[Economic Survey Ch8] Agriculture and Food Management

Economy150 Comments

टाइम होता नही,निकालना पड़ता है!

11 Days to IBPS-PO
19 Days to CGL14
75 Days to Mains
  1. India’s rank in Agro production
  2. FYP Achievement: Agro
  3. Crop Seasons
  4. National Monsoon Mission
  5. Sugar
  6. Ethanol Blending Program
  7. Edible Oil
  8. Agro input
  9. Fertilizers: NIP 2012
  10. Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS)
  11. Irrigation
  12. ICAR: programs
  13. Procurement
  14. Missions
    1. National Food Security Mission (2007)
    2. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
    3. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (2007)
    4. Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (2011)
    5. ISOPOM
    6. National Horticulture Mission
  15. Kisan Credit Card (KCC)
  16. Agro Insurance
  17. Agro Marketing
  18. Radiation application in Food processing
  19. ATMA
  20. National Dairy plan (Phase-1)
  21. FOOD MANAGEMENT
    1. FCI
    2. Decentralized Procurement Scheme
    3. Open Market Sale Scheme (Domestic)
    4. National Food Security Bill
    5. International Co-op
  22. Conclusion
  23. Timeline
  24. Mock Questions

India’s rank in Agro production

India ranksin production of
First
  1. Milk,
  2. Pulses
  3. Jute And Jute-Like Fibres
  4. Tractors
Second
  1. Rice,
  2. Wheat,
  3. Sugarcane. (Brazil is first)
  4. Groundnut,
  5. Vegetables,
  6. Fruits
  7. Cotton Production
10thin agricultural and food export

FYP Achievement: Agro

PlanAgro growth Actually achieved (%)
9th2.5
10th2.4
11th3.6

FYP Targets

  • Under both 11th Five year plans and 12th Five year plan, government wanted average annual growth of 4 per cent in the gross domestic product (GDP) from agriculture and allied sector.
  • But 11th Five year plan period, what we actually got was just 3.6%= 11th FYP target for Agriculture growth = not achieved.

Agro Employment

  • Agriculture, including allied activities= ~14 per cent of the GDP (2011), but their share in total employment ~58 (2001 Census). Meaning, Agriculture’s role in the country’s economy is quite crucial.
  • As the country develops, the share of agriculture in its GDP decreases. But still, India needs fast agricultural growth for jobs, incomes, and the food security.

Crop Seasons

WhatWhen?

Kharif

Rice, cotton, maize and jute
  • Sowing-june july.
  • Harvested in Sept-Oct

Rabi

Wheat, Pulses
  • Sowing in Oct-Nov
  • Harvesting February-March

Zaid

Fruits and vegetables
  • Summer season
  • April-May-June

National Monsoon Mission

  • performance of Indian agriculture is still heavily dependent on rainfall and south west monsoon (June to September)
  • And Last few years haven’t been good in terms of rainfall.
  • More than 50% cultivated area in India depends on monsoon =>advance information about monsoon =very imp.
  • Earth System Science Organization (ESSO) under Ministry of Earth Sciences has initiated the National Monsoon Mission during the 12th Five Year Plan.
  • This will improve the reliability of monsoon forecasts help government to take necessary policy / administrative steps to support farmers and food management.

Sugar

  • India is the largest consumer of Sugar
  • India is the second largest producer of sugar after Brazil.
  • Sugar and Sugarcane are essential commodities under the Essential Commodities Act 1955.
  • But Indian sugar sector suffers from policy inconsistency and unpredictability. Whenever there is big hue and cry over inflation, government would ban sugar export and allow duty free import of sugar. Due to this type of unpredictability in prices, over the years farmers have reducing growing sugarcane.
  • For long, experts have demanded that Sugar industry should be deregulated and government should come into the picture only in situations where absolutely necessary.
  • In this regard, Government had setup Rangarajan committee to look into the deregulation of Sugar industry. Entire report discussed in old article click me
  • Rangarajan is the Chairman of the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister. (also known as PMEAC=PM’s Economic advisory council).

Ethanol Blending Program

  • Ethanol is produced from Molasses (=by product of sugar industry)
2007Government allowed sugar companies to directly produce ethanol from sugarcane juice.
2008National Policy on Biofuels announced.phased implementation of ethanol blending with petrol.
1st Dec 2012This was the deadline for starting ethanol blending.
1st July 2013This is the new deadline for ethanol blending.

More on ethanol blending, discussed in old article, click me

Edible Oil

  • Though India is the largest producers of pulses in the world. However, 50 per cent of its domestic edible oil requirements are met through imports.
  • Within imported edible oil, majority is palm oil, palmolein and soyabean oil.

Why large import of Edible oil?

  • In the recent years, although domestic production of oilseeds = increased but still not sufficient to meet demand.
  • competitive prices of edible oils in the international market
  • Duty on imported edible oil is very low.
  • Suggestion: India should have independent tariff policy on edible oil. Increase import duty and utilize that money for oilseeds development programs.

AGRICULTURAL INPUT

Seeds

  • Farmers typically rely on farm-saved seeds. But over use of such seeds = poor yield.
  • Controversies surrounding GMO and Bt-brinjal.

Mechanization

  • India is the world leader in tractor production with over 5 lakh tractors produced annually
  • commercial banks reluctant to extend loans for bullocks. This has naturally led to an increase in farm mechanization.
  • Problem: farm mechanization has so far been biased in favor of tractors (=need big farm) and been concentrated in irrigated-command areas (Punjab, Haryana, UP etc.)
  • Small and marginal farmers in rainfed areas= ignored.
  • Majority of farmers in India have small and marginal landholding. Therefore, it is uneconomic for them to individual own tractor, thrasher, combined harvester etc. agricultural machinery.
  • Government needs to setup custom-hiring centres/high-tech machinery banks to help these  small and marginal farmers.
  • There is also scope for introducing small machines that might be useful to meet their needs.

Fertilizer

  • 80% of our urea demand met through domestic production.
  • But for potassic (K) and phosphatic (P) fertilizer, we largely depend on imports.

Fertilizers: NIP 2012

  • government has notified the New Investment Policy 2012 (NIP-2012) in the urea sector.
  • It will encourage investments in brownfield and greenfield projects.
  • increase in domestic production capacity
  • reduce import dependence
  • reduce govt. expenditure on subsidy.
  • ensure the long-term availability of gas required for expansion and greenfield/brownfield projects.
  • If gas prices increase, then
  • In the event of increase in gas prices provisions are made in the policy to protect the interest of investors. It
  • + government is implementing direct cash transfer to the farmers for purchase of fertilizer, seeds etc.

Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS)

  • Indian farmers use too much urea because 1) govt. gives subsidy hence its cheap 2) lack of awareness. But for optimal crop production, you need to use variety of fertilizers and not just Urea. So government came up with Nutrient Based Subsidy scheme.
  • Under this scheme, Government gives subsidy on each grade of phosphatic and potassic (P&K) fertilizer depending upon its nutrient content.
  • Government also give additional subsidy on secondary and micro-nutrients.
  • Farmers pay only 58 to 73 per cent of the delivered cost of P&K fertilizers; the rest is borne by the Government of India in the form of subsidy.
  • Manufacturers/marketers are allowed to fix the maximum retail price (MRP)=> prices of these decontrolled products have double.
  • But urea is not covered under the NBS scheme and government continues to provide subsidy on urea separately. Result=> farmers are relying more on Urea than on the new P&K fertilizers.
  • So, while government had expected that NBS scheme would reduce the Urea consumption but actually reverse has happened.

Irrigation

Central Water Board45
  • Initiate, coordinate schemes for Flood control, irrigation, drinking water supply etc. with state Governments.
CADMid 70s
  • Command Area Development program.
  • To bridge the gap between irrigation potential created and utilized.
NPP80
  • National perspective plan
  • Interlink rivers to transfer water from water surplus basins to water deficit regions.
  • National water Development agency to carry out survey research work for this.
National water resources council83
  • PM is the chairman
National water board90
  • Headed by Secretary, Water resources ministry.
  • Reviews the progress in National water policy and reports it to the National water resources council.
AIBPMid-90s
  • Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
  • Central government provides assistance to States for finishing the incomplete irrigation schemes.
  • Command Area Development Programme has also been amalgamated with the AIBP
Artificial recharge to ground water through dug wells2007In seven states

  1. AP
  2. Mah
  3. Kar
  4. Raj
  5. TN
  6. Guj
  7. MP

Agriculture Research and Education

ICAR
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
  • Basic and applied research
  • Mainly on problems of rainfed areas.
SAU
  • State Agricultural Universities (SAUs)
  • Generating required manpower for agro research, assistance.
  • applied and research
  • mainly on local problems
  • At present, India spends ~0.6% of its agricultural GDP on research and Development.
  • For achieving 4% agro-growth target, R&D spending must be increased, atleast 2-3 times of current level.

ICAR: programs

National Agricultural Education Project
  • Improvement in Higher Agricultural Education
  • Upgrade quality in State Agricultural Universities.
National Agriculture Entrepreneurship ProjectSelf explanatory
Farmer FIRSTTo enhance farmers–scientist contact via Krishi Vigyan Kendra
Student Ready
  • Rural Entrepreneurship and Awareness Development Yojana (READY) As you can see entire phrase is in English except last word “Yojana”. Word Yojana is added only to get the alphabet “Y” so it’d become a catchy phrase “readY”. These bureaucrates will do anything to harass an aspirant with these stupid schemes with catchy names.
  • Anyways, this “Student Ready” is a one-year composite program
  • Students who are pursuing their studies in various branches of agriculture will have to undergo rural awareness work experience to get hands on experience on the marketing skills etc. so they can become an entrepreneurs after completing the course.
NICRANational Initiative on Climate Resilient agriculture.
CR Dhan 701Rice hybrid for irrigated and shallow lowlands.
ASPIREAgriculture Sciences Pursuit for Inspired Research Excellence
GarudaEngine operated weeder for rice intensification.
CIRCOT minicardA machine for cottonyarn production
KIRANKnowledge information repository in agriculture for North East. (if our bureaucrates put more time in actual work rather than in designing such catchy terms and phrases for the schemes then North East would have became Switzerland by now.)
Agri-Innovate India ltd.
  • Corporate platform for ICAR.
  • To commercialize agro technology
  • To provide agro-consultancy in India and abroad.
Weather cock
  • Software package designed by ICAR.
  • To understand climate change impact on crop performance.
Cattle breeds
  • Binjhapuri
  • Ghumsuri
  • Khariar
  • Motu
Buffalo breeds
  • Banni
  • Chilika
Sheep
  • Muzaffarnagari sheep usually produces single lamb, but ICAR has developed selective-breeding to produce twins and triplets.
Goat
  • ICAR has improved the milk yied in Jakharana breed of goats.
Pigs
  • ICAR has done crossbreeding of Hampshire and Ghungroo pigs.

The breeds of cows, buffalos, goats, pigs etc. are endless but above data is given in India 2013 Yearbook, hence important.

ICAR: Fisheries

Wallago attu
  • Fresh water catfish.
  • ICAR has developed technology for storing it.
Rohu, catla
  • Fresh water fishes
  • ICAR has developed techonology for storing it.
  • ICAR did the nutrient profiling of clam, crab and prawn and indicated that crab has a superior nutritive fat profile.
  • Mahseer and trout= coldwater fishes.
  • Saprolegnia is a pathological fungi that infects these cold water fishes (Mahseer and trout).
  • ICAR found that herbs like Kali sarson and Lemon grass can be used to inhibit the growth of that fungi.

Procurement

In each season, government,

  1. Announces Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) for major agricultural commodities
  2. organizes purchase operations, through FCI, cooperatives etc. to ensure that prices do not fall below the MSP.

Government of India decides the MSP after getting inputs from

  1. Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP)
  2. views of state governments
  3. view of central ministries
  • MSP is announced well ahead of the sowing season so that farmers can take informed decisions on cropping. (especially before elections).
  • In last few years, government has substantially increased the Minimum support prices for many crops. (and some economists blame this for the rising food inflation).
  • On behalf of government, FCI procures the foodgrains but if FCI makes any losses, then it is fully reimbursed by the central government.
  • This has led to substantial fiscal stress on the government.

The government also implements a Market Intervention Scheme (MIS) on the request of states/union territories (UTs) for horticultural and agricultural commodities, generally perishable in nature and that are not covered under the PSS

Missions

  • Agriculture is a state subject.
  • Therefore, increasing agriculture production= primarily the responsibility  of state government.
  • And the central government supplements the efforts of state governments through centrally sponsored and central-sector schemes.

National Food Security Mission (2007)

was launched in 2007-8 with three major components, viz.

ComponentsTarget=Increase production by ___ million tones at the end of 11th FYP
NFSM-Rice10
NFSM-Wheat8
NFSM-Pulses2
  • +Restore soil fertility
  • Enhance farm-level economy,
  • employment opportunities;

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

  • One of the eight missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
  • ensuring food security, enhancing livelihood opportunities, and contributing to economic stability at national level

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (2007)

  • To make State governments increase State plan Expenditure on agro + allied sector.

Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (2011)

  • under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana( RKVY)
  • Intends to address the constraints limiting the productivity of ‘rice based cropping systems’ in eastern India comprising seven states, viz.
  1. Assam
  2. Bihar
  3. Chhattisgarh
  4. Jharkhand
  5. Odisha
  6. Eastern Uttar Pradesh
  7. West Bengal.

Rainfed Area Development Programme

  • under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana( RKVY)
  • focus on small and marginal farmers and farming systems.

ISOPOM

  • Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm, and Maize
  • Provides assistance for purchase of seeds, chemicals, equipment etc.
  • During Twelfth Five Year Plan, it is proposed to replace this scheme with a new Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm.

National Horticulture Mission

  • ensuring forward and backward linkages through adopting a cluster approach
  • creating value addition and better delivery mechanism to consumers through a cold chain system, a National Centre for Cold-Chain Development (NCCD)

Kisan Credit Card (KCC)

  • Started in ‘98
  • For short and medium term loan.
  • + insurance in case of accidental death / disability.
  • Revised in 2012 : Now old KCC passbook will be replaced with an ATM-cum-debit card.
  • Farmers were granted post-harvest loans against negotiable warehouse receipts at commercial rates.
  • the benefit of interest subvention has been extended to small and marginal farmers having KCC

Agro Insurance

  1. National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS): By  Agriculture Insurance Company of India Ltd.
  2. Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme: to insure farmers against adverse weather incidence
  • Challenge: Need to refine the current crop insurance system for unavoidable climatic conditions and pest epidemics.

Agro Marketing

Model act

  • Government  of India prepared a model Agricultural Produce Marketing (Development and Regulation) (APMC) Act in 2003.
  • many of the states are yet to adopt the Model Act uniformly.

DMI

  • Directorate of marketing and inspection.
  • It is an attached office under Agri ministry.

AGMARK

  • Agricultural produce (Grading & marketing) Act, empowers central Government to notify rules for quality and grades of agro produce.
  • The standards notified under this act = known as AGMARK.
  • AGMARK is voluntary in nature.

FDI

  • Farmers’ access to markets is hampered by poor quality roads, lack of cold storage, rudimentary market infrastructure, and excessive regulation.
  • Therefore government allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail and it’ll help in….(this tape has been repeated 50000 times so I’ll not finish the sentence).

Radiation application in Food processing

By Department  of atomic energy

PlaceDose of radiationPreservation of
BRIT’s Radiation processing plant @Navi MumbaihighSpices
BARC’s KRUSHAK (Krishi Utpadan Sanrakshan Kendra) Near NasiklowOnion, pulses, rawa and turmeric.

ATMA

  • Agricultural Technology Management Agencies (ATMA)
  • Extension system of State agricultural departments is the weakest link in the chain between research and the farmer.
  • Large number of vacancies of extension workers in the State Agriculture Department
  • ATMA is central  Government’s effort for State extension reforms.

National Dairy plan (Phase-1)

  • With assistance from World Bank
  • Cabinet approved it in 2012.
  • Produce 150 million tons of milk by 2016-17.

FOOD MANAGEMENT

The main objectives of food management are

  1. Procure foodgrains from farmers at remunerative prices,
  2. Distribute foodgrains to consumers at affordable prices (especially poors and vulnerable sections of society via Targetted public distribution system =TPDS)
  3. Maintain food buffer stock for food security and price stability.

FCI

  • Food Corporation of India (FCI).
  • It is the nodal agency to procure, store and distribute foodgrains.
  • It procures foodgrains, mainly for the targeted public distribution system (TPDS) and other welfare schemes of the Government  e.g. Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), Mid-day meal, Integrated Child Development Service, Annapurna etc.
  • Challenge: storage capacity  = not good= wheat, rice gets rotten and becomes unfit for human consumption.

Decentralized Procurement Scheme

  • Introduced in 1997
  • Under this system, State governments themselves producre and distribute foodgrains (instead of via FCI).

Open Market Sale Scheme (Domestic)

  • FCI procures foodgrains mainly for distributing to poor via PDS shops.
  • However, FCI also sales wheat and rice in the open market from time to time to enhance market supply of foodgrains and to offload its surplus stocks.

Now let’s look at some schemes (Government schemes= goldmine minefield for MCQs).

Mid-Day meal
  • Scheme is implemented By HRD ministry.
  • But Department of food and civil supply (under Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution) provides the food grain requirement.
WBNP
  • Wheat based nutrient program
  • Under Integrated child Development scheme
  • Scheme implemented by Ministry of Women and Child Development.
EFP
  • Emergency Feeding program
  • To provide food to old, infirm, destitute BPL under distress condition.
  • Launched in mid 90s, for some districts in Odisha (KBK region).
NSAP
  • National social assistance program
  • In mid 90s.
  • To fulfill article 41 under DPSP (right to work, education and public assistance in certain cases).
  • It contains following components
  1. Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS),
  2. Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS),
  3. Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS),
  4. National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS): to BPL family, for death of primary breadwinner.
  5. Annapurna (food).
TDPS
  • Targeted Public distribution system.
  • Started in late 90s
  • Initially, to provide 10 kg food grain / per family / month
  • Now amount increased to 35 kg per BPL and AAY family per month.
AAY
  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana
  • Started in 2000
  • Find poorest of poor families in BPL (covered under TPDS)
  • And give them wheat @Rs.2/kg and Rice @Rs.3/kg
Annapurna
  • Started in 2000
  • By rural Development ministry.
  • For senior citizen who are not getting pension under NOAPS (National old age pension scheme).
  • Annapurna gives them 10kg food grain per person per month.
  • Later it was merged in the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP).
Village grain bank
  • Initially By Tribal affairs ministry (now transferred to Dept of Food and Public distribution)
  • During natural disaster or lean season, the marginalized households don’t have money to buy ration.
  • They can borrow food grains from the village grain bank.
  • Village grain banks are setup in food scare areas like drought prone, hot/cold desert, tribal and hill areas.
SABLA
  • Not again, man this is becoming so damn clichéd.
  • Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for empowerment of Adolescent girls.
  • SABLA implemented by Ministry of Women and Child Development. (not by HRD ministry or social welfare ministry)
  • SABLA is created by merging earlier two schemes : Nutrition program for adolescent girls + Kishori Shkati Yojana.
  • Target: girls aged 11-18
  • 100 gms of foodgrain per day per girl for 300 days in a year.

National Food Security Bill

Dec 2011
  • Introduced in Lok Sabha.
  • It aims to covere of 75% of the rural and 50% of the urban population
  • for subsidized foodgrains under the Targeted Public Distribution System,
  • +additional support to women, children, pregnant and lactating mothers, homeless, those affected by disaster etc.
  • Bill was referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Food, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution for examination.
Jan 2013Parliamentary Standing Committee on Food, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution submitted its report to the Speaker Mira Kumar (kripya beth jayiyeTM)
  • Issue: We need not just food security  but also “nutritional” security.
  • Therefore, Government  needs to increase both per capita availability of foodgrains + right amounts of horticulture and protein rich items in the food basket of the common man

International Co-op

45

FAO

  • Food and Agriculture Organization
  • specialized agency of the United Nations
  • good nutrition and food security for all.
  • HQ: Rome, Italy
60s

WFP

  • World Food Programme (WFP)
  • food assistance branch of the United Nations,
  • headquarters in Rome, Italy
  • provide food to victims during war, civil conflict and natural disasters and afterwards.
2000-15

MDG

  • Millennium Development goals.
  • Total 8 goal and first is: removing poverty and hunger.
2007

SAARC Food bank

  • provide food security to the people of SAARC region.
  • Member states maintain reserve of either wheat or rice or combo of both.

Conclusion

  • In the green revolution belt (Punjab-Haryana) there is over-exploitation of water resources, overuse of fertilizer. This has led to soil erosion, soil salinity, water logging.
  • Pace of agricultural growth in the eastern and north-eastern regions has been slower than in the rest of the country.
  • India has failed to meet its 4% agro growth target under 11th FYP.
  • India faces stiff challenge of feeding its growing population.
  • India will have to invest heavily in farm research, rural infrastructure, agro credit, irrigation, seeds-fertilizer, farm mechanization etc. to achieve that 4% target.

Timeline

1985Mid-day meal (as per India 2013 (yearbook) chapter on food and civil supplies.
1986WHEAT BASED SUPPLEMENTARY NUTRITION Program under ICDS
1990Watershed Development for rainfed areas
1995
  • Emergency feeding program
  • National social assistance program
1995Mid-day meal (as per India 2013 (yearbook) chapter on education.
1997Targeted PDS
1998Kisan Credit Card
2000Cattle and buffalo breeding project
2000Antyodaya Anna Yojana
2000Annapurna
2005National Horticulture mission
2006National bamboo mission
2007
  • National food security mission
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana.
2010SABLA
2012National Dairy plan phase 1 (NPD-1)

Mock Questions

  1. India doesn’t rank first in the production of
    1. Pulses
    2. Tractors
    3. jute
    4. Cotton
  2. India ranks second in production of
    1. Rice
    2. Wheat
    3. Fruits
    4. All of above
  3. for ___ th Five year plan, the target for average annual growth in GDP from agriculture and allied sector is ___ %
    1. 11, 3.6%
    2. 12, 4%
    3. 12, 3.6%
    4. 11, 4.5%
  4. What is the approximate share of Agriculture and allied activities in the GDP of India?
    1. 14
    2. 58
    3. 4
    4. 3.6
  5. From this April to next april, what is the correct order of crop seasons?
    1. Kharif, Rabi, Zaid
    2. Rabi, Kharif, Zaid
    3. Zaid, Kharif, Rabi
    4. None of above
  6. National monsoon mission is launched by
    1. Earth System Science Organization
    2. CSIR
    3. ICAR
    4. Meteorological Department
  7. Which of the following is covered under Nutriend Based subsidy
    1. Phosphatic fertilizers
    2. Potassic fertilizers
    3. Both
    4. None
  8. Which of the following program is not directly associated with ICAR?
    1. Farmer first
    2. Student Ready
    3. NICRA
    4. Indian Monsoon Mission
  9. Weather cock is a ____ designed by ____.
    1. Mechnical instrument, CSIR
    2. Mechnical instrument, Meterological Department.
    3. Software package, ICAR
    4. Software package, CSIR
  10. Banni and Chilika are breeds of
    1. pigs
    2. buffalo
    3. sheep
    4. cow
  11. Incorrect Match
    1. Jakharana: goats
    2. Ghungroo: pigs
    3. Muzaffarnagari: sheep
    4. Motu: Buffalo
  12. ICAR found herbs like Kali sarson and Lemon grass beneficial for certain cold water fishes. Because
    1. they provide nutrition to the fishes
    2. they inhibt the growth of pathological fungi that infects those fishes
    3. they improve the reproduction rate those fishes
    4. None of above.
  13. Which of the following doesn’t fall under State list
    1. Agriculture
    2. Agricultural research
    3. irrigation and canals
    4. Adulteration of foodstuff
  14. National food security mission has three major components viz
    1. Rice, Maize, Pulses
    2. Wheat, Rice, Maize
    3. Rice, Wheat, Pulses
    4. Wheat, Rice, Coarse Grains
    5. None of above
  15. Which of the following state is not covered under Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India
    1. Bihar
    2. Chattisgarh
    3. Jharkhand
    4. Odisha
  16. Wheat based nutrient program is a part of
    1. Mid day meal
    2. ICDS
    3. SABLA
    4. AAY
  17. AAY is meant for
    1. Poorest of Poor
    2. APL
    3. BPL and BPL
    4. Widows and destitute
  18. Target beneficiary of Annapurna
    1. senior citizen
    2. children
    3. adolescent girls
    4. pregnant and lactating mothers
  19. Village grain banks are setup in the areas having
    1. food scarcity
    2. surplus food grain production
    3. genetic diversity in agricultural crops
    4. none of above
  20. Who implements SABLA?
    1. Women and Child Development ministry
    2. HRD Ministry
    3. Social welfare Ministry
    4. Rural Development Ministry
  21. Who implements Annapurna?
    1. Women and Child Development ministry
    2. HRD Ministry
    3. Social welfare Ministry
    4. Rural Development Ministry
  22. Who implements Mid-day meal?
    1. Women and Child Development ministry
    2. HRD Ministry
    3. Social welfare Ministry
    4. Rural Development Ministry
  23. Among the following schemes, which one is oldest?
    1. Mid day meal
    2. TDPS
    3. AAY
    4. Annapurna
  24. National food security bill was examined by Parliamentary standing Committee on _____.
    1. Agriculture and allied activities
    2. Finance
    3. Social welfare and social justice
    4. Food, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution
  25. National Social assistance program contains schemes that provide for
    1. pension to certain category of people
    2. money on the death of primary breadwinner in BPL family
    3. food to certain category of people
    4. all of above

By the way, Reminder to SBI PO aspirants: Tomorrow Do bring following for the exam

  1. A photo id proof (driving license, voter’s card etc.) original + its xerox.
  2. call letter with your photo affixed on it
  3. Note your class 10, 12, college marks and parents’ income. You’ll need to fill it up in the answersheet.




So far 150 Comments posted

  1. brijit

    mrunal
    can u suggest some good books for UIIC EXAM.is the strategy same as of LIC AAO?
    REPLY SOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOON

  2. Subramaniyan

    Supplement point for ATMA :http://atmachaibasa.org/About%20ATMA.html#Why ATMA
    ATMA is a society of key stakeholders involved in agricultural activities for sustainable agriculture development in the district. It is a focal point FOR INTEGRATING RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES and decentralizing day-to- day management of the public Agricultural Technology System (ATS)
    As a whole the ATMA would BE A FACILITATING AGENCY RATHER THAN IMPLEMTING AGENCY

  3. raveendra

    1.d
    2.d
    3.b
    4.a
    5.c
    6.a
    7.c
    8.d
    9.c
    10.b
    11.d
    12.b
    13.b
    14.c
    15.all are correct
    16.b
    17.a
    18.a
    19.b
    20.b
    21.d
    22.b
    23.a
    24.d
    25.d

    1. nav

      in greenfield without changng the previous structure of company whch is nt workng there ,there vl be a new project establish..no demolitn nd no new extension..bt in brownfield u need to do extension of infrastructure,modificatn to earlier structure nd even u need to do sm environmental work to regenerate the soil.water if there was sm chemical industry was there nd it deteriotd the soil or water condtn.

      1. noob

        Just cutting short Nav’s Point: In a greenfield venture a company starts its setup right from scratch all others are Brownfield,

  4. Suresh

    1.d
    2.d
    3.b
    4.a
    5.c
    6.a
    7.c
    8.d
    9.c
    10.b
    11.d
    12.b
    13.d
    14.c
    15.None(All are included)
    16.b
    17.a
    18.a
    19.a
    20.a
    21.d
    22.b
    23.a
    24.d
    25.d

    1. Rahul

      Single transferable vote generally DOES NOT happen while voting. Because you do not have more than one preference unlike presidential elections.

      Proportional representation = AP has 294 MLA’s and 18 MP’s to Rajya Sabha. Only two parties exist say A and B. A has 147 and B has 147 MLA’s. Then the number of MP’s from A is 9 and number of MP’s from B is 9. Implies they are represented proportionally. In mathematical terms = (ratio of number of party A : total MLA’s, ratio of number of party B : total MLA’s = ratio of number of MP’s from party A : total MP’s, ratio of number of MP’s from party B : total MP’s)

  5. rocky

    1. D
    2.d
    3.b
    4.a
    5.c
    6.a
    7.c
    8.d
    9.c
    10.b
    11.d
    12.b
    13.d
    14.c
    15. All
    16.b
    17.a
    18.a
    19.a
    20.a
    21.d
    22.b
    23.a
    24.d
    25.d

  6. dharmendra

    Dear mrunal Sir,

    I am ardent reader of your articles.
    Pl provide article on capital and current acount convertibility. I will be a great help.

    Thanks in advance.

  7. nav

    wah wah wah(w.w.w)
    Lakin bhaiya ji..plz provide remaining chapters mainly human devlopment..b/c only 20 odd days r left.thanks

  8. Aryan

    Mr Mrunal Patel India is the second largest producer of Jute in world after Bangladesh, please correct me if i am wrong

  9. noob

    Mrunal Dada, DECISION MAKING Haunts me!!! Though it doesnt carry negative marks but i guess dats one of my weak points where others will outscore. HELP!HELP!HELP!

    1. meghna

      whip is given in laxmikant page number 22.13
      Based on convention.
      Every political party has him
      He ensures attendance of his party members..n even regulates their behaviour..
      Members r supposed to follow directions given by whip else action ll b taken

        1. meghna

          i guess every political party has whip n so number ll b obviously more as there r many pp elected in lok sabha..rest dnt knw

        2. Rahul

          Whip = like warden of hostel. You do not follow school rules, you will be called and asked for explanation etc and appropriate punishment will be given. Like the above said, whip is a conventional post rather than something that has been mentioned in rules of lok sabha or the constitution.

        3. ded shani

          A whip is a tool traditionally used by humans to exert control over animals or other people…. so there may be as many whips as can be sanctioned out of Consolidated Fund of India! :D (just kidding)

          yes, in politics, a whip is an official of a political party whose primary purpose is to ensure party decorum in a legislature…. so technically every party will have a whip and the MPs are expected to confirm to his direction.

    1. noob

      High MSP leads to food Inflation
      Govt sets higher price for the selected item which reflects in the market going further high coz Govt rates always seeen as a benchmark (Lower value) in turn the market responds to it in like manner

  10. Mayank Singh

    Mrunal,
    Jahan tak Yojna Magazine me diya gaya hai… MID DAY MEAL Scheme 15 August 1995 ko shuru ki gayi thi.

    1. rohit barthwal

      Pulses:
      Gram(chana),moong(green gram),urad(black gram),tur(arar),masur.
      Out of this,gram is rabi and rest are kharif crop.

  11. RM

    @ MRUNAL
    under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana( RKVY)
    Intends to address the constraints limiting the productivity of ‘rice based cropping systems’ in eastern India comprising seven states, viz.
    Assam
    Bihar
    Chhattisgarh
    Jharkhand
    Odisha
    Eastern Uttar Pradesh
    West Bengal.

    DUDE ASSAM IS NOT THERE.

  12. kirit

    जैसा कि भारत 2013 की पहली तिमाही में 4.8% की एक अल्प सकल घरेलू उत्पाद की वृद्धि दर्ज की यह कुछ धुंधला एक दो अंकों की विकास दर हासिल करने के सपने प्रदान की गई है. यह भी vilipending अवधि के लिए खिड़की खोल दिया है

  13. bhagvan rajguru

    good information given by sir ”””” i am also agri.engg. student.
    i have teemed with new knowledge..

  14. Aditi

    Hello Mrunal sir
    I would like to know the difference between Issue price and Procurement price in agriculture. Please help..!

    1. Navin

      Issue Price = Price at which FCI sells its food grains
      Procurement price = price at which the govt. will purchase farmers crops (announced after harvesting)
      MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICE (MSP) = The minimum price at which the govt. will purchase farmers crops whatever be the market price for crops, Announced before sowing crops

      1. Aditi

        Thanks Navin
        But then aren’t Procurement price and MSP kind of similar(as wont govt buy at pre announced prices?) and I was reading that govt these days opts for MSP. Then how is Procurement price relevant then?

        1. Navin

          Procurement price = announced after harvesting
          MSP = Announced before sowing
          Generally PP > MSP
          and govt will opt for PP if and only if govt lagging behind to maintain buffer stock other wise MSP is preferred.

Write your message!