[Download] UPSC Mains-2014: Philosophy Question Paper 1 & 2, including Hindi medium PDF

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  1. Philosophy Optional Paper 1: SECTION-A
  2. Philosophy Optional Paper 1: SECTION B
  3. Philosophy Optional Paper 2:SECTION—A
  4. Philosophy Optional Paper 2:SECTION-B
  5. Original Scan for Hindi Medium

Philosophy Optional Paper 1: SECTION-A

Q1. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. How are the synthetic a priori judgements justifiable according to Kant? Explain.
  2. Bring out the significance of language games in Wittgenstein’s theory of meaning.
  3. Explain the significance of ‘bracketing’ in Husserl phenomenology.
  4. Does Leibniz’s theory of pre-established harmony necessarily lead to determinism? Discuss.
  5. How far are Quine’s arguments in Two Dogmas of Empiricism” justified? Discuss.

Q2.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Distinguish between knowledge and belief according to Plato. How is it based on his metaphysics? Explain.20 marks
  2. Explain the doctrine of Cartesian dualism and examine critically arguments in favour of it.15 marks
  3. Evaluate critically Hume’s criticism of theory of causation.15 marks

Q3.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Are empirical statements conclusively verifiable ‘? Discuss the limitations of ‘verification theory of meaning’.20 marks
  2. Why does Wittgenstein disagree with Bertrand Russell’s interpretation of atomism in the philosophy of Tractatus ? Discuss.15 marks
  3. Are G.E. Moore’s arguments in defence of common sense satisfactory? Give reasons.15 marks

Q4.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Explain Kierkegaard’s concept of choice. How does the concept of choice in metaethics differ from normative ethics? Explain.20 marks
  2. State and evaluate Heidegger’s claim that temporality is the horizon against which the being of any entity is understood.15 marks
  3. Explain the significance of Aristotle’s doctrine of form and matter in his theory of causation.15 marks

Philosophy Optional Paper 1: SECTION B

Q5. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. “Limits of knowledge and world are determined by my sense perception.” Discuss this claim of Carvakas.
  2. Explain the epistemological differences between Sautrantika and Vaibhasika schools of Buddhism.
  3. Bring out the significance of the concept of adhydsa in Sankara’s philosophy to develop his metaphysics.
  4. Are the arguments given in favour of existence of prakrti adequate in Sanikhya philosophy? Discuss.
  5. Can arthapatti (postulated) be reduced to anumana (interference)? Discuss it from the Mimamsa point of view.

Q6.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. How is the theory of causation central to the theories of Reality in classical Indian tradition? Discuss.20 marks
  2. Explain the concept of Karma and discuss its various types according to Jain philosophy.15 marks
  3. How is an absence of an object known according to Naiyayikas and Mimanisakas? Discuss.15 marks

Q7.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Bring out the philosophical implications of introducing extraordinary (alaukika) perception in Nyaya philosophy.20 marks
  2. Explain the nature and levels of samprajnata samadhi. How does each level lead more towards asamprajnata samadhi ?15 marks
  3. Examine the Samkhya view on liberation that “the self is neither bound nor liberates, nor does it transmigrate”.15 marks

Q8.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. How does the nature of Brahman differ in the philosophy of Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhya? Discuss critically. 20
  2. How does Nagarjuna explain the concept of Sunyata ?15 marks
  3. How is Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga an advancement over Patanjala yoga? Discuss.15 marks

Philosophy Optional Paper 2:SECTION—A

Q1.Answer all of the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. If caste discrimination has continuity and hierarchy, which principle of justice can dissolve this problem?
  2. How does multiculturalism redefine liberal notions like identity, freedom and equality and reformulate its assumptions?
  3. How do we distinguish Liberal humanism and Marxist humanism?
  4. Explain the significance of John Austin’s theory of sovereignty. How does it differ from that of Hobbes?
  5. Can we say that racial supremacy is the main reason for genocide? Give reasons for your answer.

Q2.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Which theory of punishment, retributive or restorative, do you recommend and why?20 marks
  2. “One is not born a woman, but she becomes a woman.’ Critically comment on it.15 marks
  3. By eliminating alienation can we bring social progress? Critically analyse15 marks

Q3.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Analyse the statement with reasons that “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely”.20marks
  2. Whig are the basic differences between Gandhi and Ambedkar regarding caste system in India?15 marks
  3. Discuss Amartya Sen’s principle of Niti as a critique of Nyaya.15 marks

Q4.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. “All human rights are centred on individual rights.” Discuss.20 marks
  2. Explain descriptive and normative perspectives on multiculturalism.15 marks
  3. In what sense is democracy a better form of Government than theocracy?15 marks

Philosophy Optional Paper 2:SECTION-B

Q5. Answer all of the following in about 150 words each: 10 marksx5=50

  1. If God is regarded as ‘One’, will it give rise to religious conflicts?
  2. On what grounds, the dichotomy between ‘is’ and ‘ought’ can either be justified or rejected?
  3. What are the arguments given in favour of the immortality of the Soul?
  4. Can pluralist perspective vindicate Absolute Truth?
  5. How do you justify ‘rebirth’ with or without the Soul?

Q6.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. How far can religious morality incorporate individual freedom?20 marks
  2. How do you formulate religious language as non-cognitive?15 marks
  3. Can it be self-contradictory to accept the ‘idea’ of God but deny the ‘existence’ of God?15 marks

Q7.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Is evil reconcilable with the benevolent God?20 marks
  2. Discuss cosmological argument for the existence of God, and show its merits and demerits.15 marks
  3. Compare and contrast the concept of liberalism according to ‘Advaita’ and ‘Visistadavaita’.15 marks

Q8.Answer the following: (20+15+15)

  1. Elucidate the status of man in the realm between ‘immanence’ and ‘transcendence’.20 marks
  2. Can reason be used to justify faith?15 marks
  3. Discuss the conflicting nature of religious experiences with special reference to Buddhism and Jainism.15 marks

Original Scan for Hindi Medium

Click me to download originally scanned paper- containing both Hindi and English questions.
visit Mrunal.org/download for more questions papers of UPSC Civil services Mains examination.

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60 Comments on “[Download] UPSC Mains-2014: Philosophy Question Paper 1 & 2, including Hindi medium PDF”

  1. please some body share the paperof geology optional…..

  2. Sir, what about the economics paper ?

  3. Simple paper,enjoyed it dude.

    1. Hey can u please help me I want to take philosophy as an optional for mains 2015 can u please guide me regarding books to follow, websites and any other important thing which you might feel can help this newbie !! :D

  4. thanx a lot sir

  5. How was the paper ??
    Level of questions asked ??
    Lengthy ??
    Anything unexpected ??

  6. sir plz upload management paper

  7. Physics ka paper bhi post kardo

  8. please share your experience regarding the difficulty level of the paper..

    1. Hi
      People are telling that paper 1 was bit tough n paper 2 was easy, but I felt paper 1 was easy as I was knowing all q,s but in paper 2 I faced difficulty as I was not aware of few topics like neeti vs nyaya etc..could attempt only 215…overall seems to be decent paper,..cant say that I can write any better answers so was expecting around 200+ including both the papers, but sm1 told that he got only 65 in p1 last year even rthough he was well prepared n wrote all d qns..last year I atmptd 110 marks paper in p1 n got 43 without much preps..so fingers crossed..let’s c..other people please share ur exp…also as less ppl are writing philo..so will it have a negative side effect?

      1. chankya bhai niti vs nyaya que from the book idea of justice. i think both paper are easy. good luck to you

        1. Yup..but that I checked after exam…thanks for d info

  9. As i think Paper 1 was still in traditional manner. but the paper 2 was tougher than last year specially in socio- political section. The question asked is opinion based and it is not easy to write straight toward it. and it is tough task to attempt whole paper. As the people tells that philosophy has short syllabus that can be finished in 4 month easily. But i personally feel that it required more time to digest than any other conventional humanities subject. you have very limited freedom to write in paper 1, if u r not well awared or not having indepth understanding toward particular topic. The same tradition repeated this year as well. Bit hope this year and fingure crossed about marks..

    1. bhai ise digest nahi karna hai concept clear ho gaya then ok. matter ye karta hai ki aap notes se lekar ratta mar raho ya books se samajh bana rahe ho. btw good luck bhai

      1. good to hear from u friend…have u appeared before wats was ur experience toward marks in this optional … kaun si coaching achi hai…

        1. abhi tak pada nahi to mat lo dost. western philosophy plato, aristotle, descartes ke baad kuch samaj me nahi ayega. ratta marke answers likhna muskil hi nahi namumkil hai. paper 2 religion part key liye thik sa book bhi nahi hai

          1. dost mere bolne ka matlab bas yahi tha ki mujhe ise padne me 4 mahine se jyada laga… aur mujhe bahut asan nahi laga.. ho sakta hai aap jyada logical aur tej ho ek bar padkar hi apki understanding n concept ban gaya hoga…. it was only my opinion not a general statement.. .. bcoz that illusion has spoiled my previous attempt.. unable to score good in that attempt…..
            by the way how was ur last year score n how much u r expecting this year if it is ur first attempt…..

  10. dost mere bolne ka matlab bas yahi tha ki mujhe ise padne me 4 mahine se jyada laga… aur mujhe bahut asan nahi laga.. ho sakta hai aap jyada logical aur tej ho ek bar padkar hi apki understanding n concept ban gaya hoga…. it was only my opinion not a general statement.. .. bcoz that illusion has spoiled my previous attempt.. unable to score good in that attempt…..
    by the way how was ur last year score n how much u r expecting this year if it is ur first attempt…..

    1. bhai ravi koi logical ya koi rattebaz nahi hota bat ye hai ki jab ham samajh nahi pate to use ratne ki kosis karte hai . aise ba ma ke liye to thik hai jahan direct que. aate hai but upsc ka trend aap jante hi ho. ek bar 4 mahine me bhi thik se taiyar ho gaya to only revision and debate/ thanks friend

  11. Last year i got 92 in paper 1 and 100 in paper 2 without much preparation
    This year i studied a lot but very much worried about paper 2
    Paper 1 i m expecting 100 plus and paper 2 below 100….it may go below 50 also as paper was very much analytical and required deep thinking…

  12. Hi,

    Would like to share my experience for philosophy. I took philosophy last time as well and prepared from Patanjali notes exclusivey and failed miserably. Though I spent good amount of time on optional self study but philosophy ruined all my planning and efforts. This time I had apprehensions before deciding but then again opted for same. This time got Palmers pdf which helped immensely. I would recommend for everyone who wants to opt philiosophy pls start with this book. Then I referred Y Masih for more details and syllabus coverage. Apart from these two books I referred couple of videos from net which really helped. Oxford university philosophy videos by Prof Peter Milican are of great help. For Modern Philosophy Hegel onwards one can refer ignou notes.
    For indian philosophy Datta and Chatterjee book is the only boook that one should refer. Read this book as many times as you can read like you read Rajiv Ahir for History. If one can prepare Indian Philo properly one can attempt 3 questions from this only.

    Now for Paper 2 for political philosophy Rajiv bhargava (blue and white color cover) is really good one. This time amost 80-90 markes questions were direct from that book like on multiculturalisam and alienation and woman made not born. Videos of prof ian sheparo from yale university are also really good. Will clarify good concepts in philosophy. For philosophy of religion again did 3-4 chapters from ignou notes and couple of notes from net (http://www.mesacc.edu/~barsp59601/text/244/notes.html) and rest from patanjali.
    Overall syllabus is very mush static and limited. If one can focus on right set of material and few good videos then one can cover in 3-4 months with good grip. Moreover this time philosophy helped a lot in Essay and ethics paper as well.
    I want to do one experiments of discussion type classes on skype or google where I can help to cover paper 1 completely(western and indian). 2 hour discussion for 4-5 days can cover good amount of syllabus in western philosophy. No fee strictly only good will. I owe a lot to mrunal bhai. I would be happy to discuss online if we can form a group of 5-6 people.
    Hope this will help

    1. Hi ram…in case u r interested in discussing the paper…n to discuss different topics to maintain the flow..I m in..please reply

      1. Hi Chankya,
        Actually my idea is to help people cover syllabus.. those who are apprehensive of this subject and don’t want to join and coaching.. i thought that i can help them using skype to cover syllabus and concepts.. as syllabus is very limited and can be covered quickly with good understanding if one can explain with nuances, keypoints and keywords..
        slowly we can come to question paper and individual topics.. initially want to focus where people want to do all topics one by one.. full syllabus of paper 1.. and if time will permit we will try to cover paper 2 as well..

        1. Great idea..let me know where i fit into the scenario…as I am working and planning to start preps for into(u NVR know;)) won’t be able to find much time, but will try to be a part on weekends..Google hangout is a good option..

        2. Hi Ram
          I want to prepare philosophy without coaching. But I am apprehensive of answer writing practice. For evaluation of answers what should I do? I have bought patanjali’s notes ,should I instead refer to books directly? Really confused.

    2. bhai ram ji kuch madad hamari bhi kar dena. badi kripa hogi. dhnyawad

      1. Hi Ravi,

        kindly let me know how can I help you.

        1. bhai kuch info aur dedate hamare sath bhi share kar lena. badi kripa hogi

    3. That’s a lot of valuable info…thanx bro. I never referred to coaching notes…i always thought they might be good for revision but not for conceptual clarity. Hence my indian and political part was well prepared through usual text books. But couldn’t get time for western and at the last moment referred only mitra’s notes …as expected, western ruined my paper. in paper 1, section A- question 1, i hardly knew proper ans to all 10 questions…hence it was all beating around the bush.

      I’ll definitely check out your methodology this year.

      Plz share ur analysis of western portion of this yr question paper.was it unconventional or straightforward?..i’ve no clue personally.

      Also plz tell me more abt this palmers pdf. what is it n where can one get it? also sources of various materials which y’ve mentioned.

      1. Hi Maryada Purushottam Ram,

        for western philosophy – palmers pdf + y masih + Prof Robert lane’s notes + patanjali or mitra notes(only for revision purpose)..
        if you find any difficulty you can refer prof peter milican’s videos on you tube.. if still you want me to explain the concepts kindly let me know.. will explain over video chat..
        for palmers pdf and few ignou notes share ur mail id.. i will send it across..
        mine is ramgopalgoyalatgmaildotcom

        1. ram ji if possible then send some philosophy material/rpstruthonly6@gmail.com. thanks in advance

        2. brother,if possible plz send me palmers pdf and ignou notes of philosophy.
          my email id is ak36802@gmail.com

        3. bro if u can then send the philo material to me

    4. can u plz provide download link to the palmer’s book : looking at philosophy or can u send it to my mail id : avinash.avi87@ymail.com??

    5. you told that new comerce should start philosophy optional from palmers pdf bt may you send me pdf or link so i can download it… how u seeing piahylosophy subject as interesting ya tougher, what is yr experience??what should be criteria to take phylosophy as optional subject, yours also?? please tell me about this.

      1. please send me palmers pdf on email:nrc.ias201@gmail.com

  13. Hello Mr. Ram!

    Thanks bro for your guidance, It is of an immense help to the students having philosophy as an optional.One thing I want to know that I have recently started preparation for UPSC and have opted for philosophy, i want to attend coaching class for the same but unable to decide whether I should go for Patanjali or Mitra??You have studied under the guidance of Dharmendra Sir,so you can suggest me..

    Anybody who have experiences of these coaching classes can suggest me.Please help me as new batches are going to be started soon and i will have to go for any one.

    1. bhai patanjali bakwas coaching hai.patanjali teacher and his notes is outdated. so i suggest go through good books videos newspaper debate. if you want class recording then tell me for some topics. thanks

      1. Hi Raviprakash,
        I am from Bangalore,working in d-psu .Now i am planning to go Delhi in following week on leave nearly about 30 days. Can you advice which coaching to join for Philosophy? I heard in starting phase of coaching, coaching usually drag much. is that true.
        kindly advice.

      2. Hello sir, i have started to prepare on my own ,without any coaching , so could you please help me out by sharing some of the recordings .
        mail id – yash.89.thakur@gmail.com

    2. Hi Pariksharthy,

      I nowhere mentioned that I joined any coaching center or classes for optional subject. I am staying in Bangalore for last 2 years and I don’t know any coaching center for philosophy in Bangalore. Frankly speaking I don’t know who is Dharmendra Sir, so no comments or feedback. I prepared all through self study only with the help of videos from net. I referred Palmers pdf files, Datta and Chaterjee book, Political theory by bhargava and few notes from ignou.
      For Analytical philosophy i refered prof. robert lane’s notes from net. I referred videos of Prof Peter Milcan and Prof Ian Sheparo from youtube. I hope all this will help.

      1. Hello sir, could you u please share the links of videos to prepare from internet ?

      2. Hi Ram

        I am from Bangalore too and seek ur help in initiating my philosophy optional preparation( like where to start and what to start with etc). Kindly help me out as I have some doubts regarding choosing this optional. Please msg me when u r in ur free times and do the needful. id: prasadsbsd@gmail.com

  14. i prepared philosophy but in limited sense…need more guidence …plzz suggest me ..wt to read for contemporary western philosophy…

  15. This is third time i wrote my mains with philo optional, i read all the comments about philosophy optional below.. in light of these comment i want to share my experience with this optional.
    Last time due to lack of clarity and revision i almost ruined my paper 1 and paper 2 was also average, i got86 in paper 1 and 100 in paper 2.
    I analysed my mistakes and identified following flaws:
    1) You have to cover whole syllabus, in each paper UPSC ask 10 compulsory questions so nothing should be untouched.
    2) There should be conceptual understanding along with ratta, both are essential because we need to produce things in very less time.
    3) There should be concise notes of all the syllabus(must), because in one day gap we have to revise all subject at least once because after 7-8 days we tend to forget many key ideas during mains.
    4) No one source is sufficient, Mitra, Patanjalai and books all need to be read properly and one should prepare his own notes.

    This year questions was dynamic as expected, i talked to many people.. they wrote what they knew irrespective of demand of question.
    Questions can be answered only if one have sufficient understanding and content. I found that most of questions were within reach if we combine Patanjali’s printed and class notes. Some help can be taken from Mitras.

    Few questions were new like Niti vs Nyaya and Marxist humanism …..

    1. pavan bhai thanks.but what isyour numbers in previous attempt

      1. pawan bhai me hindi medium me preparation kar raha hu kya aap meri help kar sakte h plzz

  16. Listen osho… By listening him you will become more Rational, Logical and Analytical in your personal life… And it will help to liquify the whole syllabus of Philosophy Mains very easily…

  17. hi , i opted philosophy in my LAST attempt 2012 to score more. it was my FIFTH mains. i prepared it from patanjali notes. even join patanjali class . i find this subject very easy. i prepared it within two months. i was conceptually completly clear in indian & western (except last few philosopher).but i got very worst marks.i was very comfortable with this subject although i prepared in very short period. my second optional geography given me good marks ,although i was not comfortable with the subject. now i am confused what to do as i am once again getting one attempt(2011mains appeared). although i stopped studying after 2012 mains still i feel philosophy is more comfortable for me than geography even though i got worst marks in philosophy. it is very difficult for me to analyse …

  18. I love my india

    1. has anybody got palmer pdf? …please let me know link to download it

  19. Hi..please help me by providing notes and photocopy material…



  20. Hello Mr unknown,
    Main philosophy Hindi medium we start kar RHA hu ….koi btayega ki dutta & chattergee # frank thilli # o p gobha # y. Masih Hindi me aati hair ya nahi… Or agar aati hai to translation kaisa hair… Or kitni costly hogi…. Mob.9466237605… I am rural background… Or social site use krne ka koi option nhi hai… So help me please on cantact…please any one…..or haa iss pe my Jana ..ye kisi other source sent msg or RHA hu …..so agar help or sko ….please call…and thanks in advance…… : kridya

  21. Ram bro plz send me Palmer PDF of western philosophy and ignou material of western philosophy which will help for upsc waiting for material email id dharavathrajendar1@gmail.com, thanking you bro…..

  22. Pleased gives 2017 philosophy (H) some suggestions pages….

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