1. Malayalam Litt. 2012
  2. Philosophy Paper 1
  3. Philosophy Paper – 2

Malayalam Litt. 2012

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Philosophy Mains 2012

Paper 1 Section A
1. Write short note on the following in about 150 words each:

  1. ‘Logical positivism broadly claims that Metaphysics and Theology are meaningless because they are neither matters of logic nor verifiable empirically.’ Critically the implication of this statement.
  2. John Locke said that ‘No man’s knowledge can go beyond his experience’. Discuss critically the implication of this statement.
  3. According to Wittgenstein ‘Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language’. Explain the function of philosophy in the context of above statement.
  4. How does Descartes’ ‘Cogito Ergo Sum’ affect Hume and Kant’s transcendental philosophy ? Explain.
  5. Sören Kierkegaard clarified that “The function of prayer is not to influence God but rather to change the nature of the one how prays”. Comment on this statement.

2. Answer the following in about 200 words each:

  1. If ‘every determination is negation’ then how can substance have attributes ? Explain.
  2. Why is Kant’s philosophy known as a Copernican revolution in metaphysics ? What was revolutionary about Kantian philosophy ? Give reason for your answer.
  3. Does Leibnitz succeed in combining the mechanical with the teleological view of the world ? Explain his theory if Pre-established Harmony.
  4. Was Hume a Sceptic ? If not then what is his contribution to Philosophy ?

3. Answer the following in about 200 words each:

  1. Elucidate Existentialism and indicate its strong and weak points in your own words.
  2. Discuss Aristole’s metaphysical theory as a polemic against Plato’s theory if Ideas.
  3. If ‘To be is to be perceived’ then how does Berkeley explain the permanence of things? Explain.
  4. Explain the theory of definite descriptions according to Russell.

4. Answer the following in about 200 words each:

  1. Does monadology sufficiently explain the nature of substance ? Are monads independent of each other ? Explain.
  2. Critically examine John Lock’s categorisation of primary and secondary qualities and explain the problem it Later Empiricists.
  3. Explain Hegelian dialectical method and show how it is useful in explaining the historical development process ?
  4. Explain critically Quine’s rejection of the analytic synthetic distinction and his subsequent philosophical arguments.

Paper 1 SECTION – B
5. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Why do Carvākas not believe in the validity of inference ? What logic do they give for their belief ?
  2. Critically elucidate Jaina doctrine of relative pluralism of Anekāntvāda.
  3. How Sāmkhya theory of causation is different from that of Nyāya theory of causation ? Explain.
  4. Why does Mimāmsā give utmost importance to SHABDA-PRAMANA the verbal testimony ? Is it anything to do with Vedas ? Give your comments.
  5. Do you agree with the view that in early Buddhism more importance was given to Four Noble Truths than to systematic metaphysics ? Give reason for your agreement or disagreement.

6. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each:

  1. Discuss the views of Mimāmsā and Nyāya on the theory of Pramānyavāda. Which of them do you find adequate ? Give reason fir your answer.
  2. Examine critically the statement that ‘the doctrine of pāticcasamuppāda was given only to solve the problems of metaphysics’.
  3. Explain the theory of illusion accepted by Buddhists. Is it consistent with their philosophy ? Give reason for you answer?
  4. Do you agree with Ramanuj’s view that the nature of Brahman is qualified ? Give reason for your answer.

7. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each:

  1. Write a note on Shankara’s Vivartavāda and discuss its implications.
  2. Explain why māyā and avidyā are considered as anirvacaniya (indescribable) in Advaita Vedānta ?
  3. On what basis does Cārvāka reject the cause-effect relationship ? Give reason for your answer.
  4. Critically evaluate the statement that “Yoga Sutra emphasises more in praxis (action) than n theoria (reflection)”.

8. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each:

  1. Give you critical comment on the assertion that the schools of Yoga broadly accepts Samkhya ontology.
  2. ‘Involution is the presupposition of Evolution.’ Explain the role of involution in the world-process.
  3. Explain the notion of ego or ahankara and its role in the doctrine of Vedanta.
  4. Write a note on Nāgārjuna’s contribution to Madhyamica School of Buddhusm.

Philosophy Paper – 2

Paper 1 SECTION – A
Question 1.

  1. “Democracy, committed to treating everybody equally, is ineffective as a system of government.”
  2. Who amongst Austin, Bodin and Laski , is the most consistent in his analysis of the concept of sovereignty ?
  3. The ‘political ideology’ of Anarchism.
  4. Woman empowerment and Social Justice.
  5. Can we dissociate rights of citizens from their duties ?

Question 2.

  1. “Secularism in the Indian context is not a rejection of religion but a fellowship of religious.” Discuss.
  2. Is there a necessary connection between social progress and protection against female foeticide ? Discuss.
  3. In what ways is Humanism different from Marxism ? Discuss.

Question 3.

  1. What is multiculturalism ? Can it be an impediment for development and progress ? Discuss.
  2. Which if the theories of punishment would help us prevent the crime of corruption in Indian society ? Discuss.
  3. “Denial of access and inheritance of land and property to women is a denial of their fundamental rights as humans.” Discuss.

Question 4.

  1. What were Gandhi’s views on verna and jati ? Critically discuss Ambedkar’s disagreement with Gandhi’s treatment of varna.
  2. What can be the causes for mass violence ? Can mass violence ever be justified on moral grounds ? Discuss.

Paper 2 SECTION – B
Question 5.

  1. “God permitted suffering to discipline the human being.”
  2. Can the existence of God be proved with cogent and convincing rational arguments ?
  3. Are rebirth and liberation analogous concepts ?
  4. Can the concepts of Ishwara and Brahman signify the same reality in Advaita Vedanta ?

Question 6.

  1. “If God does not exist then why should one be moral all the time ?” Discuss.
  2. Analyse Paul’s Tillich’s statement that “symbolic language alone is able to express the ultimate.”
  3. Discuss the cognitivist account of the nature of religious language.

Question 7.

  1. Explain the distinction between Deism and Theism.
  2. Is the idea of immortality of the soul utopian or it is realizable? Discuss.
  3. “I can be moral without being religious, but I cannot be religious without being moral.” Do you agree ? Give reason for your answer.

Question 8.

  1. What is the object of religious experience? Is it empirical or trans-empirical ? Explain in details.
  2. The concept of revelation in essentially opposed to religious pluralism. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.