- Three main geological divisions of India.
- Classification of Himalayas
- Hazards in the Himalayan Eco-System
- Regions and disasters
- Landslides: Reasons
- Landslides: Damage
- Suggestions to fix problem
- Himalayas, also known as the Extra-Peninsula
- Indo-Gangetic Plains
- Himalayas are classified, from west to east, into four regions:
- Punjab Himalaya – area between Indus and Sutlej rivers.
- Kumaon Himalaya – area between Sutlej and Kali rivers
- Nepal Himalaya- area between Kali and Tista rivers.
- Assam Himalaya- area between Tista and Brahamputra rivers.
- three regions: the Western, Central and Eastern Himalaya
- Nepal Himalaya constitutes the Central Himalaya and the mountainous area to its west and east are known as Western and Eastern Himalaya respectively
- All major types of disasters, prominently
- flash floods
- forest fires
- soil erosion
|Altitude||Type of disaster|
|Over 3500m||snow avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs)|
|500 to 3500 m||flash floods; landslides and mudflows|
- indiscriminate chopping down of trees.
- slash and burn cultivation technique called ‘JHUM,’
- Road construction and mining.
- Every increasing population, grazing, urbanization etc. has destroyed the dense natural evergreen forest cover.
Such activities have disrupted the ecological balance, thereby resulting in loosening of the soil. During the heavy rain, this leads to soil erosion and frequent landslides
- Every year, landslides in the region kill dozens of people and cause widespread damage to several villages such that they have now become almost unfit for habitation.
- They create blockades in the road network and river system, which in turn, cause floods.
- The terraced farm fields have been destroyed that cannot be easily renovated or made productive again.
- The road network remains closed for long periods causing indescribable hardship to the villagers who get their basic supplies and provisions from the neighbouring areas.
- Water source is also disrupted due to landslides as they are breached from several places and are choked by the debris.
- The sediment load of rivers has also increased considerably, causing problems like irregular courses and frequent breaching of the banks, which create uncertainty regarding the river course and unexpected floods.
- The water channels are affected from the up hillside due to which the villagers are devoid of water for irrigation purposes. This adversely affects agriculture production in the region.
- Excess water should be stored in the catchments areas, which will reduce the fury of flash floods, recharge the ground water and improve the environment.
- Runoff collection ponds in the catchments, though they might get silted up in a few years, will be more useful than the measures in the lower reaches.
- To prevent rapid siltation of tanks, the contributing catchments (even if they are not cultivated but used for grazing or forestry purposes) need to be well managed so that soil erosion is prevented.
- All common lands should be put under fuel/fodder trees.
- Planting of barren areas, especially on slopes, with grass cover is an important component of integrated watershed management programme.
- Grazing should be completely restricted. After the area is completely protected from grazing, better grasses can be planted.
- The grasses of industrial importance should also be planted so that there is some economic return to the farmers as well.
- The surface vegetative cover will not only protect the land from the beating action of rain drops and bind the soil particles but would also decrease the velocity of flowing water and cause less of soil erosion .
IGNOU MPA 018/Chapter 3.