Environment | 34
2 years ago

[EnB] Biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ methods of Conservation, Difference between Wildlife sanctuary and National Park

CSAT कत्ल की सुबह

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What's New?नया क्या?
  1. Halltickets: UPSC,RBI,UPPSC
  2. Economic Survey POWERPOINT
    Nothing else on top priority
  3. CAPF-2014 answerkey after that
  1. What is biodiversity conservation?
  2. In-situ biodiversity conservation (Natural Home)
  3. Difference between a national park, wildlife Sanctuary, and a biosphere reserve
  4. Ex-Situ biodiversity conservation (artificial home)
  5. Seed Banks
  6. Zoos
  7. Decision Making question in CSAT Paper-II
  8. Botanical Gardens (Ex-situ)

What is biodiversity conservation?

First, what is biodiversity: number and variety of plants and animals.
Whatever we do, to protect the number and variety of plants and animals= biodiversity conservation.

There are two Methods of biodiversity conservation

in-situ and ex-situ conservation

  • 1. In-Situ (natural home)
  • 2.Ex-Situ (artificial home)

Actual Question in CSAT 2011

(12.) Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?

  • (a.)Biosphere Reserve
  • (b.) Botanical Garden
  • (c.) National Park
  • (d.) Wildlife Sanctuary

In-situ biodiversity conservation (Natural Home)

  • In this case, you identify an area with high biodiversity (= this area has lot of number and variety of plants and animals)
  • And then, you isolate and protect this area from human activities by establishing a natural park/sanctuary/biosphere reserve etc.
  • Very essential for Big animals like elephants, rhinos, tigers: they require huge area.
Difference between a national park, wildlife Sanctuary, and a biosphere reserve
National Park No human activity or settlement allowed.
Villagers cannot graze their animals, Extremely strict rules about jungle produce collection (Tendu leaves, Honey etc.)
Wildlife Sanctuary People are not allowed to live (some exceptions though) but some human activities are allowed, such as grazing, firewood collection.
Tourism is permitted.
A Sanctuary can be upgraded as a National Park. However a National Park cannot be downgraded as a Sanctuary.
Biosphere reserve People are allowed to live, own private land and carry on their traditional activities. (In the outer-zone)

Ex-Situ biodiversity conservation (artificial home)

  • examples: seed banks, zoo, botanical gardens, aquariums

Seed Banks

  • They store seeds at extremely low temperature and humidity.
  • Advantage: can save large variety of plant species in a very small space.

Seed Banks : Problems

  • every seed has an expiry date, you cannot store it for an indefinite time. So every once in a while, you have to take out the seeds, germinate them and get new seeds and store them again.
  • Multinational companies such as Monasoto have excellent infrastructure for these activities, but they care for storing the seeds of commercially viable species only. Ex. Wheat, maize, rice, potato, brinjal etc. for doing research and development on them, and create new hybrid varieties.
  • They have no interest in protecting some unknown grass or fruit of jungle on the verge of extinction, this duty falls on the (inefficient) government agencies.

Zoos

  • You can bring some endangered species in zoo, try to breed them, and reintroduce their offsprings in the jungle. (done in case of pandas, orangutans etc.)

CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY of India

  • Enforces minimum standards and norms for upkeep and health care of animals in Indian Zoos
  • Restrains mushrooming of unplanned and ill-conceived Zoos that were cropping up as adjuncts to public parks, industrial complexes and waysides.

Zoo Problems

  • Not all species can breed in captivity. Life expectancy of Caged Ex-situ animal is less compared to its in-situ cousin.
  • Offsprings born in captivity, have problems in adjusting and surviving in jungles.
  • Tiger cub born in zoo, feeding on readymade meat, living in a small area, cannot easily survive in a jungle. It doesn’t know how to efficiently move in a jungle and hunt animals.
  • Zoos require huge land, lot of funds, trained personnel.
  • Zoos concentrate on protection and breeding of big and popular species such as Tiger, Panda, orangutans, etc. as it brings more public support and funds.
  • But small and unknown species such as frogs and birds get neglected.

Decision Making question in CSAT Paper-II

(also for “Case-study” is Group discussions in MBA admission)
You are the superintendent of Kankaria Zoo, Ahmedabad.  Recently you have received funds from an international charity organisation to purchase animals.
Your Subordinate staff has given you a suggestion→
There is a sharp decline in number of zoo visitors, we hardly get any money from ticket sales and mostly relying on Government funds (just like AirIndia) so Better purchase popular animals. Currently Panda and Tigress are hot favorite among kids after the movie “Kung Fu Panda #2”. Kids will beg their parents to visit our zoo every weekend, we will also sell stuffed toys and souvenirs of those animals for extra-income.

Verbal instruction from Environment Minister→
Buy a pair of African Lions because it is our party’s election symbol. In return I’ll see to it that your zoo gets more fund allocations in next year’s budget.

Demand by Local Civil Society and NGO lobby→
Buy certain small frogs, birds and snakes from Brazilian Rainforest, because they’re on verge of extinction, they cannot survive in the natural habitat given the tree-cutting and pollution and must be protected in an Ex-situ habitat. They’ll require less space and expenditure than typical big animal such as Lion or Panda.

What will be your decision as the zoo superintendent?

  • 1. Buy Panda and Tigress , to bring more of visitors and earn more ticket revenue.
  • 2. African Lion, the election symbol of ruling party to get more funds in next budget.
  • 3. Those Small frogs, birds and snakes, on the verge of Extinction.
  • 4. No purchase, return the money back to that Charity org.

Mock MCQ:
Which of the following is true about Indian and African Elephants

  • A. For African Elephants: Only males have tusks but females don’t.
  • B. For Indian Elephants: Only females have tusks but males don’t.

Continuing the discussion further, another ex-situ method

Botanical Gardens (Ex-situ)

  • for example, BOTANIC GARDEN OF THE INDIAN REPUBLIC (BGIR), NOIDA has been set up to facilitate ex situ conservation and propagation of rare and threatened indigenous plants of the country
  • Problem: area and funds :
  • They do not get as much media attention, public support and charity like the zoos.

WFST: which of the following statements are true?

  • 1. Ex-situ is the most convenient and effective method for saving big animals.
  • 2. Central Zoo authority looks after the matters related to prevention of cruelty to animals.
  • 3. Human activities are allowed in National parks but not in wild-life sanctuaries.
  • 4. India has more National parks compared to Wild-life sanctuaries.
  • 5. Wild Ass is only found in Ranthambhor,  Rajasthan.
  • 6. Bactrian camel (Two Humped Camel) is a native to Central America.
  • 7. Aquarium is an example of In-situ method of biodiversity conservation.

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अब तक 34 कमेंट्स लिखी गयी

  1. anil says:

    nice attempt

  2. ashish says:

    v. gud sir!

  3. barath says:

    we are are the people cause to this and we are the people tring to save them what afun

  4. Pradeep says:

    African Elephant: Both Male and Female have tusks..
    Indian Elephant: Only few Males have tusks..

    1. Ex-situ is the most convenient and effective method for saving big animals. F
    2. Central Zoo authority looks after the matters related to prevention of cruelty to animals. I Think its F
    3. Human activities are allowed in National parks but not in wild-life sanctuaries. F
    4. India has more National parks compared to Wild-life sanctuaries. F (app 400′s WS and 150′s NP’s)
    5. Wild Ass is only found in Ranthambhor, Rajasthan. F (confined only to Gujarat)
    6. Bactrian camel (Two Humped Camel) is a native to Central America. F (Central Asia is Bactria)
    7. Aquarium is an example of In-situ method of biodiversity conservation. F

    What will be your decision as the zoo superintendent?

    1. Buy Kung Fu Panda and Tigress , to bring more of visitors and earn more ticket revenue.
    2. African Lion, the election symbol of ruling party to get more funds in next budget.
    3. Those Small frogs, birds and snakes, on the verge of Extinction.
    4. No purchase, return the money back to that Charity org.

    No 4.. Among 1,2 & 3, I will go for 2.. Even African Lion will lure more number of visitors provided we do a good marketing.. 1 will be the second preference (to get more revenue but nowadays children prefer more TV games ;) )

    • Nawin says:

      What will be your decision as the zoo superintendent?

      1. Buy Kung Fu Panda and Tigress , to bring more of visitors and earn more ticket revenue.
      ( Not a good option since your looking for revenue. Zoos are not meant for that)

      2. African Lion, the election symbol of ruling party to get more funds in next budget.
      (Not a Good Option your bending to pressure of higher officials)

      3. Those Small frogs, birds and snakes, on the verge of Extinction.
      ( Yes Good Option, Actual looking for welfare of species, Main Purpose of Zoo.)

      4. No purchase, return the money back to that Charity org.
      ( Not a Good Option Escape mentality)

      SO Answer should be 3.

      • Kapil Juneja says:

        1. Kung Fu Panda doesn’t exist in real but an animated cartoon character. Panda or Giant Panda generally survives in hills and mountainous regions and Gujarat or specifically Ahmedabad is not one such place. Though it can also adjust in lowlands but the biggest problem is it rely basically on Bamboo. I guess it would be tough to arrange in Ahmedabad.

        2. African Lion once enjoyed monopoly over entire Africa and can easily adapt to the Indian subcontinent particularly Gujarat and it offers comparable climatic conditions. Moreover it would be exciting to compare it with the already flourishing Asiatic Lions in Gir in Gujarat. But it won’t solve the purpose of Zoos which are aimed at breeding the endangered species and reintroducing their offsprings in jungle. For breeding purpose an African Lioness would be required though the zoo authorities can experiment with the Asian Lioness too.

        3. Rainforest species won’t adapt outside the rainforest. And from Rainforest to Raet (Sand) Forest? Forget about it.

        4. Returning the money! It’s not in Indian blood.

        Part 2 of the option 1, Tigress is best suited.

        • bishwarup says:

          all the small frogs, snakes that are facing threat of extinction aren’t natural habitats of rainforest only. Also ex-situ conservation principally encompasses the idea of creating suitable environment to make the species breed and evolve over time tough the scope for evolving is much less than that of in the case of their natural habitat.

  5. manisha says:

    Mrunal sir u r great…Dnt hv enough words to thank u..

  6. Gulshan says:

    Thanks for providing study materials on various subjects in such a interesting way.

  7. nidhi says:

    What will be your decision as the zoo superintendent?

    1. Buy Kung Fu Panda and Tigress , to bring more of visitors and earn more ticket revenue.
    2. African Lion, the election symbol of ruling party to get more funds in next budget.
    3. Those Small frogs, birds and snakes, on the verge of Extinction.
    4. No purchase, return the money back to that Charity org.
    ans – 3

    Which of the following is true about Indian and African Elephants

    A. For African Elephants: Only males have tusks but females don’t.
    B. For Indian Elephants: Only females have tusks but males don’t.

    ans- neither a nor b
    african elephants both male and female have tusks while asian elephants both male and female dont carry tusk

    • Amit says:

      Its a question ?
      or its a information?

    • Ankur says:

      In Asian Elephants male carry tusks, female can also have but very short or none at all, besides that tusks less male also exist mainly in Sri Lanka.

  8. balamurli krishna says:

    @Pradeep: You are right, Zoo authority does’t deal with Cruelty..

    It is WCCB which deals with cruelty, + Blue Cross

    The Government of India constituted a statutory body, the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau on 6th June 2007, by amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, a special Act to protect the wildlife in the country. The bureau would complement the efforts of the state governments, primary enforcers of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and other enforcement agencies of the country.

    It calls for coordinated actions in combating the wildlife related crimes including building capacity for scientific and professional investigation along with other measures.

  9. balamurli krishna says:

    the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau shall take measures with respect to:-

    (i) Collect and collate intelligence related to organized Wildlife Crime activities and to disseminate the same to State and other enforcement agencies for immediate action so as to apprehend the criminals and to establish a centralized Wildlife Crime data bank;
    (ii) Co-ordination of actions by various officers, State Governments and other authorities in connection with the enforcement of the provisions of this Act, either directly or through regional and border units set up by the Bureau;
    (iii) Implementation of obligations under the various international Conventions and protocols that are in force at present or which may be ratified or acceded to by India in future;
    (iv) Assistance to concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organizations to facilitate co-ordination and universal action for wildlife crime control;
    (v) Develop infrastructure and capacity building for scientific and professional investigation into wildlife crimes and assist State Governments to ensure success in prosecutions related to wildlife crimes;
    (vi) Advice the Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international ramifications, and suggest changes required in relevant policy and laws from time to time.

  10. bulla says:

    thanku……. you upload very good stuff

  11. Anonymous says:

    please give right answers SIR..

  12. shailesh says:

    3. Those Small frogs, birds and snakes, on the verge of Extinction. YES

    1. Ex-situ is the most convenient and effective method for saving big animals. false
    2. Central Zoo authority looks after the matters related to prevention of cruelty to animals. true
    3. Human activities are allowed in National parks but not in wild-life sanctuaries. false
    4. India has more National parks compared to Wild-life sanctuaries. false
    5. Wild Ass is only found in Ranthambhor, Rajasthan. false gujrat
    6. Bactrian camel (Two Humped Camel) is a native to Central America. falsemiddle east afrika
    7. Aquarium is an example of In-situ method of biodiversity falseconservation.

  13. mohit says:

    A two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus) native to central and southwest Asia.

  14. Shikha says:

    Answer to decision making question is option c. Friends plz help if I am wrong.

    Can anyone give me right answer to both the WFST?

  15. amit says:

    Aquarium is example of Ex-situ not In-situ..

  16. Navya says:

    You mentioned “no human activity” is allowed in National Parks, and under wildlife sanctuary, you have mentioned that tourism is allowed. However, isn’t it true that national parks are huge ecotourism destinations? So, some human activity is permitted there, right?

  17. sona says:

    nice

  18. priti says:

    as per law parlance no activity is allowed bt in practice it do,ya sm activities of tourism are allowed .

  19. Arun says:

    Hi,

    I believe there is an error in the section Seed Bank: Problems. The name of the BioTech company is given as Monosato. I think you are referring to the company Monsanto. Can you please clarify.

    Thanks,
    Arun

  20. jude_lucy says:

    Monsanto*

  21. monika says:

    good

  22. rsr says:

    in Decision Making question i would prefer3rd option bcoz 1st option require huge area….and hude money to feed them as a quantity. 2nd option require same also and its just promise by politicle boss which never ful fil only 3rd option closer to theme of conservation and economical as birds frog doesnt require huge feeding Zoo concern,,,

  23. suganiya says:

    please elaborate the content

  24. Ram says:

    African elephants – both male & female have tusk..(I think, this also be a factor to cause africa , high in elephant poaching)
    Asian elephants – only male has tusk, female- no tusk or small teeth like thing instead of broad tusk

  25. sanjana says:

    please give answer for decision making question.

  26. SURESH says:

    Trying is the thing itself is an achievemnet you are the one as far as Civil Services Examination is concerned……………..

  27. Nikhil Jain says:

    What will be your decision as the zoo superintendent?

    1. Buy Kung Fu Panda and Tigress , to bring more of visitors and earn more ticket revenue.
    (Panda wont be suitable for Guj Env, Tigress may be opted)
    2. African Lion, the election symbol of ruling party to get more funds in next budget.
    (I think this is the best options, African lions not only satisfy Polt. demand as well it increase the zoo revenue so that this revenue can easily be used to purchase extinct species like birds, frogs and snakes. They might be cheap than African Lion. There may be good chance of grant in next budget, which can be used to purchase tigress. All hands full of Ladooos.. :P)

    3. Those Small frogs, birds and snakes, on the verge of Extinction. (Revenue loss, how to upkeep them, administration problems and al…)
    4. No purchase, return the money back to that Charity org.
    (Sochna hi Bekaar hai…)

  28. advait says:

    on the question of ahmedbad zoo, it depends on which exam it is.
    if it is UPSC CSE, go for ethical/moral ways.
    if it is placement drive by reliance, go for political ways.

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