1. Prologue
  2. Environment: Flora, Fauna
  3. Environment: Agriculture
  4. Environment: Pollution and Climate Change
  5. Geography: Physical → Weather, Climate
  6. Geography:  Indian Geography
  7. Geography: Rivers and Oceans
  8. Geography: Human → Languages
  9. [Free] Full length (100MCQ) walli Mock Tests with All India Ranking


  • Time Limit: 30 minutes. 2 Marks for correct answer; -0.66 marks for wrong answers.
  • Mitron, my [T25] series contains 25 Mock MCQ sets primarily aimed at UPSC IAS/IPS Civil Service exam aspirants.
  • I usually don’t give direct answer below the MCQs but indirect hints. Because, then you’ve read the MCQ again & apply logical reasoning skills. This will improve your mental faculties compared to a scenario where direct answers are spoon-fed.
  • This 39th set contains Economy questions from UPSC’s Geoscientist exam 2020 (conducted on 19th Jan,2020) and CDS-i-2020 (conducted on 2nd Feb 2020).
  • धीरे धीरे करते हुए, so far I’ve done 39 sets x 25 questions each = 975 ORIGINAL MCQs और पता भी नहीं चला!
  • Given the fact that UPSC Prelims even asks contemporary topics even from 2-3 years preceding the exam, so you should go through all of them available at Mrunal.org/Prelims

Environment: Flora, Fauna

Q4. The amount of sun energy trapped by plants is:(UPSC-Geologist-2020)

(a) 1 % – 3%

(b)  12 % – 15 %

(c)  17 % – 20 %

(d)  23 % – 26 %


  • Most solar energy occurs at wavelengths unsuitable for photosynthesis.
  • 98-99% of the Solar energy reaching to the Earth is reflected back, and thus,can’t be captured by plant, says Brittanica.
  • Select the closest answer accordingly.

Q. Which one of the following groups of cities does not have Sclerophyll as its natural vegetation cover? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Valparaiso and Cape Town

(b) Lisbon and Perth

(c) Los Angeles and Adelaide

(d) Las Vegas and Queensland


  • साला इतना डिटेल मे कोन तैयार करता है!?
  • Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight.
  • Sclerophyllous plants occur in many parts of the world, but are most typical in the Chaparral biomes i.e. being hot and dry. They’re found on
  • US West Coast: So, C or D could be the answer.
  • Australia’s Western tip: But, Adelaide is in the southern region, so C is eliminated.
  • Therefore Answer is “D”.

Side note: Cape Town is in South Africa, Lisbon is in Portugal.

Q. Geomorphic factors influencing plant and animal distributions are (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) slope angle and relief only

(b) slope aspect and relative relief

(c) slope angle, slope aspect and relief

(d) slope angle, slope aspect and relative relief


Q. Biodiversity in terms of species richness is maximum in:(UPSC-Geologist-2020)

  1. natural grasslands.
  2. semi-natural grasslands.
  3. artificial grasslands.
  4. well maintained and watered grasslands.


  • species richness is the number of species within a biological community.
  • So, B and C are eliminated, as they’ll not have a large number of (different) species. So, between A and D, “D” seems to be more conducive for providing the living conditions for a large number of species.

Q. Hilsa is the national fish of (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Pakistan

(b) India

(c) Bangladesh

(d) Nepal


  • Hilsa is the national fish of the country liberated by India, from Pakistan in 1971.
  • Although the fish get caught in the fishermen’s net round the year, monsoon is the peak season when the number multiplies.
  • So,Correct Answer is ©

Q5. The term wetland implies:(UPSC-Geologist-2020)

  1. land covered by rain water only.
  2. slow moving water covered wet ground.
  3. waterlogged wet ground.
  4. fast moving water covered wet ground.


  • NIOS: Wetlands are transitional zones between dry land and open water on their own yet they cover a large variety of habitats. They range from rivers, floodplains and rainfed lakes to mangrove swamps estuaries, fresh and salt water marshes. A common factor is that they have plenty of waterlogging for at least a part of the year.
  • 1971: Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.
  • The 2nd of February each year is World Wetlands Day, marking the date of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands on 2 February 1971.
  • 1982: India became its signatory
  • Every 3 years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet for a conference. 2018’s conference held in  Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
  • Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance At present, 48 sites in World and 2 Sites (Keoladeo Lake and Loktak Lake) in India are listed in Montreux Record.
  • The total number of Ramsar sites in India are 37 (2020). TEN among them were declared in 2020 itself. Notable among them are:
    • Maharashtra has got 1st Ramsar site at Nandur Madhmeshwar Bird Sanctuary in Nashik District
    • Punjab (Keshopur-Miani, Beas Conservation Reserve, Nangal)
    • UP (Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi and SarsaiNawar).
  • So,the Correct Answer is (C)

Environment: Agriculture

Q. Which one of the following soils is characterized by very high content of organic matter? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Vertisol

(b) Histosol

(c) Gelisol

(d) Spodosol


Vertisol soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay minerals, many of them known as montmorillonite, that form deep cracks in drier seasons or years.(Climate: tropical savanna, semi-arid. humid subtropical, Mediterranean)
Histosol soil consisting of rich organic Materials. (Climate: subarctic)
Gelisol soil of very cold climates which are defined as containing permafrost within two meters of the soil surface. (Climate: subarctic, tundra)
Spodosols ashy gray, acidic soils with a strongly leached surface layer. Their suitability for cultivation is limited to acid-tolerant crops and orchards, provided that sufficient lime and fertilizer are applied. (Climate: American)

Q. Which one of the following is not a type of commercial agriculture? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Dairy farming

(b) Grain farming

(c) Livestock ranching

(d) Intensive subsistence agriculture


  • Commercial agriculture is a large-scale production of crops for sale, corporation widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets.
  • In commercial farming crops such as wheat, maize, tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton are harvested and sold in the world markets.
  • Commercial agriculture includes livestock production and livestock grazing.
  • There are Mainly Six Types of Commercial Agriculture.
  • (1) Mixed Crop And Livestock
  • (2) Dairy Farming
  • (3) Grain Farming
  • (4) Livestock Ranching
  • (5) Mediterranean Farming
  • (6) Commercial Gardening And Fruit Farming.
  • In intensive subsistence agriculture, the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Climate, with a large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permits growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. Farmers use their small land holdings to produce enough for their local consumption, while remaining produce is used for exchange against other goods.

Q. Which one of the following is not a land use category? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Forestland

(b) Pasture land

(c) Marginal land

(d) Barren and wasteland


Department of Science & Technology → Survey of India responsible for defining land use categories. Then State land revenue departments will measure the land accordingly in following categories

  • Forests: self-explanatory.
  • Net Area Sown : The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area
  • Pasture land : Most of this type land is owned by the village ‘Panchayat’ or the Government. Only a small proportion of this land is privately owned.
  • Fallow land: This is the land which is left without cultivation for “X” years.
  • Barren and Wastelands : The land which may be classified as a wasteland such as barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc. normally cannot be brought under cultivation with the available technology.
  • Land put to Non-agricultural Uses : Land under settlements (rural and urban), infrastructure (roads, canals, etc.), industries, shops,

From the list, we can see ‘Marginal land’ is not in the classification. But let’s understand meaning of the term anyways,Marginal land’ = land with little agricultural value because crops produced from the area would be worth less than any rent paid for access to the  area.

Q. The number of people per unit area of arable land is termed as (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) agricultural density

(b) arithmetic density

(c) physiological density

(d) economic density


Physiological density or Real population Density number of people per unit area of arable land.
Agricultural Density number of farmers per unit area of farmland.
Arithmetic density or real density total number of people divided by the total land area.
Economies of density cost savings resulting from spatial proximity of suppliers or providers. Typically higher Population Density allows synergies in service provision leading to lower unit costs.

Environment: Pollution and Climate Change

Q. Which one of the following greenhouse gases is the largest single contributor to anthropogenic radiative forcing? (UPSC-Geologist-2020)

  1. Methane
  2. Ozone
  3. Nitrous oxide
  4. Carbon dioxide


  • Anthropogenic is an adjective that may refer to: pertaining to anthropogeny, the study of the origins of humanity.
  • Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
  • If a gas’s anthropogenic radiative forcing is a “Positive figure”, it will contribute to the warming of Earth’s surface, whereas “negative figure” will cool Earth’s surface.
Anthropogenic Gases Radiative Forcing as per IPCC Report
CO2 1.66
CH4 0.48
Nitrogen Dioxide (N2O) 0.16
Nitro Oxide (NOx) -0.15
Ozone Data not given

Q. Find incorrect pair(s)

  1. BASEL Convention: Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
  2. Wassenaar Arrangement: municipal solid waste
  3. ASEAN Bangkok declaration:  Marine debris waste

Answer Codes

(a) Only 1 and 2

(b) Only 2 

(c) Only 1 and 3

(d) Only 3


  • 1992: United Nations’ Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations.
  • Wassenaar is a place in the Netherlands. Wassenaar Arrangement deals with Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.

Q. Greta Thunberg, a teenaged environment activist who was in news recently, hails from (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Croatia

(b) Sweden

(c) Norway

(d) Iceland


  • 16 years old Greta Tintin Eleonora Ernman Thunberg is a environmental activist from the country where the term ‘Ombudsman’ originated.
  • She has received numerous honours and awards including:
  • Time magazine’s 100 most influential people
  • youngest Time Person of the Year (2019);
  • Forbes list of The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women (2019)
  • two consecutive nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize (2019 and 2020).
  • She started #FridaysForFuture is a movement that began in August 2018, after 15 years old Greta Thunberg sat in front of the Riksdag (name of their parliament) every schoolday for three weeks, to protest against the lack of action on the climate crisis.
  • So,correct Answer is (A).

Q. ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ is located at (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Thimphu

(b) London

(c) New York

(d) Paris


  • 2019-Sept: Modi goes to United Nations General Assembly’s 74th session.
  • On the sidelines he inaugurated a 50KW ‘Gandhi Solar Park’ during his visit. It’s a  gesture that highlights India’s willingness to go beyond the talk on climate change.
  • So, Correct Answer is (A).

Geography: Physical → Weather, Climate

Q. In the Hadley cell thermal circulation, air rises up and finally descends at (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(A) Intertropical Convergence Zone

(B) Doldrums

(C) Subtropical High-pressure Cells

(D) Equatorial Troughs


UPSC prelims geography environment mock test

Q. Which one of the following climatic types is found in Central Spain? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Subarctic

(b) Mediterranean dry hot summer

(c) Subtropical Steppe

(d) Humid continental warm summer


Subarctic climate

  • Not in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Russia,North Canada,scandinavia.
  • Very Cold Winter,Warm Summer
  • Name of Local Cold Winds, Blizzard in Canada,Buran in Siberia

Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate

  • is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common.
  • In Europe Central Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Greece, In USA California (San francisco,Los Angeles, San Diego), In South America Central Chile (Santiago), In Australia Perth and Adelaide are part of Meditterian Climate.
  • Viticulture is the Main Identity of Meditterian Climate.
  • In Grains: Only Wheat and Barley.
  • Orange,Grapes and Lemon

Subtropical Steppe

  • Part of Temperate Grassland- Cold Climate.
  • Central Asia (Expand till Hungry) it is called Pustaz.
  • Maximum Wheat, Black Soil due to blck Rocks,Short Grass, Good Pasture land,Animal Husbandry and Dairy Industries.
  • In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula.
  • In Australia, “subtropical steppe” can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges.

Humid continental warm summer:

  • Humid continental climates are generally found roughly between latitudes 40° N and 60° N,within the central and northeastern portions of North America, Europe, and Asia. They are much less commonly found in the Southern Hemisphere due to the larger ocean area at that latitude and the consequent greater maritime moderation.
  • coniferous forests Within wetter areas, maple, spruce, pine, fir, and oak can be found.

Q. In the region of eastern shore of Adriatic Sea, a cold and dry wind blowing down from the mountain is known as (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Mistral

(b) Bora

(c) Bise

(d) Blizzard


  • Country Around Adriatic Sea are Bosnia & Herzegovina,Italy,Slovenia,Montenegro, Albania, Croatia. (BISMAC is equation to remember country around Adriatic Sea)
  • The Bora is a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind in the Adriatic Sea.

Let’s also take the opportunity to learn about wrong options

The Mistral cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France (through Alps) into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean.
The Bise cold, dry wind in Switzerland which blows through the Swiss Plateau from the northeast to the southwest.
The blizzard severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds and lasting for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more in North America (Canada).

Geography:  Indian Geography

Q. Nyishi tribe is found mainly in _ _ .  (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Andaman and Nicobar

(b) Arunachal Pradesh

(c) Nilgiri-Kerala region

(d) Kashmir Valley


Arunachal Pradesh Abor, Aptani, Khampti, Momba, Galo, Adi, Aka, Khowa,Tagin, Nyishi
Andaman and Nicobar Jarawas,Nicobarese ,Onges, Chariar, Chari, Kora,  Tabo,  Bo,Sentinelese, Shom Pens.
Nilgiri-Kerala Irula, Badaga, Toda,Kota and Kurumba.
Kashmir Gujjars, Dogras, Paharis, Baltis and Ladakhis.

Q. In India, how many States/Union Territories have more than two international boundaries? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4


State Number of International boundaries
Guajarat 1
Rajasthan 1
Punjab 1
Jammu & Kashmir 1
Ladakh 3 (Pakistan-Afghanistan-China)
Himachal Pradesh 1
Uttrakhand 2
Uttar Pradesh 1
Bihar 1
West Bengal 3 (Nepal-Bhutan-Bangladesh)
Sikkim 3 (Nepal-China-Bhutan)
Arunachal Pradesh 3 (Bhutan-China-Myanmar)
Assam 2
Nagaland 1
Manipur 1
Mizoram 2
Tripura 1

Q. In the field of tourism, which one of the following Indian States is described as ‘One State Many Worlds’? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Assam

(b) West Bengal

(c) Karnataka

(d) Rajasthan


  • 2019-Feb: Karnataka State’s Tourism dept started this campaign, known as a One State Many Worlds.
  • Because Karnataka has something for every kind of tourist Heritage, Culture, Nature, Beaches or Wildlife…From 1000 Pillared Basadi, St.Mary’s Island, Badami Cave, Ibrahim Roza, Jenukallu Guddu, Coorg-kashmir Of Karnataka, Golden Temple-Bylakuppe, Chikmanglur, Kabini, Chitradurg Fort, Vrindavan Garden, Waterfall Of Shimoga, Mysore Palace.

Some More Information about Karnataka State:

  • Capital : Bangalore
  • State Animal: Indian Elephant.
  • State Bird : Indian Roller.
  • Languages : Kannada, Tulu, Coorgi, Konkani, English.
  • Mullayanagiri is highest peak of Baba BudanHill.
  • Notable Rivers: Kaveri, Tunga, and Bhadra rivers, flowing east.

Geography: Rivers and Oceans

Q. Which one of the following rivers joins Ganga directly? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Chambal

(b) Son

(c) Betwa

(d) Ken


River Bhagirathi Meet River Alakhnanda at Dev Prayag and it becomes River Ganga.

  • River Ganga:
    • Left Tributaries of River Ganga: Ramganga,Gomati,Ghaghr,Gandaki,Koshi.
    • Right Tributaries of River Ganga : Yamuna,Son.
    • Distributaries of Ganga : Hugali River (Ajay River is Tributaries of Hugali River)
  • River Yamuna:
  • Right tributaries of River Yamuna: Ton,Chambal,Sind,Betwa,Ken.

Q. Which one of the following rivers does not drain into Black Sea? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

  1. Volga
  2. Dnieper
  3. Don
  4. Danube


The Dnieper Longest river of Ukraine and Belarus, It drains to the Black sea
The Don rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe and played an important role for traders from the Byzantine Empire. River drain to black sea.
The Danube Europe’s second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe and drain to black sea.It passes through Country Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine.
The Volga longest river in Europe,rising from Russia and drains to Caspian sea.

Q. Which of the following are warm ocean currents? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Kuroshio and California Current

(b) North Atlantic Drift and Brazil Current

(c) Canaries and Benguela Current

(d) West Wind Drift and Falkland Current


You must be knowing this. Else Read Class11 Geography NCERT

Geography: Human → Languages

Q. Which one of the following is not among the principal languages of Jammu and Kashmir? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Urdu

(b) Gujari

(c) Koshur

(d) Monpa


  • The official language of Jammu and Kashmir is Urdu.
  • People living in Kashmir valley speak Kashmiri is the local language, known as Koshur.
  • People living in Ladakh speak Ladakhi,
  • People in Jammu mostly speak Dogri.
  • People of Jammu and Kashmir speak around eight languages – Kashmiri (Koshur), Hindi, Dogri, Gujri, Ladakhi, Pahari, Balti and Urdu.
  • Monpa is an ethnic group of Arunachal Pradesh. Languages spoken by them are often referred to as the “Monpa languages”.

Q. The major part of Central Asia is dominated by which one of the following language families? (UPSC-CDS-i-2020)

(a) Indo-European

(b) Sino-Tibetan

(c) Austric

(d) Altaic


The Indo-European languages large language family native to western Eurasia-Central Asia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian Subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau.
Sino-Tibetan also known as Trans-Himalayan. It has more than 400 languages, second only to Indo-European in number of native speakers.The Sino-Tibetan language with the most native speakers is Mandarin Chinese.
Austric languages languages spoken in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Madagascar, as well as the Austroasiatic languages spoken in Mainland Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Altaic consists of the Turkic, Mongolian, and Manchu-Tungus (Tungusic) subfamilies spread across central and northern Asia. The group is named after the Altai mountain range in the center of Asia.

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UPSC Prelims Mocktests

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