- Instructions for UPSC Mains Psychology Optional Paper
- Psychology Paper 1: SECTION-A
- Psychology Paper 1: SECTION-B
- Psychology Paper 2: SECTION-A
- Psychology Paper 2: SECTION-B
- Original PDF Scan for Hindi Medium
- For each paper: Time Allowed : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 250
- There are EIGHT questions divided in two Sections and printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH.
- Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.
- Question Nos. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE question from each Section.
- The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.
- Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorized one.
- Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
- Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.
Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :10×5=50
- Distinguish between ‘social learning’ and ‘conditioning’.
- Explain the concept of ‘sensory adaptation’ and discuss its uses in day-to-day life.
- Present an outline of the ecological perspective as an innovative approach to facilitate developmental outcomes.
- Describe the uses of factor analysis in psychological research and indicate different types of rotations used in it.
- In what ways ‘within factorial design’ differs from ‘between factorial design’?
Q2.Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- Distinguish between single-process theory and dual-process theory of short-term memory. 20 marks
- What psychological techniques can be used to enhance cleanliness in public places? 15 marks
- What are the multivariate techniques used in psychological research? Indicate their uses. 15 marks
Q.3. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- What are the various kinds of threats to the validity of experimental research? Illustrate your answer with the help of examples. 20 marks
- What are the distinctive features of probability learning? How useful is it in real life? 15 marks
- Is perception a constructive process? Explain in the light of studies on illusions and constancies. 15 marks
Q4. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- Do you think that natural sciences provide a good model for psychological studies? Give arguments in favour of your answer. 20 marks
- Discuss the main aspects of cognitive and moral development during adolescence. 15 marks
- What is the role of constructive and reconstructive processes in human memory? Explain. 15 marks
Answer the following questions in about 150 words each : 10×5=50
- What are the main types of meditation? Describe their effects on cognitive functioning.
- Describe the problems in the assessment of intelligence of children with special needs.
- Discuss the role of various neural and physiological processes in emotional experiences.
- What has been learned through experiments about the strategies and knowledge base of experts? Discuss.
- Is self-serving bias universal in attribution process? Comment.
Q6. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- How is self related to culture? Discuss in the light of studies on self-construal and individualism-collectivism. 20 marks
- Commenting on bilingualism and multilingualism in the Indian context, outline a language policy relevant to schooling. 15 marks
- Compare the limits of artificial intelligence and human information processing system. Discuss their implications for human performance. 15 marks
Q7. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- Briefly discuss the evolution of psychoanalytic theory as reflected in the works of Fromm, Erikson and Sudhir Kakar. 20 marks
- What is meant by rule learning? Describe some important rules along with description of the concepts related to each rule. 15 marks
- What is the role of cognitive factors in determining emotional functioning? Discuss. 15 marks
Q8. Answer the following: (20+15+15 marks)
- What are the key components of emotional intelligence? How can parents and teachers help facilitate its development in school-going children? 20 marks
- Discuss the roots of gender-related prejudice in the Indian society. Why is it so resistant? 15 marks
- Considering some successful advertisements witnessed by you, describe the key factors that enhance the effectiveness of communication. 15 marks
Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10 x5=50
- What factors can impede fair assessment of individual differences? Examine in the light of research evidence.
- What is meant by unconditional positive regard?
- Which rehabilitative strategies can be employed by the organisations to handle the workplace violence?
- Explain how the creation of superordinate goals can help in resolving social conflicts.
- What social and psychological factors come in the way of population control in India?
Q2. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
- What different types of norms will a psychologist need to develop a test of general mental ability for use in India?
- Discuss the implications of employing group decision-making in issues involving development in the Indian cultural context.
- Explain psychological characteristics of a successful entrepreneur.
Q3. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
- Discuss how happiness may influence psychological well-being and health.
- What psychological conditions keep the poor in a socially disadvantaged state?
- What psychological motives have retarded economic development in India, according to some psychologists? Discuss.
Q4. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
- What psychological factors keep the group of terrorists cohesive?
- What psychological knowledge will you put to use for social inclusion of the stigmatized?
- Can leaders be trained? What will be the essential components of a leadership training programme for the civil servants?
Q5.Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:
- How will you distinguish between anxiety and mood disorders?
- To what extent, do you think that the principles of management derived from the study of industrial organisations can be applied to improve the functioning of bureaucratic organisations in India?
- Enumerate the factors that can impact upon the teaching-learning process in rural India.
- As a psychologist, develop a programme to bring about attitudinal change in favour of small family norm.
- What role can mental imagery play in enhancing the performance of sportspersons? Discuss.
Q6. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
- What therapy will be most efficacious in case of someone who is suffering from depression? Give reasons in support of your answer.
- State the challenges the psychologists are likely to face in the rehabilitation of criminals.
- What psychological knowledge can be used to develop a programme for women entrepreneurs?
Q7. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
- How can teachers help in meeting the educational needs of a child suffering from ADHD?
- How can the adverse consequences of social disadvantage be alleviated?
- What is the purpose of item analysis? How would you carry it out for a test of aptitude?
Q8. Answer the following: (15+15+20 marks)
- Discuss the theoretical bases of behaviouristic approaches of psychotherapy.
- What are gender stereotypes in India? How do they feed into gender discrimination?
- What are the psychological disadvantages of learning in the distant mode through IT compared to classroom learning?