1. Prologue
  2. Art and Culture
  3. History: Medieval
  4. History: Freedom struggle
  5. History: Freedom struggle →  Gandhi
  6. Geography: Physical
  7. Geography: Physical → Oceanography
  8. Geography: Physical → Climate
  9. Geography: Indian
  10. Geography: Indian → River obsession
  11. Geography: World


  • Timelimit: 30 minutes. 2 Marks for correct answer; -0.66 marks for wrong answer.
  • Mitron, my [T25] series contains 25 Mock MCQ primarily aimed at UPSC IAS/IPS Civil Service exam aspirants.
  • While I usually give only hints instead of direct answers but now that barely 12-15 days are left before the Prelims exam, so, I am breaking that Batman rule and providing direct answer so to save time and stress of the candidates in not having to flip books and doing google searches.
  • This 33rd set contains questions are either lifted verbatim and / or inspired from the UPSC’s NDA-2019-i exam.
  • So far I’ve done 33 sets x 25 questions each = 825 MCQs.

Art and Culture

Q. In the Manusmriti which form of marriage results from the “Voluntary union of a maiden and her lover”? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Eighth form
  2. Fifth form
  3. Seventh form
  4. Sixth form

HINT: Bolo, instead of the usual Buddhism questions now UPSC examiner is also asking Vedic, Brahminical and Manusmriti questions. Even in CDS-2018-II there was a question on Manusmriti about what ways can a woman acquire wealth. Does it indicate a change of examiners in the UPSC panel under the Modi Raj!? Anyways,

There are eight forms of marriages given in Manusmriti. (New) NCERT Class12 contains the first, fourth, fifth and sixth forms of marriage from the Manusmriti:

  1. First: The gift of a daughter,after dressing her in costly clothes and honouring her with presents of jewels, to a man learned in the Veda whom the father himself invites.
  2. Fourth: The gift of a daughter by the father after he has addressed the couple with the text, “May both of you perform your duties together”, and has shown honour to the bridegroom.
  3. Fifth: When the bridegroom receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will.
  4. Sixth: The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover which springs from desire.

Very factual question, in real exam better to skip it if you do not know the exact answer.

Q. Consider the following description of the Samadhi of a former Prime Minister of India : (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

Central Samadhi platform comprises nine square black polished granite solid stone blocks, capped with a ‘Diya’ in the centre. The number nine holds significance and represents the navarasas, navaratras and navagrahas. Then placement of the nine-square Samadhi is in a circular lotus shaped pattern. The nine-square platform is accessed in four cardinal directions by pathways made in white composite tiles so that the floor does not get heated.

Identify the Samadhi :

  1. Shakti Sthal
  2. Shantivan
  3. Sadaiv Atal
  4. Veer Bhumi

HINT: UPSC examiner lifted this description verbatim from PIB. It is the samadhi of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, called “Sadaiv Atal”.

Q. Which one of the following cities was named by UNESCO as World Capital of Architecture for 2020 ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Tokyo
  2. Johannesburg
  3. Rio de Janerio
  4. New Delhi

HINT: UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has named the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro as the World Capital of Architecture for 2020. Rio defeated Paris and Melbourne, to become the first city to receive this title. Rio is famous for statue of Christ the Redeemer and Museum of Tomorrow.

History: Medieval

Q. Consider following statements  (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  • Statement I : Abul Fazl shaped, represented and articulated the ideas associated with the reign of Akbar.
  • Statement II : The qualities of Abul Fazl impressed Akbar who found the former suitable as an adviser and spokesperson for his policies.

Answer Codes:

  1. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is the correct explanation of Statement I
  2. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is NOT the correct explanation of Statement I
  3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
  4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

HINT: New NCERT Class7: Abul Fazl helped Akbar in framing a vision of governance around the idea of sulh-i  kul so that he could govern a society composed of many religions,cultures and castes. Abul Fazl also wrote a three-volume history of Akbar’s reign, titled Akbar Nama.

  1. First volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors
  2. Second volume recorded the events of Akbar’s reign.
  3. Third volume is the Ain-i Akbari. It deals with Akbar’s administration, including rich statistical details about things as diverse as crops, yields, prices, wages and revenues.

From this information we can surmise that indeed both statements are correct and the second one explains the first.

History: Freedom struggle

Q. The treaty of Yandabo was signed in (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. 1826
  2. 1825
  3. 1824
  4. 1823

HINT: During Governor General Amherst’s time this treaty was signed between Burma and Britishers (1826) at the end of the first Burmese War.. Very factual question with very close options. In real exam better to skip it if you do not know the exact answer.

Karachi resolution

Q. The Karachi resolution of Congress in 1931 advocated which one of the following issues ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. State shall not own or control key industries and services
  2. State shall handover the key industries and services to the Indian business groups
  3. State should allow the Indian business group to invest fifty per cent of the capital
  4. State shall own or control key industries and services.

HINT: “C” is not making good sense. While Industrialist Motilal Nehru himself would have preferred A or B but by 1931 he’s getting overshadowed by the prominence of his Son who had soft corner for Socialism. So, by elimination that leaves “D” as the probable answer. But to confirm let’s check Bipan Chandra page 278: Karachi resolution:

  1. guaranteed the basic civil rights of free speech, free press, free assembly, and freedom of association;
  2. equality before the law irrespective of caste, creed or sex; neutrality of the state in regard to all religions; culture, language and script of the minorities and of the different linguistic areas shall be protected
  3. elections on the basis of universal adult franchise; and free and compulsory primary education.
  4. It promised substantial reduction in rent and revenue, exemption from rent in case of uneconomic holdings, and relief of agricultural indebtedness and control of usury;
  5. better conditions for workers including a living wage, limited hours of work and protection of women workers;
  6. the right to organize and form unions to workers and peasants;
  7. state ownership or control of key industries, mines and means of transport.

Q. Who among the following historians have described the Quit India movement as a ‘spontaneous revolution’? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Gordon Johnson
  2. David Arnold
  3. F G Hutchins
  4. Peter Robb

HINT: Lifted from Sumit Sarkar’s book. “There has been relatively little detailed work so far on the Quit India Movement. General studies include Amba Prasad, Indian Revolt of 1942 (Delhi, 1958); L. Hutchins, Spontaneous Revolution (Delhi, 1971).” Very factual question with unknown historians. In real exam better to skip it if you do not know the exact answer / History is not your optional subject.

Q. Consider Following Statements (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

Statement I : The Kisan manifesto was adopted by the All India Kisan Sabha in August 1936 contained radical demands.

Statement II : The All India Kisan Sabha was a part of the Congress and maintained close relationship with the Provincial Congress Committees

Answer Codes:

  1. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is the correct explanation of Statement I
  2. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is NOT the correct explanation of Statement I
  3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
  4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

HINT: Kisan Manifesto was prepared by Congress keeping the 1937 elections in mind. All India Kisan Sabha is a separate entity.

Q. Consider Following Statements (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

Statement I : The British ruled India through a modern bureaucracy headed by the Indian Civil Service, whose members were recruited through merit based on open competition.

Statement II : The Indian Civil Service was based on the wholehearted participation of Indians.

Answer Codes:

  1. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is the correct explanation of Statement I
  2. Both the statements are individually true and Statement II is NOT the correct explanation of Statement I
  3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
  4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

HINT: Second statement is hyperbole. Key positions in ICS were occupied by Europeans to ensure White supremacy.

Q. Who was the author of the book ‘History of British India’? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Charles Grant
  2. John Stuart Mill
  3. James Mill
  4. William Jones

HINT: Plassey to Partition Page 72:

  • 1817: In ‘The History of British India’, James Mill first exploded the myth of India’s economic and cultural riches, perpetuated by the “susceptible imagination” of men like Sir William Jones.
  • James Mill argued that what India needed for her improvement was an effective schoolmaster, i.e., a wise government promulgating good legislation.
  • Due to James Mill’s efforts that a Law Commission was appointed in 1833 under Lord Macaulay and it drew up an Indian Penal Code in 1835 on the Benthamite model of a centrally, logically and coherently formulated code, evolving from “disinterested philosophic intelligence”.

Q. The Azamgarh Proclamation of August 25, 1857 stressed on which one of the following issues? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Hindu-Muslim divide
  2. Support to the English Government
  3. The return of the Badshahi
  4. The imposition of heavy Jumas (revenue demand)

HINT: (New) NCERT Class 12: Themes in Indian History- Part- III page 302:

There were five sections in Azamgarh Proclamation 1857.

  • 1.Section I – Regarding Zemindars- imposed exorbitant Jumas (revenue demand) + disgraced  several zemindars
  • 2.Section II- Regarding Merchants
  • 3.Section III- Regarding Public Servants
  • 4.Section IV- Regarding Artisans
  • 5.Section V- Regarding Pundits, Fakirs and Other Learned Persons.

History: Freedom struggle →  Gandhi

NDA-2019 had two questions on Gandhi perhaps because 2019 being his 150th anniversary.

Q. Which Viceroy had made the observation, “It’s a beautiful world if it wasn’t for Gandhi ……..” ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Lord Irwin
  2. Lord Wavell
  3. Lord Mountbatten
  4. Lord Willingdon

HINT: Appears to be lifted from Ramchandra Guha tweet after releasing his new book – “Gandhi the years- That changed the world”. The Viceroy, Lord Willingdon, in a letter of 1933: ‘‘It’s a beautiful world if it wasn’t for Gandhi who is really a perfect nuisance”.

Q. Which Indian businessman favoured ‘healthy capitalism’ in helping Gandhiji to work towards a ‘common object’? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Ghanshyam Das Birla
  2. Ambalal Sarabhai
  3. Sir Biren Mookerjee
  4. T. T. K. Krishnamachari

HINT: Appears to be lifted from some random Google book. On August 1934, Birla wrote to Thakurdas, “Vallabhbhai, Raja Ji and Rajendra Babu all fighting Communism and socialism. It is therefore necessary that some of us who represent healthy capitalism should help Gandhiji as far as possible and work with common object.”

Gandhi used to stay at Birla house in Delhi. So one could make an association he should be the closest match. This question could have been made more difficult if they had given Motilal Nehru as one of the options!

Geography: Physical

Q. Consider the following statements relating to Richter scale : (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

1. It was devised in 1935 by Charles F. Richter

2. It describes the quantity of energy released by a single earthquake

3. Richter Scale has no upper limit

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

HINT: NCERT class XI Fundamental of Physical Geography page 24:

Earthquake magnitude scale is known as the Richter scale. The magnitude relates to the energy released during the quake. The magnitude is expressed in numbers, 0-10. Eliminate accordingly.

Q. Which of the following is/are environmental effects of Rotation of the Earth? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Daily or diurnal rhythm in day light and air temperature
  2. Flow path of both air and water are turned consistently in a sideward direction
  3. The movement of the tides

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 3 only

HINT: New NCERT Class11 FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY: The moon’s gravitational pull to a great extent and to a lesser extent the sun’s gravitational pull, are the major causes for the occurrence of tides. So #3 is irrelevant, eliminate accordingly.

Geography: Physical → Oceanography

Q82. Which one of the following ocean currents is NOT a cold ocean current ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Canary current
  2. California current
  3. Kuroshio current
  4. Oyashio current

HINT: Observe the map given in either NCERT class XI Fundamental of Physical Geography page 124 OR Goh Cheng Leon’s book page 89.

Q. What is the time gap in occurrence of two successive tides at a given place on the ocean surface ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. 12 hours
  2. 12 hours 26 minutes
  3. 24 hours
  4. 24 hours 52 minutes

HINT: NIOS page 147: the regular interval between two high tides or between two low tides is 12 hours and 25 minutes and not exactly 12 hours. Each day (in 24 hours) the high tide arrives about 51 minutes later than on the previous day. It is so because each day the rising and setting of the moon also falls behind by 51 minutes.

Q. Spring tides refer to (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. greatest difference in the sea level at high and low tides
  2. lowest difference in the sea level at high and low tides
  3. no difference in the sea level at high and low tides
  4. counteraction of gravitational pull of the Sun to that of Moon


  • Spring tides: The moon’s gravitational pull to a great extent and to a lesser extent the sun’s gravitational pull, are the major causes for the occurrence of tides. When the sun, the moon and the earth are in a straight line combined pull produces an extra large tide,  called Spring Tide. They occur twice a month, one on full moon period and another during new moon period.
  • Neap tides: Normally, there is a seven day interval between the spring tides and neap tides. At this time the sun and moon are at right angles to each other and the forces of the sun and moon tend to counteract one another. The Moon’s attraction, though more than twice as strong as the sun’s, is diminished by the counteracting force of the sun’s gravitational pull. In other words they cancel or neutralize each other’s effect. It produces a weak tide which is called a Neap Tide.

Learn more about Tides Rajtanil’s Lecture on Geography

Geography: Physical → Climate

Q. Which one of the following can be said to be essentially related to “Polar Front Theory’? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Anticyclone
  2. Tropical Cyclone
  3. Temperate Cyclone
  4. Inter Tropical Convergence

Explanation:Page 94 of NCERT class 11 Fundamentals of Physical Geography.

  • Winds coming from the sub-tropical and the polar high belts converge at Sub-polar low Pressure Belts to produce cyclonic storms or low pressure conditions. This zone of convergence is also known as Polar Front.
  • Temperate cyclones / extra tropical cyclones are formed along polar fronts in mid-latitudes between 35° and 65° N and S. They blow from west to east and are more pronounced in winter season.

Q. “Inversion of Rainfall” is associated with (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Orographic rainfall
  2. Convectional rainfall
  3. Cyclonic rainfall (Tropical)
  4. Cyclonic rainfall (Temperate)

HINT: According to google books, Precipitation inversion is found in some mountain areas, a decrease of precipitation with increasing elevation of ground above sea level, also known as rainfall inversion. So closely associated with orographic rainfall. Orographic rainfall on formed where air rises and cools because of a topographic barrier.

Geography: Indian

Q. Kamarajar Port was commissioned in 2001 to handle thermal coal requirements. It is situated along the coast of which Indian State ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Odisha
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Karnataka

HINT: Lifted verbatim from IYB 2019 ch. 26

  • There are 12 major ports and ~200 nonmajor ports along India’s coastline which is about 7517 km.
  • East Coast 6 Major ports are Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Kamarajar (Ennore, Tamilnadu), Chennai and V.O. Chidamananar (Tuticorin).
  • West Coast 6 Major ports are Cochin, New Mangalore, Mormugao, Mumbai, Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Sheva, Navi Mumbai) and Deendayal (erstwhile Kandla)
  • The major ports are under the direct administrative control of the central government and fall in Union List 7th Schedule of Constitution.
  • Ports other than the major ports = minor ports = come under the jurisdiction of the respective maritime state government and fall in the Concurrent List.
  • Of the total traffic handled by all Indian ports, 57% is handled by major ports and 43% by minor ports.

Q. Which one of the following Union Territories of India is the smallest in terms of geographical area? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Daman and Diu
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Lakshadweep

HINT: Appendix IV of India Physical Environment NCERT.

UT Area in sq km
Lakshadweep 32
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 491
Chandigarh 125191
Daman and Diu 112

Geography: Indian → River obsession

Q. Brahmaputra and Indus rivers are antecedent rivers. Which one of the following may be the true definition of an antecedent drainage ? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Which follows the initial slope of the Himalaya
  2. Which existed before the Himalayan range came into existence
  3. Which followed the dip or rock beds of the Himalaya
  4. Which followed the strikes of rock beds of the Himalaya

HINT: Majid Hussain’s Geography of India page 3.2

  1. The Antecedent or Inconsequent Drainage: The rivers that existed before the upheaval of the Himalayas and cut their courses southward by making gorges in the mountains are known as the antecedent rivers. The Indus, Satluj, Ganga, Sarju (Kali), Arun (a tributary of Kosi), Tista, and Brahmaputra are some of the important antecedent rivers, originating from beyond the Greater Himalayas.
  2. Consequent Rivers: The rivers which follow the general direction of slope are known as the consequent rivers. Most of the rivers of peninsular India are consequent rivers. For example, rivers like Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.

Q. Which one of the following rivers was earlier known as “Vitasta”? (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Tista
  2. Jhelum
  3. Tungabhadra
  4. Bharatpuzha

HINT: Majid Husain’s Geography of India (Page 3.12):

  1. The Jhelum (Vitasta)
  2. The Chenab (Asikni)
  3. The Ravi (Parushni or Iravati)
  4. The Beas (Vipasa or Argikiya)
  5. The Satluj (Satadru or Satudri)
  6. Ghaggar (the legendary Saraswati)

Q. River Sarda drains in the Northern Plains of Uttar Pradesh. Before entering in the Plains, Sarda is known (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Saraswati
  2. Bhagirathi
  3. Kali
  4. Pindar

HINT: NCERT: India’s Physical Environment Class 11 Page 26:  The river Sarda (Kali or Kali Ganga) joins it in the plain before it finally meets the Ganga at Chhapra.

Q. Which one of the following is NOT a west flowing river?

  1. Periyar
  2. Bharatpuzha
  3. Pamba
  4. Tamraparni

HINT: साला इतना डिटेल में कौन तैयार करता है!!?? that too all such small time obscure rivers! Anyways, as per Page 270 of Mahesh Barnwaal’s Bhugool: Brahmani, Pennar, Palar,Vaigai and Tamrapani are East flowing rivers and drain into Bay of Bengal. So that leaves us with D option. Factual question, in real exam better to skip If you have no idea about any of these rivers.

Geography: World

Q. “Campos” and “Llanos”, Tropical Savanna grasslands are generally found in (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. Australia
  2. Central Africa
  3. South America
  4. East Asia

HINT: NCERT Class 7 ch.6: Grasslands are known by different names in different regions.

Tropical Grasslands Temperate Grasslands
  1. East Africa- Savanna
  2. Brazil- Campos
  3. Venezuela- Llanos
  1. Argentina- Pampas
  2. N. America- Prairie
  3. S. Africa- Veld
  4. C. Asia- Steppe
  5. Australia- Down

Q. “Shamal” warm and dry wind is a “Local” wind found in (Asked in UPSC-NDA-2019-i)

  1. East Asia
  2. West Coast of Africa
  3. Sahara of Africa
  4. Mesopotamia

HINT: from LucentGK, Shamal is a warm and dry wind from the north or northwest in Iraq, Iran, and the Arabian Peninsula.

Visit Mrunal.org/prelims for Previous Rounds of [T25] Mock MCQ Question / Answers.