction is taking place as per design specifications. However, in one of your surprise inspections, you have noticed some serious deviations and lacunae which, in your opinion, are likely to affect the safety of the flyover. Rectification of these lacunae at this stage would require a substantial amount of demolition and rework which will cause a tangible loss to the contractor and will also delay completion. There is a lot of public pressure on the Corporation to get this construction completed because of heavy traffic congestion in the area. When you brought this matter to the notice of the Chief Engineer, he advised you that in his opinion it is not a very serious lapse and may be ignored. He advised for further expediting the project for completion in time. However, you are convinced that this was a serious matter which might affect public safety and should not be left unaddressed.
What will you do in such a situation? Some of the options are given below. Evaluate the merits and demerits of each of these options and finally suggest what course of action you would like to take, giving reasons. (20 marks |250 words)
- Follow the advice of the Chief Engineer and go ahead.
- Make an exhaustive report of the situation bringing out all facts and analysis along with your own viewpoints stated clearly and seek for written orders from the chief Engineer.
- Call for explanation from the Junior Engineers and issue orders to the contractor for necessary correction within targeted time.
- Highlight the issue so that it reaches superiors above the Chief Engineer.
- Considering the rigid attitude of the Chief Engineer, seek transfer from the project or report sick.
Case-Study: Favoritism in Job recruitment (2013)
You are heading a leading technical institute of the country. The institute is planning to convene an interview panel shortly under your chairmanship for selection of the post of professors. A few days before the interview, you get a call from the Personal Secretary (PS) of a senior government functionary seeking your intervention in favour of the selection of a close relative of the functionary for this post. The PS also informs you that he is aware of the long pending and urgent proposals of your institute for grant of funds for modernization, which are awaiting the functionary’s approval. He assures you that he would get these proposals cleared. (20 marks | 250 words)
- What are the options available to you?
- Evaluate each of these options and choose the option which you would adopt, giving reasons.
Case-Study: Sexual Harassment (2013)
You are the Executive Director of an upcoming InfoTech Company which is making a name for itself in the market.
Mr. A, who is a star performer, is heading the marketing team. In a short period of one year, he has helped in doubling the revenues as well as creating a high brand equity for the Company so much so that you are thinking of promoting him. However, you have been receiving information from many corners about his attitude towards the female colleagues; particularly his habit of making loose comments on women. In addition, he regularly sends indecent SMS’s to all the team members including his female colleagues.
One day, late in the evening, Mrs. X, who is one of Mr. A’s team members, comes to you visibly disturbed. She complains against the continued misconduct of Mr. A, who has been making undesirable advances towards her and has even tried to touch her inappropriately in his cabin. She tenders her resignation and leaves your office. (20 marks | 250 words)
- What are the options available to you?
- Evaluate each of these options and choose the option you would adopt, giving reasons.
Case-Study: Bogus rape complaint (2014)
You are a no-nonsense, honest officer. You have been transferred to a remote district to head a department that is notorious for its inefficiency and callousness. You find that the main cause of the poor state of affairs is the indiscipline of a section of employees. They do not work themselves and also disrupt the working of others. You first warned the troublemakers to mend their ways or else face disciplinary action. When the warning had little effect, you issued a show cause notice to the ringleaders. As a retaliatory measure, these troublemakers instigated a woman employee amongst them to file a complaint of sexual harassment against you with the Women’s Commission. The Commission promptly seeks your explanation. The matter is also publicized in the media to embarrass you further. Some of the options to handle this situation could be as follows :
- Give your explanation to the Commission and go soft on the disciplinary action.
- Ignore the Commission and proceed firmly with the disciplinary action.
- Brief your higher-ups, seek directions from them and act accordingly.
Suggest any other possible option(s). Evaluate all of them and suggest the best course of action, giving your reasons for it.
Case-Study: Ethics not essential (2014)
Suppose one of your close friends, who is also aspiring for civil services, comes to you for discussing some of the issues related to ethical conduct in public service. He raises the following points :
- In the present times, when unethical environment is quite prevalent, individual attempts to stick to ethical principles may cause a lot of problems in one’s career. It may also cause hardship to the family members as well as risk to one’s life. Why should we not be pragmatic and follow the path of least resistance, and be happy with doing whatever good we can?
- When so many people are adopting wrong means and are grossly harming the system, what difference would it make if only a small minority tries to be ethical? They are going to be rather ineffective and are bound to get frustrated.
- If we become fussy about ethical considerations, will it not hamper the economic progress of our country? After all, in the present age of high competition, we cannot afford to be left behind in the race of development.
- It is understandable that we should not get involved in grossly unethical practices, but giving and accepting small gratifications and doing small favours increases everybody’s motivation. It also makes the system more efficient. What is wrong in adopting such practices?
Critically analyze the above viewpoints. On the basis of this analysis, what will be your advice to your friend? 250 words.
Case-Study: Disillusioned UPSC topper (2014)
Rameshwar successfully cleared the prestigious civil services examination and was excited about the opportunity that he would get through the civil services to serve the country. However, soon after joining the services, he realized that things are not as rosy as he had imagined.
He found a number of malpractices prevailing in the department assigned to him. For example, funds under various schemes and grants were being misappropriated. The official facilities were frequently being used for personal needs by the officers and staff. After some time, he noticed that the process of recruiting the staff was also not up to the mark. Prospective candidates were required to write an examination in which a lot of cheating was going on. Some candidates were provided external help in the examination. Rameshwar brought these incidents to the notice of his seniors. However, he was advised to keep his eyes, ears and mouth shut and ignore all these things which were taking place with the connivance of the higher-ups. Rameshwar felt highly disillusioned and uncomfortable. He comes to you seeking your advice.
Indicate various options that you think are available in this situation. How would you help him to evaluate these options and choose the most appropriate path to be adopted? 250 words.
Case-Study: Dubious plot acquired for school (2015)
You are heading a district administration in a particular department. Your senior officer calls you from the State Headquarters and tells you that a plot in Rampur village is to have a building constructed on it for a school. A visit is scheduled during which he will visit the site along with the chief engineer and the senior architect. He wants you to check out all the papers relating to it and to ensure that the visit is properly arranged. You examine the file which relates to the period before you joined the department. The land was acquired from the local Panchayat at a nominal cost and the papers show that clearance certificates are available from the two of the three authorities who have to certify the site’s suitability. There is no certification by the architect available on file. You decide to visit Rampur to ensure that all is in order as stated on file. When you visit Rampur, you find that the plot under reference is part of Thakurgarh Fort and that the walls, ramparts, etc., are running across it. The fort is well away from the main village, therefore a school here will be a serious inconvenience for the children. However, the area near the village has potential to expand into a larger residential area. The development charges on the existing plot, at the fort, will be very high and the question of heritage site has not been addressed. Moreover, the Sarpanch, at the time of acquisition of the land, was a relative of your predecessor. The whole transaction appears to have been done with some vested interest.
- List the likely vested interests of the concerned parties.
- Some of the options for action available to you are listed below. Discuss the merits and demerits of each of the options :
- You can await the visit of the superior officer and let him take a decision.
- You can seek his advice in writing or on phone.
- You can consult your predecessor/colleagues, etc., and then decide what to do.
- You can find out if any alternate plot can be got in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.
Can you suggest any other option with proper justification? (250 words) 25
Compassion for others while on job
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: empathy, tolerance & compassion towards weaker sections
Case Study: Compassion- child labour in Cotton farm (2020, 20m)
Rampura, a remote district inhabited by a tribal population, is marked by extreme backwardness and abject poverty. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local population, though it is subsistence due to the very small landholdings. There is insignificant industrial or mining activity. Even the targeted welfare programs have inadequately benefited the tribal population. In this restrictive scenario, the youth has begun to migrate to other states to supplement the family income. Plight of minor girls is that their parents are persuaded by labour contractors to send them to work in the Bt Cotton farms of a nearby state. The soft fingers of the minor girls are well suited for plucking the cotton. The inadequate living and working conditions in these farms have caused serious health issues for the minor girls. NGOs in the districts of domicile and the cotton farms appear to be compromised and have not effectively espoused the twin issues of child labour and development of the area.
You are appointed as the District Collector of Rampura. Identify the ethical issues involved. Which specific steps will you initiate to ameliorate the conditions of minor girls of your district and to improve the overall economic scenario in the district (250 words)
Case Study: compassion for migrant workers in corona (2020, 20m)
Migrant workers have always remained at the socio-economic margins of our society, silently serving as the instrumental labour force of urban economics. The pandemic has brought them into national focus.
On announcement of a countrywide lockdown, a very large number of migrant workers decided to move back from their places of employment to their native villages. The non-availability of transport created its own problems. Added to this was the fear of starvation and inconvenience to their families. This caused, the migrant workers to demand wages and transport facilities for returning to their villages. Their mental agony was accentuated by multiple factors such as a sudden loss of livelihood, possibility of lack of food and inability to assist in harvesting their rabi crop due to not being able to reach home in time. Reports of inadequate response of some districts in providing the essential boarding and lodging arrangements along the way multiplied their fears.
You have learnt many lessons from this situation when you were tasked to oversee the functioning of the District Disaster Relief Force in your district. In your opinion what ethical issues arose in the current migrant crisis? What do you understand by an ethical care giving state? What assistance can the civil society render to mitigate the sufferings of migrants in similar situations? (250 words)
Case-Study: ineligible beneficiary for health-scheme (2018)
Rakesh is a responsible district level officer, who enjoys the trust of his higher officials. Knowing his honesty, the government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens. The criteria to be a beneficiary are the following:
- 60 years of age or above.
- Belonging to a reserved community.
- Family income of less than 1 Lakh rupees per annum.
- Post-treatment prognosis is likely to be high to make a positive difference to the quality of life of the beneficiary.
One day, an old couple visited Rakesh’s office with their application. They have been the residents of a village in his district since their birth. The old man is diagnosed with a rare condition that causes obstruction in the large intestine. As a consequence, he has severe abdominal pain frequently that prevents him from doing any physical labour. The couple has no children to support them. The expert surgeon whom they contacted is willing to do the surgery without charging any fee. However, the couple will have to bear the cost of incidental charges, such as medicines, hospitalization, etc., to the tune of rupees one lakh. The couple fulfils all the criteria except criterion ‘b’. However, any financial aid would certainly make a significant difference in their quality of life. How should Rakesh respond to the situation? (250 words, 20m)
Case-Study: IRS officer’s compassion for a public-spirited Doctor (2018)
Dr X is a leading medical practitioner in a city. He has set up a charitable trust through which he plans to establish a super-speciality hospital in the city to cater to the medical needs of all sections of the society. Incidentally, that part of the State had been neglected over the years. The proposed hospital would be a boon for the region. You are heading the tax investigation agency of that region. During an inspection of the doctor’s clinic, your officers have found out some major irregularities. A few of them are substantial which had resulted in considerable withholding of tax that should be paid by him now. The doctor is cooperative. He undertakes to pay the tax immediately. However, there are certain other deficiencies in his tax compliance which are purely technical in nature. If these technical defaults are pursued by the agency, considerable time and energy of the doctor will be diverted to issues which are not so serious, urgent or even helpful to the tax collection process. Further, in all probability, it will hamper the prospects of the hospital coming up. There are two options before you:
- Taking a broader view, ensure substantial tax compliance and ignore defaults that are merely technical in nature.
- Pursue the matter strictly and proceed on all fronts,whether substantial or merely technical.
As the head of the tax agency, which course of action will you opt and why? (250 words, 20 marks)
Case-Study: Help accident victim on interview day? (2017)
Q10. You are aspiring to become an IAS officer and you have cleared various stages and now you have been selected for the personal interview. On the day of the interview, on the way to the venue you saw an accident where a mother and child who happen to be your relatives were badly injured. They needed immediate help. What would you have done in such a situation? Justify your action. (250 Words, 20)
Case-Study: Child Labourers in Sivakasi (2013)
Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu is known for its manufacturing clusters on firecrackers and matches. The local economy of the area is largely dependent on firecrackers industry. It has led to tangible economic development and improved standard of living in the area.
So far as child labour norms for hazardous industries like firecrackers industry are concerned, International Labour Organization (ILO) has set the minimum age as 18 years. In India, however, this age is 14 years.
The units in industrial clusters of firecrackers can be classified into registered and non-registered entities. One typical unit is household-based work. Though the law is clear on the use of child labour employment norms in registered/non-registered units, it does not include household-based works. Household-based work means children working under the supervision of their parents/relatives. To evade child labour norms, several units project themselves as household-based works but employ children from outside. Needless to say that employing children saves the costs for these units leading to higher profits to the owners.
On your visit to one of the units at Sivakasi, the owner takes you around the unit which has about 10-15 children below 14 years of age. The owner tells you that in his household-based unit, the children are all his relatives. You notice that several children smirk, when the owner tells you this. On deeper enquiry, you figure out that neither the owner nor the children are able to satisfactorily establish their relationship with each other.
- Bring out and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.
- What would be your reaction after your above visit?
Case-Study: Dalit Cook in Mid-day Meal (2015)
You are the Sarpanch of a Panchayat. There is a primary school run by the government in your area. Midday meals are provided to the children attending the school. The Headmaster has now appointed a new cook in the school to prepare the meals. However, when it is found that the cook is from Dalit community, almost half of the children belonging to higher castes are not allowed to take meals by their parents. Consequently the attendance in the school falls sharply. This could result in the possibility of discontinuation of midday meal scheme, thereafter of teaching staff and subsequent closing down the school.
- Discuss some feasible strategies to overcome the conflict and to create right ambience.
- What should be the responsibilities of different social segments and agencies to create positive social ambience for accepting such changes?
Case-Study: Poor woman without documentary proof? (2016)
Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility criteria. But after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without are documents would clearly be violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman.
- Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma?
- Give your reasons for it. (250 words)
[Block#4A] Public organizations
Public Org- Theory
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Public service values & Ethics in Public Administration; Strengthening of ethical & moral values in governance; Accountability & ethical governance; Philosophical basis of governance and probity
|Write short notes on the following in 30 words each :
(i) Constitutional morality
(ii) Conflict of interest
(iii) Probity in public life
(iv) Challenges of digitalization
(v) Devotion to duty ||
निम्नलिखित पर प्रत्येक 30 शब्दों में संक्षिप्त नोट्स लिखें:
(i) संवैधानिक नैतिकता
(ii) हितों का टकराव
(iii) सार्वजनिक जीवन में ईमानदारी
(iv) डिजिटलीकरण की चुनौतियां
(v) कर्तव्य के प्रति समर्पण
|what is meant by constitutional morality? How does one uphold constitutional morality?(150 words, 10m)||2019|
|What do you understand by probity in governance? Based on your understanding of the term, suggest measures for ensuring probity in government. (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’?||2016|
|What do you understand by ‘probity’ in public life? What are the difficulties in practicing it in the present times? How can these difficulties be overcome?||2014|
|What does ethics seek to promote in human life? Why is it all the more important in public administration?||2014|
|The good of an individual is contained in the good of all. What do you understand by this statement? How can this principle be implemented in public life?||2013|
Public Org- Dilemma
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: problems, dilemmas in Public Administration and public service.
From this topic, mainly case studies are formed- related to land acquisition; environmental conservation vs. economic development etc.
|4 (a) What do you understand by the term good governance? How far recent initiatives in terms of e-Governance steps taken by the State have helped the beneficiaries? Discuss with suitable examples.(10m, 150words) || 4 (a) सुशासन शब्द से आप क्या समझते हैं? राज्य द्वारा उठाए गए ई-गवर्नेंस कदमों के संदर्भ में हाल की पहलों ने लाभार्थियों की कितनी मदद की है? उपयुक्त उदाहरणों के साथ चर्चा कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दें)||2022|
|4 (b) Online methodology is being used for day-to-day meetings, institutional approvals in the administration and for teaching and learning in education sector to the extent telemedicine in the health sector is getting popular with the approvals of the competent authority. No doubt, it has advantages and disadvantages for both the beneficiaries and the system at large. Describe and
discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of online method particularly to the vulnerable section of the society. (10m, 150words) || 4 (b) अनलाइन पद्धति का उपयोग दिन-प्रतिदिन मन की बैठक, सांस्थानिक अनुरोधन और शिक्षा क्षेत्र में शिक्षण तथा अधम से लेकर स्वाध के अनुदन से टेलीमेडिसिन तक लोकप्रिय हो रहा है। इक साधार्थियों और व्यवस्था दोनों के लिए बड़े पैमाने पर इसके साथ और हानियाँ है। विशेषतः समाज के कमजोर समुदाय के लिए ऑनलाइन पद्धति के उपयोग में शामिल नैतिक मामलों का वर्णन तथा (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)
|Impact of digital technology as a reliable source of input for rational decision making is a debatable issue. Critically evaluate with a suitable example. (150 words)||2021|
|An independent and empowered social audit mechanism is an absolute must in every sphere of public service, including the judiciary, to ensure performance, accountability and ethical conduct. Elaborate. (150 words)||2021|
|Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them. (150 words).||2020|
|Explain the process of resolving ethical dilemmas in Public Administration. (150 words)||2018|
|Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley bond by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational policy should it resort to in dealing with unforeseen contingencies (150 words)||2018|
Case study: public org dilemma- Shutting down pollutant MSME (2022, 20m)
You are appointed as an officer heading the section in Environment Pollution Control Board to ensure compliance and its follow-up. In that region, there were large number of small and medium industries which had been granted clearance. You learnt that these industries provide employment to many migrant worker. Most of the industrial units have got environmental clearance certificate in their possession. The environmental clearance seeks to curb industries and projects that supposedly hamper environment and living species in the region, But in practice. most of these units remain to be polluting units in several ways like air, water and soil pollution. As such, local people encountered persistent health problems.
It was confirmed that majority of the industries were violating environmental compliance. You issued notice to all the industrial units to apply for fresh environmental clearance certificate from the competent authority. However, your action met with hostile response from a section of the industrial units, other vested interest persons and a section of the local politicians. The workers also became hostile to you as they felt that your action would lead to the closure of these industrial units, and the resultant unemployment will lead to insecurity uncertainty in their livelihood. Many owners of the industries approached you with the plea that you should not initiate harsh action as it would compel them their units, and cause huge financial loss, shortage of their products in the market. These would obviously add to the sufferings of the labourers and the consumers alike. The labour union also sent you representation requesting against the closure of the units. You simultaneously started receiving threats from unknown corners. You however received supports from some of your colleagues, who advised you to act freely to ensure environmental compliance. Local NGOs also came to your support and they demanded the closure of the polluting units immediately.
(a) What are the options available to you under the given situation?
(b) Critically examine the options listed by you.
(c) What type of mechanism would you suggest to ensure environmental compliance?
(d) What are the ethical dilemmas you faced in exercising your option?
(20m, 250words) || 12. अनुपालन सुनिश्चित करने और उसकी अनुवर्ती कार्रवाई सुनिश्चित करने के लिए आपको पर्यावरण प्रदूषण नियंत्रण बोर्ड में अनुभाग का नेतृत्व करने वाले अधिकारी के रूप में नियुक्त किया जाता है। उस क्षेत्र में, बड़ी संख्या में छोटे और मध्यम उद्योग थे जिन्हें मंजूरी दी गई थी। आपने सीखा कि ये उद्योग कई प्रवासी कामगारों को रोजगार प्रदान करते हैं। अधिकांश औद्योगिक इकाइयों के पास पर्यावरण अनापत्ति प्रमाण पत्र है। पर्यावरण मंजूरी उन उद्योगों और परियोजनाओं पर अंकुश लगाने का प्रयास करती है जो इस क्षेत्र में पर्यावरण और जीवित प्रजातियों को बाधित करते हैं, लेकिन व्यवहार में। इनमें से अधिकांश इकाइयाँ वायु, जल और मृदा प्रदूषण जैसे कई तरह से प्रदूषण इकाइयाँ बनी हुई हैं। ऐसे में स्थानीय लोगों को लगातार स्वास्थ्य समस्याओं का सामना करना पड़ा।
यह पुष्टि की गई थी कि अधिकांश उद्योग पर्यावरण अनुपालन का उल्लंघन कर रहे थे। आपने सभी औद्योगिक इकाइयों को सक्षम प्राधिकारी से नए सिरे से पर्यावरण मंजूरी प्रमाण पत्र के लिए आवेदन करने के लिए नोटिस जारी किया है। हालाँकि, आपकी कार्रवाई को औद्योगिक इकाइयों के एक वर्ग, अन्य निहित स्वार्थ वाले व्यक्तियों और स्थानीय राजनेताओं के एक वर्ग से शत्रुतापूर्ण प्रतिक्रिया मिली। श्रमिक भी आपके प्रति शत्रुतापूर्ण हो गए क्योंकि उन्हें लगा कि आपकी कार्रवाई से इन औद्योगिक इकाइयों को बंद कर दिया जाएगा, और परिणामस्वरूप बेरोजगारी उनकी आजीविका में असुरक्षा की अनिश्चितता को जन्म देगी। उद्योगों के कई मालिकों ने आपसे इस दलील के साथ संपर्क किया कि आपको कठोर कार्रवाई शुरू नहीं करनी चाहिए क्योंकि यह उन्हें अपनी इकाइयों को मजबूर करेगा, और बाजार में उनके उत्पादों की भारी वित्तीय हानि, कमी का कारण होगा। जाहिर है इससे मजदूरों और उपभोक्ताओं की परेशानी और बढ़ेगी। श्रमिक संघ ने आपको इकाइयों को बंद करने के खिलाफ अनुरोध करते हुए प्रतिनिधित्व भी भेजा। आपको एक साथ अज्ञात कोनों से धमकियां मिलने लगीं। हालाँकि आपको अपने कुछ सहयोगियों से समर्थन प्राप्त हुआ, जिन्होंने आपको पर्यावरण अनुपालन सुनिश्चित करने के लिए स्वतंत्र रूप से कार्य करने की सलाह दी। स्थानीय एनजीओ भी आपके समर्थन में आए और उन्होंने प्रदूषणकारी इकाइयों को तुरंत बंद करने की मांग की।
(ए) दी गई स्थिति में आपके लिए कौन से विकल्प उपलब्ध हैं?
(बी) आपके द्वारा सूचीबद्ध विकल्पों का समालोचनात्मक परीक्षण करें।
(ग) पर्यावरण अनुपालन सुनिश्चित करने के लिए आप किस प्रकार की व्यवस्था का सुझाव देंगे?
(घ) अपने विकल्प का प्रयोग करने में आपको किन नैतिक दुविधाओं का सामना करना पड़ा?
Case study: public org dilemma- dead driver & compensation (2022, 20m)
Rakesh was working as a Joint Commissioner in Transport department of a city. As a part of his job profile, among others, he was entrusted with the task of overseeing the control and functioning of City Transport Department. A case strike by drivers’ union of City Transport Department over the issue of compensation to a driver who died on duty while driving the bus came up before him for decision in the matter.
He gathered that the driver (deceased) was plying Bus No. 528 which passed through busy and congested roads of the city. It so happened that near an intersection on the way, there was an accident involving the a middle-aged man. It was found that there was altercation between the driver and the car driver. Heated arguments between them led to fight and the driver gave him a a blow. Lot of passerbys had gathered and tried to intervene but without success. Eventually, both of them were badly injured and profusely bleeding and were taken to the nearby hospital. The driver succumbed to the injuries and could not be saved. The middle-aged driver’s condition was also critical but after a day, he recovered and was discharged. Police had immediately come to the spot and FIR was registered. Police investigation revealed that the quarrel in was started by the bus driver and he had resorted to physical violence. There exchange of blows between them.
The City Transport Department management is considering of not giving any extra compensation to the driver’s (deceased) family. The family is very aggrieved. depressed and agitated against the discriminatory and non-sympathetic approach of the City Transport Department management. The bus driver (deceased) was 52 years of age, was survived by his wife and two school-college going daughters. He was the sole earner of the family. The City Transport Department workers’ union took up this case and when found no favourable response from the management, decided to go on strike. The union’s demand was two fold. First was full extra compensation as given to other drivers who died on duty and secondly employment to one family member. The strike has continued for 10 days and the deadlock remains.
(a) What are the options available to Rakesh to meet the above situation?
(b) Critically examine each of the options identified by Rakesh
(c) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Rakesh?
(d) What course of action would Rakesh adopt to diffuse the above situation?
राकेश एक शहर के परिवहन विभाग में संयुक्त आयुक्त के पद पर कार्यरत था। उनके जॉब प्रोफाइल के एक हिस्से के रूप में, उन्हें शहर परिवहन विभाग के नियंत्रण और कामकाज की देखरेख का काम सौंपा गया था। इस मामले में निर्णय के लिए बस चलाने के दौरान ड्यूटी पर मारे गए एक चालक को मुआवजे के मुद्दे पर नगर परिवहन विभाग के चालक संघ द्वारा एक मामला हड़ताल का मामला निर्णय के लिए उसके सामने आया।
उन्होंने देखा कि चालक (मृतक) बस संख्या 528 चला रहा था जो शहर की व्यस्त और भीड़भाड़ वाली सड़कों से होकर गुजरती थी। हुआ यूं कि रास्ते में एक चौराहे के पास एक अधेड़ उम्र के व्यक्ति के साथ हादसा हो गया. पता चला कि चालक और कार चालक के बीच कहासुनी हुई थी। इस बात को लेकर दोनों के बीच तीखी नोकझोंक हुई और चालक ने उसे धक्का मार दिया। कई राहगीर जमा हो गए और बीच-बचाव करने की कोशिश की, लेकिन सफलता नहीं मिली। आखिरकार, वे दोनों बुरी तरह घायल हो गए और बहुत खून बह रहा था और उन्हें पास के अस्पताल ले जाया गया। हादसे में चालक ने दम तोड़ दिया और उसे बचाया नहीं जा सका। अधेड़ उम्र के ड्राइवर की भी हालत गंभीर थी लेकिन एक दिन बाद वह ठीक हो गया और उसे छुट्टी दे दी गई। पुलिस तुरंत मौके पर पहुंची और प्राथमिकी दर्ज की गई। पुलिस जांच में सामने आया कि बस चालक ने झगड़ा शुरू किया था और उसने शारीरिक हिंसा का सहारा लिया था। उनके बीच मारपीट का आदान-प्रदान हुआ।
नगर परिवहन विभाग प्रबंधन चालक (मृतक) के परिवार को कोई अतिरिक्त मुआवजा नहीं देने पर विचार कर रहा है। परिवार बहुत आहत है। नगर परिवहन विभाग प्रबंधन के भेदभावपूर्ण और गैर-सहानुभूतिपूर्ण रवैये के खिलाफ निराश और उत्तेजित। बस चालक (मृतक) की उम्र 52 वर्ष थी, उसके परिवार में उसकी पत्नी और स्कूल-कॉलेज जाने वाली दो बेटियां हैं। वह परिवार का इकलौता कमाने वाला था। नगर परिवहन विभाग कर्मचारी संघ ने इस मामले को उठाया और प्रबंधन से कोई अनुकूल प्रतिक्रिया नहीं मिलने पर हड़ताल पर जाने का फैसला किया। संघ की मांग दुगनी थी। पहला, ड्यूटी के दौरान मरने वाले अन्य ड्राइवरों को दिया जाने वाला पूरा अतिरिक्त मुआवजा और दूसरा परिवार के एक सदस्य को रोजगार। 10 दिनों से हड़ताल जारी है और गतिरोध बना हुआ है।
(ए) उपरोक्त स्थिति को पूरा करने के लिए राकेश के पास क्या विकल्प उपलब्ध हैं?
(बी) राकेश द्वारा पहचाने गए प्रत्येक विकल्प का समालोचनात्मक परीक्षण करें
(ग) राकेश को किन नैतिक दुविधाओं का सामना करना पड़ रहा है?
(घ) उपरोक्त स्थिति को दूर करने के लिए राकेश क्या कार्रवाई करेगा?
Case study: public org dilemma- Housing vs SEZ allocation (2020, 20m)
Rajesh Kumar is a senior public servant, with a reputation of honesty and forthrightness, currently posted in the Finance Ministry as the Head of the Budget Division. His department is presently busy in organizing the budgetary support to the states, four of which are due to the polls within the financial year.
This year’s annual budget had allotted Rs 8300 crores for the National Housing Scheme (NHS), a centrally sponsored social housing scheme for the weaker sections of society. Rs 775 crores have been drawn for NHS till June.
The Ministry of Commerce had long been pursuing a case for setting up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in a southern state to boost exports. After two years of detailed discussion between the center and state, the Union Cabinet approved the project in August. The process was initiated to acquire the necessary land.
Eighteen months ago a leading Public Sector Unit (PSU) had projected the need for setting up a large natural gas processing plant in a northern state for the regional gas grid. The land is already in possession of the PSU. The gas grid is an essential component of the national energy security strategy. After three rounds of global bidding, the project was allotted to an MNC, M/s XYZ Hydrocarbons. The first tranche of payment to the MNC is scheduled to be made in December.
Finance Ministry was asked for a timely allocation of an additional Rs 6000 crores for these two developmental projects. It was decided to recommend re-appropriation of this entire amount from NHS allocation. The file was forwarded to the Budget Department for their comments and further processing. On studying the case file, Rajesh Kumar realized that this re-appropriation may cause an inordinate delay in the execution of NHS, a project much publicized in the rallies of senior politicians. Correspondingly, the non-availability of finances would cause a financial loss in the SEZ and national embarrassment due to delayed payment in the international project.
Rajesh Kumar discussed the matter with seniors. He was conveyed that this politically sensitive situation needs to be processed immediately. Rajesh Kumar realized that diversion of funds from the NHS could raise difficult questions for the government in the Parliament.
Discuss the following with reference to this case:
- Ethical issues involved in re-appropriation of funds from a welfare project to the development projects.
- Given the need for proper utilization of public funds, discuss the options available to Rajesh Kumar. Is resigning a worthy option? (250 words)
Case Study: Angry villagers & Disaster relief (2019) 20marks
You are the heading the rescue operations in an area affected by severe natural calamity, thousands of people are rendered homeless and deprived of food, drinking water and other basic amenities. Rescue work has been disrupted by heavy rainfall and damaged to supply routes. The local people are seeding with anger against the delayed limited rescue operations. When your team reaches the affected area, the people there heckle and even assault some of the team members. One of your team members is even severely injured. Faced with this crisis some team member pleads with you to call off the operations freeing threats to their life.
In such trying circumstances, what will be your response? Examine the qualities of a public servant which will be required to manage the situations. (250 words) (20 marks)
Case Study: IPS Officer vs Drug Mafia (2019) 20marks
In one of the districts of a frontier state, narcotics menace has been rampant. This has resulted in money laundering, mushrooming of poppy farming, arms smuggling and near stalling of education. The system is on the verge of collapse. The situation has been further worsened by unconfirmed reports that local politicians, as well as some senior police officers, are providing surreptitious patronage to the drug mafia. At that point of time a woman police officer, known for her skills in handling such situations is appointed as superintendent of police to bring the situation to normalcy.
If you are the same police officer, identify the various dimensions of the crisis. Based on your understanding, suggest measures to deal with the crisis. (250 words) (20 marks)
Case-Study: Enforcing liquor prohibition in backward area (2018)
It is a State where prohibition is in force. You are recently appointed as the Superintendent of Police of a district notorious for illicit distillation of liquor. The illicit liquor leads to many death, reported and unreported, and causes a major problem for the district authorities. The approach till now had been to view it as a law and order problem and tackle it accordingly. Raids, arrest, police cases, and criminal trials – all these had only limited impact. The problem remains as serious as ever. Your inspections show that the parts of the district where the distillation flourishes are economically, industrially and educationally backward. Agriculture is badly affected by poor irrigation facilities. Frequent clashes among communities gave boost to illicit distillation. No major initiatives had taken place in the past either from the government’s side or from social organizations to improve the lot of the people. Which new approach will you adopt to bring the problem under control? (250 words, 20 marks)
Case-Study: Polluting factory closure leading to unemployment (2018)
A big corporate house is engaged in manufacturing industrial chemicals on a large scale. It proposes to set upon the additional unit. Many states rejected its proposal due to the detrimental effect on the environment. But one state government acceded to the request and permitted the unit close to a city, brushing aside all opposition. The unit was set up 10 years ago and was in full swing till recently. The pollution caused by the industrial effluents was affecting the land, water and crops in the area. It was also causing serious health problems to human beings and animals. This gave rise to a series of agitation thousands of people took part, creating a law and order problem necessitating stern police action. Following the public outcry, the State government ordered the closure of the factory. The closure of the factory resulted in the unemployment of not only those workers who were engaged in the factory but also those who were working in the ancillary units. It also very badly affected those industry which depended on the chemicals manufactured by it. As a senior officer entrusted with the responsibility of handling this issues, how are you going to address it? (250 words, 20 marks)
Case-Study: Environment degradation (2014)
Now-a-days, there is an increasing thrust on economic development all around the globe. At the same time, there is also an increasing concern about environmental degradation caused by development. Many a time, we face a direct conflict between developmental activity and environmental quality. It is neither feasible to stop or curtail the development process, nor it is advisable to keep degrading the environment, as it threatens our very survival.
Discuss some feasible strategies which could be adopted to eliminate this conflict and which could lead to sustainable development. 250 words
Case-Study: Why villagers migrate? (2014)
In our country, the migration of rural people to towns and cities is increasing drastically. This is causing serious problems both in the rural as well as in the urban areas. In fact, things are becoming really unmanageable. Can you analyze this problem in detail and indicate not only the socio-economic but also the emotional and attitudinal factors responsible for this problem? Also, distinctly bring out why—
- Educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas;
- Landless poor people are migrating to urban slums;
- Even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas taking up petty jobs.
What feasible steps can you suggest which will be effective in controlling this serious problem of our country?
Case-Study: Disaster management (2015)
There is a disaster-prone State having frequent landslides, forest fires, cloudbursts, flash floods and earthquakes, etc. Some of these are seasonal and often unpredictable. The magnitude of the disaster is always unanticipated. During one of the seasons, a cloudburst caused devastating floods and landslides leading to high casualties. There was major damage to infrastructure like roads, bridges and power generating units. This led to more than 100000 pilgrims, tourists and other locals trapped across different routes and locations. The people trapped in your area of responsibility included senior citizens, patients in hospitals, women and children, hikers, tourists, ruling party’s regional president along with his family, additional jail. As secretary State and prisoners in jail.
As a civil services officer of the State, what would be the order in which you would rescue these people and why? Give justifications.
Case-Study: Draft better Land-acquisition policy (2016)
Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis, hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some other occupation. They end up as low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their living is destroyed. Thus, the benefits of traditional ways of community development go to industries, industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical. Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how would you approach the problem and what would be the main elements of your suggested policy? (250 words)
Public org- Code of conduct / ethics / Values
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Codes of Ethics; Codes of Conduct; Laws, rules, regulations, conscience as sources of ethical Guidance.
|1 (a) Wisdom lies in knowing what to reckon with and what to overlook. An officer being engrossed with the periphery, ignoring the core issues before him, is not rare in the bureaucracy. Do you agree that such preoccupation of an administrator leads to travesty of justice to the cause of effective service delivery and good governance? Critically evaluate.(10m, 150words) || 1. (a) बुद्धिमानी में निहित है कि किसका ध्यान रखा जाए और क्या अनदेखा किया जाए। नौकरशाही में अपने सामने मुख्य मुद्दों को अनदेखा करते हुए परिधि में तीन रहने वाले अधिकारी दुर्लभ नहीं है। क्या आप इस बात से सामन है कि प्रशासक की इस तरह की व्यस्तता प्रभावी सेवा वितरण और सुशासन की लक्ष्य प्राप्ति की प्रक्रिया में की विडंबना है? विश्लेषणात्मक मूल्यांकन कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)||2022|
|1 (b) Apart from intellectual competency and moral qualities, empathy and compassion are some of the other vital attributes that facilitate the civil servants to be more competent in tackling the crucial issues or taking critical decisions. Explain with suitable illustrations.(10m, 150words) || 1 (b) बौद्धिक दक्षता और नैतिक गुणों के अलावा सहनुभूति और कम्मा कुछ अन्य महत्वपूर्ण वैशिष्ट्य है, जो रिक्ति सेवकों को निर्णायक मामलों को सुलझाने अथवा महत्वपूर्ण निर्णय लेने में अधिक सक्षम बनाते हैं। उपयुक्त उदाहरण के साथ व्याख्या कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)||2022|
|2 (a) The Rules and Regulations provided to all the civil servants are same, yet there is difference in the performance. Positive minded officers are able to interpret the Rules and Regulations in favour of the case and achieve success, whereas negative minded officers are unable to achieve goals by interpreting the same Rules and Regulations against the case. Discuss with illustrations.(10m, 150words) || 2. (a) सभी सिविल सेवकों को प्रदान किए गए नियम और विनियम समान है, फिर भी प्रदर्शन में अंतर है। सकारात्मक सोच वाले अधिकारी नियमों और विनियमों के मामले के पक्ष में व्याख्या करने और सफलता प्राप्त करने में समर्थ होते हैं, जबकि नकारात्मक सोच वाले अधिकारी मामले के खिलाफ समान नियमों और विनियमों की व्याख्या करके लक्ष्य प्राप्त करने में असमर्थ होते हैं। सोदाहरण विवेचन कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)||2022|
|What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three of these with suitable examples.(150 words, 10m)||2019|
|What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? How does it manifest itself in the public domain? (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|Distinguish between “Code of ethics” and “Code of conduct” with suitable examples. (150 words)||2018|
|Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission.||2016|
Case Study: Ethics in Civil Services (2019, 20marks)
In recent times, there has been an increasing concern in India to develop effective civil service ethics, code of conduct, transparency measures, ethics and integrity systems and anti-corruption agencies. In view of this, there is a need being felt to focus on three specific areas, which are directly relevant to the problems of internalizing integrity and ethics in the civil services. These are as follows:
- Anticipating specific threats to ethical standards and integrity in the civil services,
- Strengthening the ethical competence of civil servant and
- Developing administrative processes and practices which promote ethical values and integrity in civil services.
Suggest institutional measures to address the above three issues. (250 words) (20 marks)
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Citizens Charters; Quality of Service Delivery; Probity in Governance, concept of public service;
|Explain the basic principles of citizens’ charter movement and bring out its importance. (150 words, 10m)||2019|
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Challenges of Corruption; Utilization of public funds
|Effective utilisation of public funds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under-utilization and mis-utilisation of public funds and their implications.(150 words, 10m)||2019|
|“Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption” Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|What is meant by conflict of interest? Illustrate with examples, the difference between the actual and potential conflicts of interest. (150 words)||2018|
|“If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. they are father, the mother and the teacher.” – A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. Analyse.||2017|
|It is often said that poverty leads to corruption. However, there is no dearth of instances where affluent and powerful people indulge in corruption in a big way. What are the basic causes of corruption among people? Support your answer with examples.||2014|
Case Study: illegal migrants & corrupt Border officials (2022, 20m)
Ramesh is State Civil Services Officer who got the opportunity of getting posted to the capital of a border State after rendering 20 years of service. Ramesh’s mother has recently been detected cancer and has been admitted in the leading cancer hospital of the city. His two adolescent children have also got admission in one of the best public schools of the town. After settling down in his appointment as Director in the Home Department of the State, Ramesh got confidential report through intelligence sources that illegal migrants are infiltrating in the State from the neighbouring country. He decided to personally carry out surprise check of the border posts along with his Home Department team. To his surprise, he caught red-handed two families of 12 members infiltrated with the connivance of the security personnel at the border posts. On further inquiry and investigation, it was found that after the migrants from neighbouring country infiltrate, their documentation like Aadhaar Card, Ration Card and Voter Card are also forged and they are made to settle down in a particular area of the State. Ramesh prepared the detailed and comprehensive report and submitted to the Additional Secretary of the State. However, he has summoned by the Additional Home Secretary after a week and was instructed to withdraw the report. The Additional Home Secretary informed Ramesh that the report submitted by him has not been appreciated by the higher authorities. He further cautioned him that if he fails to withdraw the confidential ort, he will not only be posted out from the prestigious appointment from the State capital but his further promotion which is due in near future will also get in jeopardy.
(a) What are the options available to Ramesh as the Director of the Home Department of the bordering State?
(b) What option should Ramesh adopt and why?
(c) Critically evaluate each of the options.
(d) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Ramesh?
(e) What policy measures would you suggest to combat the menace of infiltration of illegal migrants from the neighbouring country?
रमेश राज्य सिविल सेवा अधिकारी हैं जिन्हें 20 साल की सेवा के बाद सीमावर्ती राज्य की राजधानी में तैनात होने का अवसर मिला है। रमेश की मां को हाल ही में कैंसर का पता चला है और उन्हें शहर के प्रमुख कैंसर अस्पताल में भर्ती कराया गया है। उनके दो किशोर बच्चों को भी शहर के सबसे अच्छे पब्लिक स्कूलों में से एक में प्रवेश मिल गया है। राज्य के गृह विभाग में निदेशक के रूप में अपनी नियुक्ति में बसने के बाद, रमेश को खुफिया सूत्रों के माध्यम से गोपनीय रिपोर्ट मिली कि पड़ोसी देश से राज्य में अवैध प्रवासी घुसपैठ कर रहे हैं। उन्होंने अपने गृह विभाग की टीम के साथ व्यक्तिगत रूप से सीमा चौकियों का औचक निरीक्षण करने का निर्णय लिया। अपने आश्चर्य के लिए, उन्होंने सीमा चौकियों पर सुरक्षा कर्मियों की मिलीभगत से घुसपैठ करने वाले 12 सदस्यों के दो परिवारों को रंगे हाथ पकड़ा। आगे की पूछताछ और जांच में पाया गया कि पड़ोसी देश के प्रवासियों के घुसपैठ के बाद आधार कार्ड, राशन कार्ड और वोटर कार्ड जैसे दस्तावेज भी जाली हैं और उन्हें राज्य के एक विशेष क्षेत्र में बसने के लिए मजबूर किया जाता है। रमेश ने विस्तृत एवं विस्तृत रिपोर्ट तैयार कर राज्य के अपर सचिव को सौंपी। हालांकि, उन्होंने एक सप्ताह के बाद अतिरिक्त गृह सचिव द्वारा तलब किया है और रिपोर्ट वापस लेने का निर्देश दिया गया है। अपर गृह सचिव ने रमेश को बताया कि उनके द्वारा सौंपी गई रिपोर्ट की उच्च अधिकारियों ने सराहना नहीं की है. उन्होंने आगे उन्हें आगाह किया कि यदि वह गोपनीय ऑर्ट को वापस लेने में विफल रहते हैं, तो उन्हें न केवल राज्य की राजधानी से प्रतिष्ठित नियुक्ति से बाहर कर दिया जाएगा, बल्कि उनकी आगे की पदोन्नति जो निकट भविष्य में होने वाली है, भी खतरे में पड़ जाएगी।
(ए) सीमावर्ती राज्य के गृह विभाग के निदेशक के रूप में रमेश के पास क्या विकल्प उपलब्ध हैं?
(ख) रमेश को कौन सा विकल्प अपनाना चाहिए और क्यों?
(सी) प्रत्येक विकल्प का आलोचनात्मक मूल्यांकन करें।
(घ) रमेश को किन नैतिक दुविधाओं का सामना करना पड़ रहा है?
(ई) पड़ोसी देश से अवैध प्रवासियों की घुसपैठ के खतरे से निपटने के लिए आप कौन से नीतिगत उपाय सुझाएंगे?
Case Study: IPS & Journalist vs Mining Mafia (2022, 20m)
- The Supreme Court has banned mining in the Aravalli Hills to stop degradation the forest cover and to maintain ecological balance. However, the stone mining to still prevalent in the border district of the affected State with connivance of certain corrupt forest officials and politicians. Young and dynamic SP who was recently posted in the affected district promised to himself to stop this menace. In one of his surprise checks with his team, he found loaded truck with stone trying to escape the mining area. He tried to stop the truck but the truck driver overrun the police officer, killing him on the spot and thereafter managed to flee. Police filed FIR but no breakthrough was achieved in the case for almost three months. Ashok who was the Investigative Journalist working with leading TV channel, suo moto started investigating the case. Within one month, Ashok got breakthrough by interacting with local people, stone mining masia and government officials. He prepared his investigative story and presented to the CMD of the TV channel. He exposed in his investigative report the complete nexus of stone mafia working with blessing of corrupt police and civil officials and politicians. The politician who was involved in the mafia was no one else but local MLA who was considered to be very close to the Chief Minister. After going through the investigative report, the CMD advised Ashok to drop the idea of making the story public through electronic media. He informed that the local MLA was not only the relative of the owner of the TV channel but also had unofficially 20 percent share in the channel. The CMD further informed Ashok that his further promotion and hike in pay will be taken care of in addition the soft loan of 10 lakhs which he has taken from the TV channel for his son’s chronic disease will be suitably adjusted if he hands over the investigative report to him.(a) What are the options available with Ashok to cope up with the situation?
(b) Critically evaluate/examine each of the options identified by Ashok.
(c) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Ashok?
(d) Which of the options, do you think, would be the most appropriate for Ashok to adopt and why?
(e)In the above scenario, what type of training would you suggest for police officers posted to such districts where stone mining illegal activities are rampant? (20m, 250words)
सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने वन आवरण के क्षरण को रोकने और पारिस्थितिक संतुलन बनाए रखने के लिए अरावली पहाड़ियों में खनन पर प्रतिबंध लगा दिया है। हालांकि, कुछ भ्रष्ट वन अधिकारियों और राजनेताओं की मिलीभगत से प्रभावित राज्य के सीमावर्ती जिले में पत्थर खनन अभी भी प्रचलित है। हाल ही में प्रभावित जिले में तैनात युवा और सक्रिय एसपी ने इस खतरे को रोकने के लिए खुद से वादा किया था। अपनी टीम के साथ अपने एक औचक निरीक्षण में, उन्होंने खनन क्षेत्र से भागने की कोशिश कर रहे पत्थर से लदे ट्रक को पाया। उसने ट्रक को रोकने की कोशिश की लेकिन ट्रक चालक ने पुलिस अधिकारी को कुचल दिया, जिससे उसकी मौके पर ही मौत हो गई और वह भागने में सफल रहा। पुलिस ने प्राथमिकी दर्ज की लेकिन करीब तीन महीने तक मामले में कोई सफलता नहीं मिली। अशोक, जो प्रमुख टीवी चैनल के साथ काम कर रहे खोजी पत्रकार थे, ने मामले की जांच शुरू कर दी। एक महीने के अंदर ही अशोक को स्थानीय लोगों, पत्थर खनन करने वालों और सरकारी अधिकारियों से बातचीत कर सफलता मिली. उन्होंने अपनी खोजी कहानी तैयार की और टीवी चैनल के सीएमडी के सामने पेश किया। उन्होंने अपनी जांच रिपोर्ट में भ्रष्ट पुलिस और सिविल अधिकारियों और राजनेताओं के आशीर्वाद से काम करने वाले पत्थर माफिया की पूरी गठजोड़ का खुलासा किया। माफिया में शामिल राजनेता कोई और नहीं बल्कि स्थानीय विधायक थे जो मुख्यमंत्री के बेहद करीबी माने जाते थे। जांच रिपोर्ट का अध्ययन करने के बाद, सीएमडी ने अशोक को इलेक्ट्रॉनिक मीडिया के माध्यम से कहानी को सार्वजनिक करने के विचार को छोड़ने की सलाह दी। उन्होंने बताया कि स्थानीय विधायक न केवल टीवी चैनल के मालिक के रिश्तेदार थे, बल्कि चैनल में अनौपचारिक रूप से 20 प्रतिशत हिस्सेदारी भी थी। सीएमडी ने अशोक को आगे बताया कि उनकी आगे की पदोन्नति और वेतन में वृद्धि का ध्यान रखा जाएगा इसके अलावा 10 लाख का सॉफ्ट लोन जो उन्होंने अपने बेटे की पुरानी बीमारी के लिए टीवी चैनल से लिया है, यदि वह जांच रिपोर्ट सौंपते हैं तो उन्हें उपयुक्त रूप से समायोजित किया जाएगा। उसे।
(ए) स्थिति से निपटने के लिए अशोक के पास क्या विकल्प उपलब्ध हैं?
(बी) अशोक द्वारा पहचाने गए प्रत्येक विकल्प का आलोचनात्मक मूल्यांकन/परीक्षण करें।
(ग) अशोक को किन नैतिक दुविधाओं का सामना करना पड़ रहा है?
(घ) आपके विचार में अशोक के लिए कौन सा विकल्प सबसे उपयुक्त होगा और क्यों?
(ई) उपरोक्त परिदृश्य में, आप ऐसे जिलों में तैनात पुलिस अधिकारियों के लिए किस प्रकार के प्रशिक्षण का सुझाव देंगे जहां पत्थर खनन अवैध गतिविधियां प्रचलित हैं?
Case Study: IAS vs Mining Mafia (2021, 20m)
Sunil is a young civil servant and has a reputation for his competence, integrity, dedication and relentlessness in pursuit of difficult and onerous jobs. Considering his profile, he was picked up by his bosses to handle a very challenging and sensitive assignment. He was posted in a tribal-dominated district notorious for illegal sand mining. Excavating sand from river belts and transporting it through trucks and selling them in the black market was rampant. This illegal sand mining mafia was operating with the support of local functionaries and tribal musclemen who in turn were bribing selected poor tribals and had kept the tribals under fear and intimidation.
Sunil being a sharp and energetic officer immediately grasped the ground realities and the modus operandi followed by the mafia through their devious and dubious mechanism. On making inquiries, he gathered that some of their own office employees are in hand and glove with them and have developed close unholy nexus. Sunil initiated stringent action against them and started conducting raids on their illegal operations of the movement of trucks filled with sand. The mafia got rattled as not many officers in the past had taken such strong steps against the mafia. Some of the office employees who were allegedly close to the mafia informed them that the officer is determined to clean up the mafia’s illegal sand mining operations in that district and may cause them irreparable damage.
The mafia turned hostile and launched a counter-offensive. The tribal musclemen and mafia started threatening him with dire consequences. His family (wife and old mother) were stalked and were under virtual surveillance and thus causing mental torture, agony and stress to all of them. The matter assumed serious proportions when a muscleman came to his office and threatened him to stop raids etc., otherwise, his fate will not be different than some of his predecessors (ten years back one officer was killed by the mafia)
- a) Identify the different options available to Sunil in attending this situation
- b) Critically evaluate each of the options listed by you.
- c) Which of the above, do you think, would be most appropriate for Sunil to adopt and why?
Case Study: Vice Principal vs College exam cheaters (2021, 20m)
You are Vice Principal of a degree college in one of the middle-class towns. The principal has recently retired and management is looking for his replacement. There are also feelers that the management may promote you as Principal. In the meantime, during the annual examination, the flying squad which came from the university caught two students red-handed involving in unfair means. A senior lecturer of the college was personally helping these students in this act. This senior lecturer also happens to be close to the management. One of the students was the son of a local politician who was responsible for getting college affiliated to the present reputed university. The second student was the son of a local businessman who has donated maximum funds for running the college. You immediately informed the management regarding this unfortunate incident. The management told you to resolve the issue with the flying squad at any cost. They further said that such an incident will not only tarnish the image of the college but also the politician and the businessman are very important personalities for the functioning of the college. You were also given hint that your further promotion to Principal depends on your capability in resolving this issue with the flying squad. In the meantime, you were intimidated by your administrative officer that certain members of the student union are protesting outside the college gate against the senior lecturer and the students involved in this incident are demanding strict action against defaulters.
- a) Discuss the ethical issue involved in the case.
- b) Critically examine the options available with you as Vice Principal. What option will you adopt and why?
Case Study: Engineer vs Poor quality Bridge before election (2021,20m)
An elevated corridor is being constructed to reduce traffic congestion in the capital of a particular state. You have been selected as project manager of this prestigious project on your professional competence and experience. The deadline is to complete the project in the next two years by 30 June 2021, since the project is to be inaugurated by the Chief Minister before the elections are announced in the second week of July 2021. While carrying out the surprise inspection by the inspecting team, a minor crack was noticed in one of the piers of the elevated corridor possibly due to poor material used. You immediately informed the chief engineer and stopped further work. It was assessed by you that a minimum of three piers of the elevated corridor have to be demolished and reconstructed. But this process will delay the project minimum by four to six months. But the chief engineer overruled the observation of the inspecting team on the ground that it was a minor crack that will not in any way impact the strength and durability of the bridge. He ordered you to overlook the observation of the inspecting team and continue working with the same speed and tempo. He informed you that the minister does not want any delay as he wants the Chief Minister to inaugurate the elevated corridor before the elections are declared. Also informed you that the contractor is a far relative of the minister and he wants him to finish the project. He also gave you a hint that your further promotion as an additional chief engineer is under consideration by the ministry. However, you strongly felt that the minor crack in the pier in the elevated corridor will adversely affect the health and life of the bridge and therefore it will be very dangerous not to repair the elevated corridor.
- a) Under the given conditions, what are the options available to you as a project manager?
- b) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by the project manager and his response to overcome such challenges?
- c) What are the professional challenges likely to be faced by the project manager and his response to overcome such challenges?
- d) What can be the consequences of overlooking the observation raised by the inspecting team?
Case Study: corruption in municipal construction (2020, 20m)
You are a municipal commissioner of a large city, having the reputation of a very honest and upright officer. A huge multipurpose mall is under construction in your city in which a large number of daily wage earners are employed. One night, during monsoons, a big chunk of the roof collapsed causing instant death of four labourers including two minors. Many more were seriously injured requiring immediate medical attention. The mishap resulted in a big hue and cry, forcing the government to institute an enquiry.
Your preliminary enquiry has revealed a series of anomalies. The material used for the construction was of poor quality. Despite the approved building plans permitting only one basement, an additional basement has been constructed. This was overlooked during the periodic inspections by the building inspector of the municipal corporation. In your enquiry, you noticed that the construction of the mall was given the green signal despite encroaching on areas earmarked for a green belt and a slip road in the Zonal Master Plan of the city. The permission to construct the mall was accorded by the previous Municipal Commissioner who is not only your senior and well known to you professionally, but also a good friend.
Prima facie, the case appears to be of a widespread nexus between officials of the Municipal Corporation and the builders. Your colleagues are putting pressure on you to go slow in the enquiry. The builder, who is rich and influential, happens to be a close relative of a powerful minister in the state cabinet. The builder is persuading you to hush up the matter, promising you a fortune to do so. He also hinted that if this matter is not resolved at the earliest in his favour there is somebody in his office who is waiting to file a case against you under the POSH act.
Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case. What are the options available to you in this situation? Explain your selected course of action. (250 words)
Case Study: Honest mistakes by Civil Servants (2019) 20marks
Honesty and uprightness are the hallmarks of civil servants. Civil servants possessing these qualities are considered as a backbone of any strong organizations. In the line of duty, they take various decisions, at time some become bonafide mistakes. As long as such decisions, are not taken intentionally and do not benefit personally, the officer cannot be said to be guilty. Though such decisions may, at times, lead to unforeseen adverse consequences in the long term.
In the recent past, a few instances have surfaced wherein civil servants have been implicated for bonafide mistakes. They have often been prosecuted and even imprisoned. These instances have greatly rattled the moral fibre of the civil servants.
How does this trend affect the functioning of civil services? What measures can be taken to ensure that honest civil servants are not implicated for bonafide mistakes on their part? Justify your answer. (250 words) (20 marks)
Case-Study: Obliging to minister’s wishes for land-deal (2018)
As a senior officer in the Ministry, you have access to important policy decisions and upcoming big announcements such as road constructions projects before they are notified in the public domain. The Ministry is about to announce a mega road project for which the drawings are already in place. Sufficient care was taken by the planners to make use of the government land with the minimum land acquisition from private parties. Compensation rate for private parties was also finalized as per government rules. Care was also taken to minimize deforestation. Once the project is announced, it is expected that there will be a huge spurt in real estate prices in and around that area. Meanwhile, the Minister concerned insists that you realign the road in such a way that it comes closer to his 20 acres farmhouse. He also suggests that he would facilitate the purchase of a big plot of land in your wife name at the prevailing rate which is very nominal, in and around the proposed mega road project. He also tries to convince you by saying that there is no harm in it as he is buying the land legally. He even promises to supplement your savings in case you do not have sufficient funds to buy the land. However, by the act of realignment, a lot of agricultural lands has to be acquired, thereby causing a considerable financial burden on the government, and also the displacement of the farmers. As if this is not enough, it will involve cutting down of a large number of trees denuding the area of its green cover. Faced with this situation, what will you do? Critically examine various conflicts of interest and explain what your responsibilities are as a public servant. (250 words, 20 marks)
Case-Study: illegal building collapse? (2017)
Q13. A building permitted for three floors, while being extended illegally to 6 floors by a builder, collapses. As a consequence, a number of innocent labourers including women and children died. These labourers are migrants of different places. The government immediately announced cash relief to the aggrieved families and arrested the builder. Give reasons for such incidents taking place across the country. Suggest measures to prevent their occurrence. (250 Words, 20)
Case-Study: Opinion as honest officer (2017)
Q9. You are an honest and responsible civil servant. You often observe the following:
- There is a general perception that adhering to ethical conduct one may face difficulties to oneself and cause problems for the family, whereas unfair practices may help to reach the career goals.
- When the number of people adopting unfair means is large, a small minority having a penchant towards ethical means makes no difference.
- Sticking to ethical means is detrimental to the larger developmental goals
- While one may not involve oneself in large unethical practices, but giving and accepting small gifts makes the system more efficient.
Examine the above statements with their merits and demerits. (250 Words, 20)
Case-Study: “Shivaji-the Boss”: Movie plot (2016)
Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing something for the country she returned to India. Together with some other like-minded friends, she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.
The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost. She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of Governments agencies. The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was the delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand of bribes. Her experience and the experience of many others like her has deterred people from taking up social service projects.
A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be exercised in a coercive or corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted? (25 marks)
Public Org-RTI / Transparency
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Information (sharing & transparency in government); RTI;
|There is a view that the official secrets act is an obstacle to the implementation of the Rights to Information act. Do you agree with the view? Discuss (150 words, 10m)||2019|
|“The Right to Information Act is not all about citizens’ empowerment alone, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability. Discuss. (150 words)||2018|
|Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc., are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid to take prompt decisions. Analyze this situation in detail and suggest how this dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest how these negative impacts can be minimized.||2015|
|Today we find that in spite of various measures like prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilance cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanisms, corrupt practices are not coming under control. A) Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications. B) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace.||2015|
Case-Study: Snowden’s whistleblowing: right / wrong? (2018)
Edward Snowden, a computer expert and former CIA administrator, released confidential Government documents to the press about the existence of Government surveillance programmes. According to many legal experts and the US Government, his action violated the Espionage act of 1971, which identified the leak of State secret as an act of treason. Yet, despite the fact that he broke the law, Snowden argued that he had a moral obligation to act. He gave a justification for his “whistle blowing” by stating that he had a duty “to inform the public as to that which is done in there name and that which is done against them.” According to Snowden, the Government’s violation of privacy had to be exposed regardless of legality since more substantive issues of social action and public morality were involved here. Many agreed with Snowden. Few argued that he broke the law and compromised national security, for which he should be held accountable.
Do you agree that Snowden’s actions were ethically justified even if legally prohibited? Why or why not? Make an argument by weighing the competing values in this case (250 words, 20 marks)
Case-Study: PIO should do RTI stonewalling™ (2017)
Q14. You are a Public Information Officer (PIO) in a government department. You are aware that the RTI Act 2005 envisages transparency and accountability in administration. The act has functioned as a check on the supposedly arbitrarily administrative behaviour and actions. However, as a PIO you have observed that there are citizens who filed RTI applications not for themselves but on behalf of such stakeholders who purportedly want to have access to information to further their own interests. At the same time there are these RTI activists who routinely file RTI applications and attempt to extort money from the decision makers. This type of RTI activism has affected the functioning of the administration adversely and also possibly jeopardises the genuineness of the applications which are essentially aimed at getting justice. What measures would you suggest to separate genuine and non-genuine applications? Give merits and demerits of your suggestions. (250 Words, 20)
Case-Study: RTI: To hide or not to hide (2013)
In the following questions, carefully study the cases presented and then answer the questions that follow:
Q9. A Public Information Officer has received an application under RTI Act. Having gathered the information, the PIO discovers that the information pertains to some of the decisions taken by him, which were found to be not altogether right. There were other employees also who party to these decisions were. Disclosure of the information is likely to lead to disciplinary action with possibility of punishment against him as well as some of his colleagues. Non-disclosure or part disclosure or camouflaged disclosure of information will result into lesser punishment or no punishment.
The PIO is otherwise an honest and conscientious person but this particular decision, on which the RTI application has been filed, turned out to be wrong. He comes to you for advice.
The following are some suggested options. Please evaluate the merits and demerits of each of the options:
- The PIO could refer the matter to his superior officer and seek his advice and act strictly in accordance with the advice, even though he is not completely in agreement with the advice of the superior.
- The PIO could proceed on leave and leave the matter to be dealt by his successor in office or request for transfer of the application to another PIO.
- The PIO could weigh the consequences of disclosing the information truthfully, including the effect on his career, and reply in a manner that would not place him or his career in jeopardy, but at the same time a little compromise can be made on the contents of the information.
- The PIO could consult his other colleagues who are party to the decision and take action as per their advice.
Also please indicate (without necessarily restricting to the above options) what you would like to advise, giving proper reasons. (20 marks| 250 words)
Case-Study: 5: Leaking information (2013)
Q13.As a senior officer in the Finance Ministry, you have access to some confidential and crucial information about policy decisions that the Government is about to announce. These decisions are likely to have far-reaching impact on the housing and construction industry. If the builders have access to this information beforehand, they can make huge profits. One of the builders has done a lot of quality work for the Government and is known to be close to your immediate superior, who asks you to disclose this information to the said builder. (20 marks| 250 words)
- What are the options available to you?
- Evaluate each of these options and choose the option which you would adopt, giving reasons.
[Block#4B] International Relations (IR)
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Ethical issues in international relations and funding
|5 (a) Russia and Ukraine war has been going on for the last seven months. Different countries have taken independent stands and actions keeping in view their own national interests. We are all aware that war has its own impact on the different aspects of society, including human tragedy. What are those ethical issues that are crucial to be considered while launching the war and its continuation so far? Illustrate with justification the ethical issues involved in the given state of affair. (10m, 150words) || 5. (a) रूस और यूक्रेन का युद्ध पिछले सात महीने से चल रहा है। विभिन्न देशों ने अपने-अपने राष्ट्रीय हितों को ध्यान में रखते हुए स्टैंड लिया है और कार्यवाही की है । हम सभी जानते हैं कि मानव त्रासदी सहित समाज के विभिन्न पहलुओं पर युद्ध का अपना प्रभाव है। वे कौन से नैतिक मुद्दे हैं जिन पर युद्ध शुरू करते समय और अब तक जारी रहने के दौरान विचार करने के लिए महत्वपूर्ण हैं? दी गई स्थिति में शामिल नैतिक मुद्दों को औचित्य सहित स्पष्ट करें।||2022|
|“Refugees should not be turned back to the country where they would face prosecution or human rights violation.” Examine the statement with reference to the ethical dimension being violated by the nation claiming to be democratic with an open society. (150 words)||2021|
|Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power(CNP)viz. human capital, soft power(culture and policies), and social harmony. (150 words)||2020|
|‘The will to power exits, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.’ Examine this statement in the context of international relations. (150 words)||2020|
|Strength, peace and security are considered to be the pillars of international relations. Elucidate.||2017|
|At the international level, the bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This leads to conflicts and tensions between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples.||2015|
Case Study: IR-defends export to friendly countries (2020, 20m)
The Chairman of Bharat Missiles Ltd (BML) was watching a program on TV wherein the Prime Minister was addressing the nation on the necessity of developing a self-reliant India. He subconsciously nodded in agreement and smiled to himself as he mentally reviewed BML’s journey in the past two decades. BML had admirably progressed from producing first-generation anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) to designing and producing state of the art ATGM weapon systems that would be the envy of any army. He sighed in reconciliation with his assumptions that the government would probably not alter the status quo of a ban on the export of military weaponry.
To his surprise, the very next day he got a telephone call from the Director-General, Ministry of Defence, asking him to discuss the modalities of increasing BML production of ATGMs as there is a probability of exporting the same to a friendly country. The Director-General wanted the Chairman to discuss the details with his staff in Delhi next week.
Two days later, at a press conference, the Defence Minister stated that he aims to double the current weapons export levels within five years. This would give an impetus to financing the development and manufacturing of indigenous weapons in the country. He also stated that all indigenous arms manufacturing nations have a very good record of the international arms trade.
As the Chairman of BML, what are your views on the following points?
- As an arms exporter of a responsible nation like India, what are the ethical issues involved in arms trade?
- List five ethical factors that would influence the decision to sell arms to foreign governments. (250 words)
[Block#5] Private organizations / CSR
GSM4 Syllabus Topic: Corporate Governance; Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government & private institutions
|6 (b) In contemporary world, corporate sector’s contribution in generating wealth and employment is increasing. In doing so, they are bringing in unprecedented onslaught on the climate, environmental sustainability and living conditions of human beings. In this background, do you Responsibility (CSR) is efficient and sufficient enough to fulfill the social roles and responsibilities needed in the corporate work mandated? Critically examine. (10m, 150words) || 6 (b) समकालीन दुनिया में, धन और रोजगार पैदा करने में कॉर्पोरेट क्षेत्र का योगदान बढ़ रहा है। ऐसा करके, वे जलवायु, पर्यावरणीय स्थिरता और मनुष्यों के रहने की स्थिति पर अभूतपूर्व हमले कर रहे हैं। इस पृष्ठभूमि में, क्या आप उत्तरदायित्व (सीएसआर) कॉर्पोरेट कार्य में आवश्यक सामाजिक भूमिकाओं और जिम्मेदारियों को पूरा करने के लिए कुशल और पर्याप्त हैं? विश्लेषणात्मक परिक्षण कीजिये ।||2022|
|6 (a) Whistle blower, who reports corruption and illegal activities, wrongdoing and misconduct to the concerned authorities, runs the risk of being exposed to grave danger, physical harm and victimization by the vested interests, accused persons and his team. What policy measures would you suggest to strengthen protection mechanism to safeguard the whistle blower? (10m, 150words) || 6. (a) व्हिसल ब्लोअर, जो संबंधित अधिकारियों को भ्रष्टाचार और अवैध गतिविधियों, गलत कामों और कदाचार की रिपोर्ट करता है, निहित स्वार्थों, आरोपी व्यक्तियों और उनकी टीम द्वारा गंभीर खतरे, शारीरिक नुकसान और पीड़ित होने का जोखिम उठाता है। व्हिसल ब्लोअर की सुरक्षा के लिए सुरक्षा तंत्र को मजबूत करने के लिए आप किन नीतिगत उपायों का सुझाव देंगे?||2022|
|Corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable. Analyse.||2017|
|Increased national wealth did not result in equitable distribution of its benefits. It has created only some “enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority.” Justify.||2017|
Case studies have been asked from this topic, rather than direct questions. Theme is usually bribing, displacement, environmental degradation.
Case Study: rejected consignment (2022, 20m)
You have done MBA from a reputed institution three years back but could not get campus placement due to COVID-19 generated recession. However, after a lot of persuasion and series of competitive tests including written and interview, you managed to get a job in a leading shoe company. You have ageur parents who are dependent and staying with you. You also recently got married after getting this decent job. You were allotted the Inspection Section which is responsible for clearing the final product. In first one year, you learnt your job well and was appreciated for your performance by the management. The company is doing good business for last five years in domestic market and this year it is decided even to export to Europe and Gulf countries. However, one large consignment to Europe was rejected by their Inspecting Team due to certain poor quality and was sent back. The top management ordered that ibid consignment to be cleared for the domestic market. As a part of Inspecting Team, you observed the glaring poor quality and brought to the knowledge of the Team Commander. However, the top management advised all the members of the team to overlook these defects as the management cannot bear such a huge loss. Rest of the team members except you promptly signed and cleared the consignment for domestic market, overlooking glaring defects. You again brought to the knowledge of the Team Commander that such consignment, if cleared even for domestic market, will tarnish the image and reputation of the company and will be counter-productive in the long run. However, you were further advised by the top management that if you do not clear the consignment, the company will not hesitate to terminate your services citing certain innocuous reasons.
(a) Under the given conditions, what are the options available to you as a member of the Inspecting Team?
(b) Critically evaluate each of the options listed by you.
(c) What option would you adopt and why?
(d) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by you?
(e) What can be the consequences of overlooking the observations raised by the Inspecting Team? (20m, 250words) ||
आपने तीन साल पहले एक प्रतिष्ठित संस्थान से एम.बी.ए. किया है लेकिन कोविड-19 उत्पन्न मंदी के कारण कैंपस प्लेसमेंट नहीं कर सके। हालाँकि, लिखित और साक्षात्कार सहित बहुत सारे अनुनय और प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं की श्रृंखला के बाद, आप एक प्रमुख जूता कंपनी में नौकरी पाने में सफल रहे। आपके वृद्ध माता-पिता हैं जो आश्रित हैं और आपके साथ रह रहे हैं। आपने भी हाल ही में यह अच्छी नौकरी पाकर शादी की है। आपको निरीक्षण अनुभाग आवंटित किया गया था जो अंतिम उत्पाद को मंजूरी देने के लिए जिम्मेदार है। पहले एक साल में, आपने अपना काम अच्छी तरह से सीखा और प्रबंधन द्वारा आपके प्रदर्शन की सराहना की गई। कंपनी घरेलू बाजार में पिछले पांच साल से अच्छा कारोबार कर रही है और इस साल यूरोप और खाड़ी देशों को भी निर्यात करने का फैसला किया गया है। हालांकि, यूरोप के लिए एक बड़ी खेप कुछ खराब गुणवत्ता के कारण उनकी निरीक्षण टीम द्वारा अस्वीकार कर दी गई थी और उन्हें वापस भेज दिया गया था। शीर्ष प्रबंधन ने आदेश दिया कि घरेलू बाजार के लिए पूर्वोक्त खेप को मंजूरी दी जाए। निरीक्षण दल के एक भाग के रूप में, आपने स्पष्ट रूप से खराब गुणवत्ता देखी और टीम कमांडर के ज्ञान में लाया। हालांकि, शीर्ष प्रबंधन ने टीम के सभी सदस्यों को इन दोषों को नजरअंदाज करने की सलाह दी क्योंकि प्रबंधन इतना बड़ा नुकसान नहीं उठा सकता। आपके अलावा टीम के बाकी सदस्यों ने स्पष्ट दोषों को देखते हुए घरेलू बाजार के लिए खेप पर तुरंत हस्ताक्षर किए और मंजूरी दे दी। आपने फिर से टीम कमांडर के ज्ञान में लाया कि इस तरह की खेप, अगर घरेलू बाजार के लिए भी मंजूरी दे दी जाती है, तो कंपनी की छवि और प्रतिष्ठा को खराब कर देगा और लंबे समय में प्रतिकूल होगा। हालाँकि, आपको शीर्ष प्रबंधन द्वारा आगे सलाह दी गई थी कि यदि आप खेप को मंजूरी नहीं देते हैं, तो कंपनी कुछ सहज कारणों का हवाला देते हुए आपकी सेवाओं को समाप्त करने में संकोच नहीं करेगी।
(ए) दी गई शर्तों के तहत, निरीक्षण दल के सदस्य के रूप में आपके लिए क्या विकल्प उपलब्ध हैं?
(बी) आपके द्वारा सूचीबद्ध विकल्पों में से प्रत्येक का समालोचनात्मक मूल्यांकन करें।
(ग) आप कौन सा विकल्प अपनाएंगे और क्यों?
(घ) आप किन नैतिक दुविधाओं का सामना कर रहे हैं?
(ई) निरीक्षण दल द्वारा उठाए गए अवलोकनों को नजरअंदाज करने के क्या परिणाम हो सकते हैं?
Case Study: Mir Jafar recruitment (2022, 20m)
Prabhat was working as Vice President (Marketing) at Sterling Electric Ltd., a reputed multinational company. But presently the company was passing through the difficult times as the sales were continuously showing downward trend in the last two quarters. His division, which hitherto had been a major revenue contributor to the company’s financial health, was now desperately trying to procure some big government order for them. But their best efforts did not yield any positive success or breakthrough.
His was a professional company and his local bosses were under pressure from their London-based HO to show some positive results. In the last performance review meeting taken by the Executive Director (India Head), he was reprimanded for his poor performance. He assured them that his division is working on a special contract from the Ministry of Defence for a secret installation near Gwalior and tender is being submitted shortly.
He was under extreme pressure and he was deeply perturbed. What aggravated the situation further was a warning from the top that if the deal is not clinched in favour of the company, his division might have to be closed and he may have to quit his lucrative job.
There was another dimension which was causing him deep mental torture and agony. This pertained to his personal precarious financial health. He was a single earner in the family with two school-college going children and his old ailing mother. The heavy expenditure on education and medical was causing a big strain to his monthly pay packet. Regular EMI for housing loan taken from bank unavoidable and any default would render him liable for severe legal action.
In the above backdrop, he was hoping for some miracle to happen. There was sudden turn of events. His Secretary informed that a gentleman Subhas Verma wanted to see him as he was interested in the position of Manager which was to be filled by him in the company. He further brought to his notice that his CV has been received through the office of the Minister of Defence.
During interview of the candidate-Subhash Verma, he found him technically sound, resourceful and experienced marketeer. He seemed to be well-conversant with tendering procedures and having knack of follow-up and liaising in this regard Prabhat felt that he was better choice than the rest of the candidates who were recently interviewed by him in the last few days.
Subhash Verma also indicated that he was in possession of the copies of the bid documents that the Unique Electronics Ltd. would be submitting the next day to the Defence Ministry for their tender. He offered to hand over those documents subject to his employment in the company on suitable terms and conditions. He made it clear that in the process, the Sterling Electric Ltd. could outbid their rival company and get the bid and hefty Defence Ministry order. He indicated that it will be win-win situation for both-him and the company.
Prabhat was absolutely stunned. It was a mixed feeling of shock and thrill. He was uncomfortable and perspiring. If accepted, all his problems would vanish instantly and he may be rewarded for securing the much awaited tender and thereby boosting company’s sales and financial health. He was in a fix as to the future course of action. He was wonder-struck at the guts of Subhash Verma in having surreptitiously removing his own company papers and offering to the rival company for a job. Being an experienced person, he was examining the pros and cons of the proposal/situation and he asked him to come the next day.
(a) Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case.
(b) Critically examine the options available to Prabhat in the above situation.
(c) Which of the above would be the most appropriate for Prabhat and why? (20m, 250words)
प्रभात एक प्रतिष्ठित बहुराष्ट्रीय कंपनी स्टर्लिंग इलेक्ट्रिक लिमिटेड में उपाध्यक्ष (विपणन) के रूप में कार्यरत थे। लेकिन वर्तमान में कंपनी मुश्किल दौर से गुजर रही थी क्योंकि पिछली दो तिमाहियों में बिक्री में लगातार गिरावट का रुझान दिखा था। उनका डिवीजन, जो अब तक कंपनी के वित्तीय स्वास्थ्य में एक प्रमुख राजस्व योगदानकर्ता था, अब उनके लिए कुछ बड़े सरकारी आदेश प्राप्त करने की सख्त कोशिश कर रहा था। लेकिन उनके सर्वोत्तम प्रयासों को कोई सकारात्मक सफलता या सफलता नहीं मिली।
उनकी एक पेशेवर कंपनी थी और उनके स्थानीय बॉस कुछ सकारात्मक परिणाम दिखाने के लिए अपने लंदन स्थित HO के दबाव में थे। कार्यकारी निदेशक (इंडिया हेड) द्वारा की गई पिछली प्रदर्शन समीक्षा बैठक में, उन्हें उनके खराब प्रदर्शन के लिए फटकार लगाई गई थी। उन्होंने उन्हें आश्वासन दिया कि उनका डिवीजन ग्वालियर के पास एक गुप्त स्थापना के लिए रक्षा मंत्रालय से एक विशेष अनुबंध पर काम कर रहा है और जल्द ही निविदा जमा की जा रही है।
वह अत्यधिक दबाव में था और वह बहुत परेशान था। स्थिति को और भी बदतर बना दिया, ऊपर से एक चेतावनी थी कि यदि कंपनी के पक्ष में सौदा नहीं हुआ, तो उसका विभाजन बंद करना पड़ सकता है और उसे अपनी आकर्षक नौकरी छोड़नी पड़ सकती है।
एक और आयाम था जो उसे गहरी मानसिक यातना और पीड़ा दे रहा था। यह उनके व्यक्तिगत अनिश्चित वित्तीय स्वास्थ्य से संबंधित था। वह दो स्कूल-कॉलेज जाने वाले बच्चों और उसकी बूढ़ी बीमार माँ के साथ परिवार में अकेला कमाने वाला था। शिक्षा और चिकित्सा पर भारी खर्च के कारण उनके मासिक वेतन पैकेट पर भारी दबाव पड़ रहा था। बैंक से लिए गए आवास ऋण के लिए नियमित ईएमआई अपरिहार्य है और कोई भी डिफ़ॉल्ट उसे गंभीर कानूनी कार्रवाई के लिए उत्तरदायी बना देगा।
उपरोक्त पृष्ठभूमि में, वह किसी चमत्कार के घटित होने की आशा कर रहा था। अचानक घटनाक्रम हो गया। उनके सचिव ने बताया कि एक सज्जन सुभाष वर्मा उन्हें देखना चाहते थे क्योंकि उन्हें कंपनी में प्रबंधक के पद पर दिलचस्पी थी जिसे उन्हें कंपनी में भरना था। उन्होंने आगे अपने ध्यान में लाया कि उनका सीवी रक्षा मंत्री के कार्यालय के माध्यम से प्राप्त हुआ है।
उम्मीदवार-सुभाष वर्मा के साक्षात्कार के दौरान, उन्होंने उन्हें तकनीकी रूप से मजबूत, साधन संपन्न और अनुभवी बाज़ारिया पाया। वह निविदा प्रक्रियाओं से अच्छी तरह वाकिफ लग रहा था और इस संबंध में फॉलो-अप और संपर्क करने की आदत होने के कारण प्रभात ने महसूस किया कि वह उन अन्य उम्मीदवारों की तुलना में बेहतर विकल्प था, जिनका हाल ही में पिछले कुछ दिनों में उनके द्वारा साक्षात्कार किया गया था।
सुभाष वर्मा ने यह भी संकेत दिया कि उनके पास बोली दस्तावेजों की प्रतियां हैं जिन्हें यूनिक इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स लिमिटेड अगले दिन रक्षा मंत्रालय को अपनी निविदा के लिए प्रस्तुत करेगा। उन्होंने उपयुक्त नियमों और शर्तों पर कंपनी में अपने रोजगार के अधीन उन दस्तावेजों को सौंपने की पेशकश की। उन्होंने स्पष्ट किया कि इस प्रक्रिया में, स्टर्लिंग इलेक्ट्रिक लिमिटेड अपनी प्रतिद्वंद्वी कंपनी को पछाड़ सकता है और बोली और भारी रक्षा मंत्रालय का आदेश प्राप्त कर सकता है। उन्होंने संकेत दिया कि यह उनके और कंपनी दोनों के लिए फायदे की स्थिति होगी।
प्रभात बिल्कुल स्तब्ध था। यह सदमा और रोमांच की मिश्रित अनुभूति थी। वह असहज और पसीना बहा रहा था। यदि स्वीकार कर लिया जाता है, तो उसकी सभी समस्याएं तुरंत गायब हो जाएंगी और उसे बहुप्रतीक्षित निविदा हासिल करने और कंपनी की बिक्री और वित्तीय स्वास्थ्य को बढ़ावा देने के लिए पुरस्कृत किया जा सकता है। वह भविष्य की कार्रवाई को लेकर असमंजस में था। सुभाष वर्मा की अपनी कंपनी के कागजातों को चोरी-छिपे हटाने और प्रतिद्वंदी कंपनी को नौकरी की पेशकश करने के साहस से वह हैरान था। एक अनुभवी व्यक्ति होने के नाते, वह प्रस्ताव/स्थिति के पक्ष और विपक्ष की जांच कर रहा था और उसने उसे अगले दिन आने के लिए कहा।
(ए) मामले में शामिल नैतिक मुद्दों पर चर्चा करें।
(बी) उपरोक्त स्थिति में प्रभात के लिए उपलब्ध विकल्पों का समालोचनात्मक परीक्षण करें।
(c) उपरोक्त में से कौन प्रभात के लिए सबसे उपयुक्त होगा और क्यों? ”
Case Study: Running Corona hospital (2021, 20m)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has quickly spread to various countries.
As of May 8th, 2020, in India 56342 positive cases of corona had been reported. India with a population of more than 1.35 billion had difficulty in controlling the transmission of coronavirus among its population. Multiple strategies became necessary to handle this outbreak. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India raised awareness about this outbreak and to take all necessary actions to control the spread of COVID -19. Indian Government implemented a 55-day lockdown throughout the country to reduce the transmission of the virus. Schools and colleges had shifted to alternative modes of teaching-learning-evaluation and certification. Online mode became popular during these days.
India was not prepared for a sudden onslaught of such a crisis due to limited infrastructure in terms of human resources, money and other facilities needed for taking care of this situation. This disease did not spare anybody irrespective of caste, creed, religion on one hand and ‘have and have not’ on the other. Deficiencies in hospital beds, oxygen cylinders, ambulances, hospital staff and crematorium were the most crucial aspects.
You are a hospital administrator in a public hospital at the time when coronavirus had attacked a large number of people and patients were pouring into the hospital day in and day out.
- a) What are your criteria and justification for putting your clinical and non-clinical staff to attend to the patients knowing fully well that it is a highly infectious disease and resources and infrastructure are limited?
- b) If yours is a private hospital, whether your jurisdiction and decision would remain the same as that of a public hospital?
Case Study: Food Processing Company’s brand image (2021, 20m)
A reputed food product company based in India developed a food product for the international market and started exporting the same after getting necessary approvals. The company announced this achievement and also indicated that soon the product will be made available for domestic consumers with almost the same quality and health benefits. Accordingly, the company got its product approved by the domestic competent authority and launched the product in the Indian market. The company could increase its market share over a period of time and earned substantial profit both domestically and internationally. However, the random sample test conducted by the inspecting team found the product being sold domestically in variance with the approval obtained from the competent authority. On further investigation, it was also discovered that the food company was not only selling products that were not meeting the health standard of the country but also selling the rejected export products in the domestic market. This episode adversely affected the reputation and profitability of the food company.
- a) What action do you visualize should be taken by the competent authority against the food company for violating the laid down domestic food standard and selling rejected export products in the domestic market?
- b) What course of action is available with the food company to resolve the crisis and bring back its lost reputation?
- c) Examine the ethical dilemma involved in the case.
Case Study: CSR Funding in Amaria (2020, 20m)
Parmal is a small but underdeveloped district. It has a rocky terrain that is not suitable for agriculture, though some subsistence agriculture is being done on small plots of land. The area receives adequate rainfall and has an irrigation canal flowing through it. Amria, its administrative centre, is a medium-sized town. It houses a large district hospital, an Industrial Training Institute and some privately owned skill training centres. It has all the facilities of a district headquarters. A trunk railway line passes approximately 50 kilometers from Amria. Its poor connectivity is a major reason for the absence of any major industry therein. The state government offers a 10 year tax holiday as an incentive to new industry.
In 2010 Anil, an industrialist decided to take benefits to set up Amria Plastic Works (APW) in Noora village, about 20km from Amria. While the factory was being built, Anil hired the required key labour and got them trained at the skill training centres at Amria. This act of his made the key personnel very loyal to APW.
APW started production in 2011 with the labour drawn fully from Noora village. The villagers were very happy to get employment near their homes and were motivated by the key personnel to meet the production targets with high quality. APW started making large profits, a sizeable portion of which was used to improve the quality of life in Noora. By 2016, Noora could boast of a greener village and a renovated village temple. Anil liaised with the local MLA to increase the frequency of the bus services to Amria. The government also opened a primary health care centre and primary school at Noora in buildings constructed by APW. APW used its CSR funds to set up women’s self-help groups, subsidize primary education to the village children and procure an ambulance for use by its employeed and the needy.
In 2019, there was a minor fire in APW. It was quickly extinguished as fire safety protocols were in place in the factory. Investigations revealed that the factory had been using electricity in excess of its authorized capacity. This was soon rectified. The next year, due to nationwide lockdown, the requirement of production fell for four months. Anil decided that all employees would be paid regularly. He employed them to plant trees and improve the village habitat.
APW had developed a reputation of high-quality production and a motivated workforce.
Critically analyse the story of APW and state the ethical issues involved. Do you consider APW as a role model for the development of backward areas? Give reasons. (250 words)
Case Study: Sexual Harassment in Pvt Company (2019) 20marks
An apparel manufacturing company having a large number of women employees was losing sales due to various factors. The company hired a reputed marketing executive, who increased the volume of sales within a short span of time. However, some unconfirmed reports came up regarding his indulgence in sexual harassment at the workplace.
After sometime a women employee launched a formal complaint to the management against the marketing executive about sexually harassing her. Faced with the companies’ indifference, in not taking cognizance of her grievances, she lodged an FIR with the police.
Realizing the sensitivity and gravity of the situation, the company called the women employee to negotiate. In that she was offered a hefty sum of money to withdraw the complaint and the FIR and also give in writing that the marketing executive is not involved in the case.
Identify the ethical issues involved in this case. What options are available to the women employee? (250 words) (20 marks)
Case-Study: Give compensation to dead drunkard worker’s family (2017)
Q11. You are the head of the Human Resources department of an organisation. One day one of the workers died on duty. His family was demanding compensation. However, the company denied compensation because it was revealed in investigation that he was drunk at the time of the accident. The workers of the company went to strike demanding compensation for the family of the deceased. The Chairman of the management board has asked for your recommendation. What recommendation would you provide the management? Discuss the merits and demerits of each of the recommendations. (250 Words, 20)
Case-Study: Fake testimony to save manager? (2017)
Q12. You are the manager of a spare parts company A and you have to negotiate a deal with the manager of a large manufacturing company B. The deal is highly competitive and sealing the deal is critical for your company. The deal is being worked out over a dinner. After dinner the manager of manufacturing company B offered to drop you to the hotel in his car. On the way to hotel he happens to hit motorcycle injuring the motorcyclist badly. You know the manager was driving fast and thus lost control. The law enforcement officer comes to investigate the issue and you are the sole eyewitness to it. Knowing the strict laws pertaining to road accidents you are aware that your honest account of the incident would lead to the prosecution of the manager and as a consequence the deal is likely to be jeopardised, which is of immense importance to your company. What are the dilemmas you face? What will be your response to the situation? (250 Words, 20)
Case-Study: give bribe or end career (2014)
Suppose you are the CEO of a company that manufactures specialized electronic equipment used by a government department. You have submitted your bid for the supply of this equipment to the department. Both the quality and cost of your offer are better than those of the competitors. Yet the concerned officer is demanding a hefty bribe for approving the tender. Getting the order is important both for you and for your company. Not getting the order would mean closing a production line. It may also affect your own career. However, as a value-conscious person, you do not want to give bribe.
Valid arguments can be advanced both for giving the bribe and getting the order, and for refusing to pay the bribe and risking the loss of the order. What those arguments could be? Could there be any better way to get out of this dilemma? If so outline the main elements of this third way, pointing out its merits. 250 words.
Case-Study: Trade union issue (2015)
A private company is known for its efficiency, transparency and employee welfare. The company though owned by a private individual has a cooperative character where employees feel a sense of ownership. The company employs nearly 700 personnel and they have voluntarily decided not to form a union.
One day suddenly in the morning, about 40 men belonging to a political party gatecrashed into the factory demanding jobs in the factory. They threatened the management and employees, and also used foul language. The employees feel demoralized. It was clear that those people who gate-crashed wanted to be on the payroll of the company as well as continue as the volunteers/members of the party. The company maintains high standards in integrity and does not extend favours to civil administration that also includes law enforcement agency. Such incidents occur in public sector also.
- Assume you are the CEO of the company. What would you do to diffuse the volatile situation on the date of gate-crashing with the violent mob sitting inside the company premises?
- What could be the long-term solution to the issue discussed in the case?
- Every solution/action that you suggest will have a positive and a negative impact on you (as CEO), the employees and the performance of the employees. Analyze the consequences of each of your suggested actions. (250 words)
Case-Study: To do Drug Research on non-profitable disease or not? (2015)
One of the scientists working in the R & D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of the company’s best selling veterinary drugs, B has the potential to cure a currently incurable liver disease that is prevalent in tribal areas. However, developing a variant of the drug suitable for human beings entailed a lot of research and development having a huge expenditure to the extent of 50 crores rupees. It was unlikely that the company would recover the costs as the disease was rampant only in poverty-stricken area having very little market otherwise.
If you were the CEO, then—
(a) Identify the various actions that you could take;
(b) Evaluate the pros and cons of each of your actions.
Case-Study: To Whistle-blow against Polluting industry or not? (2016)
A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The salary is also good. However, after a few months accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods. They advise her to keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings.
At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.
- What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?
- What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why?
Case-Study: New Project hurting lifestyle of locals? (2016)
ABC Ltd. is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding and generating employment. The company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient technology that will help the company to save production cost by 20%. The company’s decision goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped regions. The Government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants of Vikaspuri region which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost of living, aliens migrating to the region, disturbing the social and economic order. The company sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and some of the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government did not yield any result. (25 marks)
(a) Identify the issues involved in the case.
(b) What can be suggested to satisfy Company’s goal and to address the resident’s concern. (300 words)
Appendix: Model Answer pe Free Lecture & Powerpoint
- Free Lecture: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwYR7WJw1-QWw2l-GA5DVW0EThFRkORf8
- Free Powerpoint: https://unacademy.com/content/upsc/mains-paper-analysis/