- [Block-1] Diseases
- [Block-2] Genetic Engineering related
- [Block-3] Affecting entire community
- [Block-4] Medical Gadgets
- Originated in Ebola river near Congo
- Hemorrhagic fever, gum bleeding, blood in stool-vomit.
- Symptoms similar to malaria, cholera hence ELISA test to sure-confirm.
- Fruit bats natural host. Bats, primates, antelopes, porcupines affected=> African-juntaa eating those animals (bush-meat)=>disease spreads to humans.
- Most affected: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria.
- Mosquitoes and air can’t spread it.
- Soap, bleach, sunlight will kill it.
- Vaccines under trial: Zebov, Ebov, Oral AD5 etc.
- Patients kept at home due to poverty and stigma.
- UNMEER: UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER). First ever in history.
- But WTO admitted, lack of funds and mismanagement.
- Aussies unwilling to send volunteers, even imposed travel bans.
- Monitoring people with Ebola-like symptoms. Checking body temperature.
- Tracking down everyone who came in contact of such people. Checking their temp. as well.
- Men, vehicles, mobile-hospital infra. Was already available for polio fight. Same used here.
- Flight crew and Airport officials trained.
- >900 people monitored, only ~19 came Ebola positive. But this strict vigilance paid off, & WHO declared Nigeria as Ebola free.
- We have only 1 nurse per 1000 people, very high population density + poor sanitation in slums. Quarantine=mission impossible.
- Called off the India-Africa summit (54 members) due to Ebola fear. (otherwise running since 2008. This may help China bolster its image among Africans. Its sending men and trial-vaccines.)
- Has Setup Isolation facilities at airports. All incoming travelers being checked.
- Shortage of PPE (personal protection equipment-full body suits) for health workers.
- Australia imposed travel ban on Ebola hit nations. But India should not stop people coming/going to Africa, ELSE others will follow the suit then no outsider will goto work in Africa. It’ll severally damage their economy and society.
Artimisinin Resistant Malaria
- 40 years back, Malaria parasites became resistant to Chloroquine.
- Then doctors began prescribing Artemisinin.
- But now certain ASEAN nations reporting Artemisinin drug resistant malaria cases.
- Asia Pacific malaria alliance @Manila. India also a partner.
- Sanofi working on Malaria vaccine. Will be ready by 2015 end.
Malaria Hemozin-MRI Detection
Traditional method to detect Malaria:Blood sample=>dye on microscope slide=>count parasites in blood.
- Malaria parasite=>eats Hemoglobin from RBC=> releases Hemozin as waste product.
- Using portable MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), you detect the amount of Hemozin in blood sample=> Malaria confirmed.
- Doesn’t need any dye or chemicals. No human errors in counting parasites.
- Female sand fly + Leishmania parasite
- Spleen, liver, bone-marrow affected
- Second deadliest parasitic disease after Malaria.
- WHO to give free Amphotericin B drug.
- ICMR’s rapid diagnosis kit.
- Sarkaari insecticides to kill sand fly
- Main focus on Bihar, JH, WB and Eastern.UP
- Social workers like DOTS workers.
- Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) can’t be cured with isoniazid / rifampicin.
- WHO approved trials for a new drug: Delamanid.
- Eli-Lily (American Pharma giant) transferred licenses for : Cycloserin and capreomycin to help Indian companies mfg. them @affordable MRP.
|Period||during and after neonatal period||occurs mainly after neonatal period.|
|Cause||<30% children get antibiotics||>600 million defecate in the open and drink unhygienic water|
||oral rehydration therapy|
|Long Term prevention||immunization||
Nobel medicine 2014
- O’Keefe, Britt Moser, Edward Moser
- Brain’s positioning system, some cells improve spatial memory, cure Alzheimer’s disease.
- Dementia is a degernative, Non-communicable brain disease.
- Memory loss, impaired judgment, mood swings.
- Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia
- 1 every 4 second in the world.
- People should use food rich in Omega-3 fatty acids e.g. walnuts, fish, soybean and flax seeds
- Person with AB blood group=82% more chances of getting Dementia.
- LASIK useful to those averse to using spectacles
- Full form: Laser refractive surgery or laser-Assisted In-Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK).
LASIK can correct following defects
- In LASIK, the laser removes tissues to reshape the curvature of the cornea. Therefore, the cornea needs to have adequate thickness otherwise surgery can’t be done.
- Surgery done under “TOPICAL” anesthesia (And not general anesthesia).
- Eligible patient: above 18 years. + spectacles power should remain unchanged for at least one year.
- After surgery, patient discharged immediately. He can resume work in 3-4 days.
- National pharmaceutical pricing authority
- Control prices of 348 “essential medicines” under Essential commodities act=>Drug price control order.
- Pricing formula: take MRP of all companies >1% market share=>calculate their average price. no company can sell above this price.
- Controversy: when included 108 more drugs which are not in the national list of essential medicines (NLEM). NPPA’s logic- extraordinary circumstances.
- Later Government revoked the order which empowered NPPA to do so in ‘extraordinary’ circumstances.
- Now NPPA working to revise the original 318-walli NLEM list.
- Stem cells can develop into any cell in body. They can be used to create new nerve cells in brain disorders; new insulin producing cells in diabetes, rebuilding heart-muscles after stroke and so on.
- until now Stem cells were harvested from human embryos=> ethical – moral opposition by Christian groups in the West.
- But, Yamanaka developed iPS cells from patients’ skin. They too can be used like stem cells. Hence, no more need for embryos.
|DNA fingerprinting||for solving crime, identifying unclaimed dead bodies and paternity tests. Although, apprehensions about possible misuse, high costs and simple errors.|
|Gene splicing||A method to transport DNA of one species to another using virus-bacterial vehicle.|
|human genome||Project Gene sequencing helps in detecting diseases early-diabetes, cancer to name a few. Personalised medicine can be prepared according to genetic make-up. This helps in speedy recovery.|
|Sickle Cell anemia||
|Global hunger report||
|Mental Health Policy||
|National Nutrition Mission||
|New Born Action Plan||
- Celiac disease= when patient eats gluten (protein in what, rye, barley)- his body mounts an immunological attack on small intestine=> nutrients can’t be absorbed properly.
- Long term leads to Diabetes type1.
- No cure. Just use gluten free food. Two new
- Two diagnostic kits by Indian researchers using Government funding.
Next Revision note: GS3: Science and technology (non-medical type).
All the revision notes are archived at Mrunal.org/UPSC#CSE-2014