**This is a guest article by Mr.Dipak Singh.**

if the math-equations/signs are not clearly visible in your browser, then click me to download the PDF version of this article.

- Trig-Identities
- Min-Max table
- Ratta-fication formulas
- The AM GM Logic
- Find minimum value of 4 tan2θ + 9 cot2θ
- Extra facts
- SSC CGL 2012 Tier II Question
- The least value of 2 sin
^{2}θ + 3 cos^{2}θ (CGL2012T1) - The maximum value of Sin x + cos x is
- The maximum value of 3 Sin x – 4 Cos x is
- Min Max values of sin 4x + 5 are
- Minimum and maximum value of Sin Sin x is

Today we’ll see how to find the maximum value (greatest value ) or the minimum value (least value) of a trigonometric function without using differentiation. Take a pen and note-book, keep doing the steps while reading this article.

First Remember following identities:

# Trig-Identities

1. sin^{2 }θ + cos^{2} θ = 1

2. 1+ cot^{2} θ = cosec^{2 }θ

3. 1+ tan^{2 }θ = sec^{2 }θ

how did we get these formulas? Already explained, click me

# Min-Max table

Min value | Max value | Can be written as | |

sin θ, sin 2θ, sin 9θ …. sin nθ | -1 | +1 | -1 ≤ Sin nθ ≤ 1 |

cos θ, cos 4θ , cos 7θ … cos nθ | -1 ≤ Cos nθ ≤ 1 |
||

sin^{2 }θ , sin^{2} 4θ , sin^{2} 9θ …sin^{2} nθ |
0 | +1 | Can be written as0 ≤ Sin^{2} nθ ≤ 1 |

cos^{2} θ , cos^{2} 3θ , cos^{2} 8θ … cos^{2} nθ |
0 ≤ Cos^{2} nθ ≤ 1 |
||

Sin θ Cos θ | -1/2 | +1/2 | -1/2 ≤ Sin θ Cos θ ≤ ½ |

observe that in case of sin^{2}θ and cos^{2}θ, the minimum value if 0 and not (-1). Why does this happen? because (-1)^{2}=+1

## Negative Signs inside out

- Sin (- θ) = – Sin (θ)
- Cos (-θ) = Cos (θ)

# Ratta-fication formulas

- a sin θ ± b cos θ = ±√ (a
^{2}+ b^{2}) { for min. use – , for max. use + } - a sin θ ± b sin θ = ±√ (a
^{2}+ b^{2}) { for min. use – , for max. use + } - a cos θ ± b cos θ = ±√ (a
^{2}+ b^{2}) { for min. use – , for max. use + } - Min. value of (sin θ cos θ)
^{n}= (½)^{n}

# The AM GM Logic

Let A ,B are any two numbers then,

Arithmetic Mean (AM)= (A + B) / 2 and

Geometric Mean (GM) = √ (A.B)

- Hence, A.M ≥ G.M ( We can check it by putting any values of A and B )
- Consider the following statement “ My age is greater than or equal to 25 years . ”
- What could you conclude about my age from this statement ?
- Answer : My age can be anywhere between 25 to infinity … means it can be 25 , , 50 ,99, 786 or 1000 years etc… but it can not be 24 or 19 or Sweet 16 . Infact it can not be less than 25, strictly.
- Means, We can confidently say that my age is not less 25 years. Or in other words my minimum age is 25 years.

Showing numerically, if Age ≥ 25 years ( minimum age = 25 )

- Similarly, If I say x ≥ 56 ( minimum value of x = 56 )
- If, y ≥ 77 ( minimum value of y = 77 )
- If, x + y ≥ 133 ( minimum value of x + y = 133 )
- If, sin θ ≥ – 1 ( minimum value of Sin θ = -1 )
- If, tan θ + cot θ ≥ 2 (minimum value of tan θ + cot θ = 2 ) ]]

Sometimes, we come across a special case of trigonometric identities like to find min. value of sin θ + cosec θ or tan θ + cot θ or cos2 θ + sec2 θ etc. These identities have one thing in common i.e., the first trigonometric term is opposite of the second term or vice-versa ( tan θ = 1/ cot θ , sin θ = 1/ cosec θ , cos2 θ = 1/ sec2 θ ).

These type of problems can be easily tackled by using the concept of

A.M ≥ G .M

Meaning, Arithmetic mean is always greater than or equal to geometric mean. For example:

# Find minimum value of 4 tan2θ + 9 cot2θ

(they’ll not ask maximum value as it is not defined. )

We know that tan2θ = 1/ cot2θ , hence applying A.M ≥ G.M logic, we get

A.M of given equation = (4 tan2θ + 9 cot2θ) / 2 …. (1)

G.M of given equation = √ (4 tan2θ . 9 cot2θ )

= √ 4 * 9 # ( tan2θ and cot2θ inverse of each other, so tan x cot =1)

= √ 36 = 6 …. (2)

Now, we know that A.M ≥ G. M

From equations (1) and (2) above we get,

=> (4 tan2 θ + 9 cot2θ) / 2 ≥ 6

Multiplying both sides by 2

=> 4 tan2 θ + 9 cot2 θ ≥ 12 ( minimum value of tan2 θ + cot2 θ is 12 )

## Deriving a common conclusion:

- Consider equation a cos2 θ + b sec2 θ ( find minimum value)
- As, A.M ≥ G.M
- (a cos2 θ + b sec2 θ / 2 ) ≥ √ (a cos2 θ . b sec2 θ)
- a cos2 θ + b sec2 θ ≥ 2 √ (ab) ( minimum value 2 √ab )
- So, we can use 2 √ab directly in these kind of problems.

## Summary:

While using A.M ≥ G.M logic :

- Term should be like a T1 + b T2 ; where T1 = 1 / T2
- Positive sign in between terms is mandatory. (otherwise how would you calculate mean ? )
- Directly apply 2√ab .
- Rearrange/Break terms if necessary -> priority should be given to direct use of identities -> find terms eligible for A.M ≥ G.M logic -> if any, apply -> convert remaining identities, if any, to sine and cosines -> finally put known max., min. values.

# Extra facts:

- The reciprocal of 0 is + ∞ and vice-versa.
- The reciprocal of 1 is 1 and -1 is -1.
- If a function has a maximum value its opposite has a minimum value.
- A function and its reciprocal have same sign.

Keeping these tools (not exhaustive) in mind we can easily find Maximum or Minimum values easily.

# SSC CGL 2012 Tier II Question

What is The minimum value of sin^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ + sec^{2} θ + cosec^{2} θ + tan^{2} θ + cot^{2} θ

- 1
- 3
- 5
- 7

## Solution:

We know that sin^{2 }θ + cos^{2} θ = 1 (identitiy#1)

Therefore,

**(sin ^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ)** + sec

^{2}θ + cosec

^{2}θ + tan

^{2}θ + cot

^{2}θ

= (1) + sec^{2} θ + cosec^{2} θ + tan^{2} θ + cot^{2} θ

Using A.M ≥ G.M logic for tan^{2} θ + cot^{2} θ we get ,

= 1 + 2 + sec^{2} θ + cosec^{2} θ

changing into sin and cos values

( Because we know maximum and minimum values of Sin θ, Cos θ :P and by using simple identities we can convert all trigonometric functions into equation with Sine and Cosine.)

= 1 + 2 + (1/ cos^{2} θ) + (1/ sin^{2} θ)

solving taking L.C.M

= 1 + 2 + (sin^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ)/( sin^{2} θ . cos^{2} θ)…..eq1

but we already know two things

**sin ^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ=1 (trig identity #1)**

**Min. value of (sin θ cos θ) ^{n} = (½)^{n }(Ratta-fication formula #4)**

Apply them into eq1, and we get

= 1 + 2 + (sin^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ)/( sin^{2} θ . cos^{2} θ)

= 1 + 2 + (1/1/4) = 1+2+4

= 7 (correct answer D)

# The least value of 2 sin^{2} θ + 3 cos^{2} θ (CGL2012T1)

- 1
- 2
- 3
- 5

We can solve this question via two approaches

## Approach #1

Break the equation and use identity no. 1

= 2 sin^{2} θ + 2 cos^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ

=2(sin^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ) + cos^{2} θ ; (but sin^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ=1)

= 2 + cos^{2} θ ;(but as per min-max table, the minimum value of cos^{2} θ=0)

= 2 + 0 = 2 (correct answer B)

## Approach #2

convert equation into one identity ,either sin or cos

**first convert it into a sin equation :**

= 2 sin^{2} θ + 3 (1- sin^{2} θ) ;(because sin^{2} θ + cos^{2} θ=1=>cos^{2} θ=1- sin^{2} θ)

= 2 sin^{2} θ + 3 – 3 sin^{2} θ

= 3 – sin^{2} θ

= 3 – ( 1) = 2 (but Min. value of sin^{2} θ is 0 …confusing ???? )

As sin^{2} θ is preceded by a negative sign therefore we have to take max. value of sin^{2} θ in order to get minimum value .

**Converting into a cos equation :**

= 2 sin^{2} θ + 3 cos^{2} θ

= 2 (1- cos^{2} θ) + 3 cos^{2} θ

= 2 – 2 cos^{2} θ + 3 cos^{2} θ

= 2 + cos^{2} θ

= 2 + 0 = 2 ( correct answer B )

# The maximum value of Sin x + cos x is

- √2
- 1/ √2
- 1
- 2

Applying Ratta-fication formulae No.1

a sin θ ± b cos θ = ±√ (a^{2} + b^{2} ) { for min. use – , for max. use + }

in the given question, we’ve to find the max value of

Sin x + cos x

= + √ (1^{2}+ 1^{2} )

= √2 ( correct answer A )

# The maximum value of 3 Sin x – 4 Cos x is

- -1
- 5
- 7
- 9

Solution:

Applying Ratta-fication formulae No.1

a sin θ ± b cos θ = ±√ (a^{2} + b^{2} ) { for min. use – , for max. use + }

in the given question, we’ve to find the max value of

3 Sin x – 4 Cos x

= + √ (3^{2}+ 4^{2} )

= √25

= 5 ( correct answer B )

# Min Max values of sin 4x + 5 are

- 2, 6
- 4, 5
- -4, -5
- 4, 6

Solution:

We know that, -1 *≤ *Sin nx *≤ *1

= -1 ≤ Sin 4x ≤ 1

Adding 5 throughout, 4 ≤ Sin 4x +5 ≤ 6

Therefore, the minimum value is 4 and maximum value is 6 ( correct answer D )

# Minimum and maximum value of Sin Sin x is

- Do not exist
- -1, 1
- Sin -1 , Sin +1
- – Sin 1 , Sin 1

We know that, -1 *≤ *Sin nx *≤ *1

= Sin (-1) ≤ Sin x *≤ *Sin (1)

= – Sin 1 ≤ Sin x ≤ Sin 1 ; [Sin(-θ) is same as – Sin θ ]

Therefore, Minimum value is –Sin 1 and maximum is Sin 1 ( correct answer D)

The key to success is Practice! Practice! Practice!

Drop your problems in the comment box.

For more articles on trigonometry and aptitude, visit mrunal.org/aptitude

## 318 Comments on “[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made Easy without differentiation”

What is the extreme values of cos 2x+cos square x

cos(2x) = cos^2 (x) – sin ^2 (x)

so if we convert cos(2x) and simplify , it will come as 3cos^2(x) -1

and min value of cos^2 (x) is 0,

so

min value is “-1″

max value is ” 2″

please correct me if i am wrong.

cos(2x)= 2cos^2(x) – 1…..NOT 3cos^2(x) – 1

so max value =1

and min value=-1

Cos(2x) + (Cos X)^2

= { (Cos X)^2 – (Sin X)^2 } + (Cos X)^2

= { 2 (Cos X)^2 – 1 } + (Cos X)^2

= 3 (Cos X)^2 – 1

Max value = 2

Min value = –1

8sin^2x-cos^2x

=9sin^2x-1

Max.: 8

Min.:0

This answer was really helpful for me.. thank you sir

8sin^2x-cos^2x find min. and max. Value

Please give me all your new.update information about jee main

excellent description !!

Maximum and minimum value of Cos(cosx)

Its cos1 both min and max…

Max is 1 (= cos0) which is obtained when x=π/2

What is the maximum valu of 1-(3sin@+4cos@)……?

max. value of the function 1- (3 sin@ + 4 cos@)………………………….when 3sin@ + 4 cos@ is minimum

and min. value of 3sin@+ 4 cos@ = -5………………………..so max. value of 1- (3sin@+ 4cos@) =1-5 =-4

Bhai ye – ve function h isliye 1-(-5) =6 hona chahiye max. Neg fun m scene reverse ho jata h min value max and max value min bn jati h

If sec square theta = 4xy÷ (x+y)^2 holds for some pair (x,y) then how many pairs (x,y) are possible being real and x not equal to -y

I want to know how to find minimum and maximum values of sin^4x + cos^8x, like if there are different powers on trigonometric functions?? Please do reply:)

Max. Value will be 1

As sin^2m theta + cos^2n theta <=1 always .

hi…

what is maximum of sin(x)+a sin(2x)=???

please help me…

Sinx has – 1 to +1

Sin2x=2sinx cosx

=2(1/2)…….{sinx.cosx has – 1/2 to +1/2}

So for maximum of value

1+2(1/2)

=2

How to find the minimum and maximum value of 3sinx+cosec cube x

64sinA x 256cosA का उच्चतम मान ज्ञात कीजिये|

￼

￼

￼

￼

8192

Minimum and maximum value of 1/2- cos3x

Find min or max value of cot^2( x ) +sec^2(x)