- Characteristics of Indian Festivals?
- Appendix: Major Festivals of India
Although This article is primarily meant for UPSC aspiants, but the General knowledge scattered here, should also help the aspirants IBPS, APFC, SSC, CPF, State PSC and similar exams .
What are the characteristics of Indian Festivals?
They’re are socio-religious in content.
Almost all of them are accompanied by religious rituals of one kind or the other. Every traditional festival has two aspects. One is the worship which is performed according to the specific religious norms. For example in Holi, Diwali or Ram Navami the Hindus worship their gods and goddesses at the individual or family level. In Id the Muslims go to the mosques to offer namaz because the collective worship is an important aspect of their religion. Similarly, on Christmas the Christians go to their Churches for religious services.
Participation of entire society
Participation in most of our festivals are not restricted to a particular community. Members of all the communities participate in the festivities attached to a festival. Holi, Diwali, Id, Muharram, Baisakhi and Christmas involve all the people at one level or the other. Therefore, despite having strong religious content, our festivals represent our commonness, forge our unity and encourage a social bond.
Seasonal in nature
Most of the festivals specific to the Hindus are seasonal in nature. They announce the go in season and mark the harvesting seasons.
All the seasonal festivals are celebrated during two harvesting seasons kharif ‘ August-October) and rabi (March- April). Besides, spring season is another period of seasonal festivities.
Seasonal Festivals are Agro-based
The base of all seasonal festivals is ‘Agriculture.’ Festivals are observed because either the new crop is sown or crop is harvested.
- In Punjab, from Lohri onwards peasants start cutting their winter crop. Pongal, Bihu and Onam celebrations mark the harvesting of paddy crop.
- On the day of Pongal with the new crop Shankarai Pongal’ (rice cooked in milk and jaggery) is prepared and distributed as Prasadam.’ Sugarcane, which is another crop harvested at this time is also distributed as part of Trasadam.’
- Similarly, tender turmeric plants (another new crop harvested during this period) are tied around the neck of the pots (kalash) in which Shankarai Pongal is cooked.
- In Assam, during Bihu celebrations, ‘rice’ preparations chirwa (pressed rice) is eaten and distributed.
- Rice dishes are also the chief-component in the Onam feasts.
- Similarly, Roll and Vaisakhi, are primarily celebrated to mark the harvesting of new rabi crop. Here wheat forms the centre of all rituals. When the Holi fire is lit tradition is to roast wheat and barley plants in that fire.
Worship of Animals
since agriculture of is the base of all these seasonal festivals, its closely related component is cattle-worship.
- Pongal in South or Bihu in North-East, cattle are worshipped. The first day of Bohag Bihu (mid-April) called Goru Bihus is in fact the day of cattle festival.
- Third day of Pongal called Mattu Pongal is dedicated to cattle (matu) worship. Their horns are polished and flowers hung around their necks.
- Cattle sport Jellikattu of Madurai, Thanjavur and Tiruchirapalli have acquired all India fame in which bundles of money, etc. are tied to the horns of bulls and young men try to snatch them.
- Bullock-cart race is organised on this day in Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu in which everyone takes part irrespective of age and religion. Its counterpart in North- India is Govardhan Pooja which falls on the third day following Dipawali.
- Fire worship is another important feature of seasonal festivals. We get references of fire worship as early as the Harappan period (at Kalibangan).
- Magh Bihu (mid- January) celebrations are centred around bhelaghars (specially constructed structures of thatched grass and green bamboos): Men and women spend whole night in these structures. Bonfire is arranged. In the morning these bhelaghars are burnt as symbol of fire worship.
- First day of Pongal, called Bogi Pongal is celebrated by litting bonfire. Boys beat drums called Bogi Kottu. This Bogi is dedicated to the god of rains, Indra. It heralds the coming of new season (Spring). Bonfire celebrations of Lohri and Holi needs no introduction.
- On the day of Lohri bonfire is lit to worship Sun God to get protection for worshippers and their crop from the severe cold of Paush month (December-January). Thus bonfire is the symbol of collective security and safety.
- There are some festivals celebrated at a particular time but with different names all over India. The most prominent of such festival is Makara Sankranti (January 14th ).
- It is celebrated in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh as the three day long Pongal festival, and in Karnataka and Northern India (January 13) as Makar Sankranti.
- Lohri (January 13) celebrated primarily in Punjab also coincides with Makara Sankranti.
- Baisakhi in Punjab and Holi in Northen India and Bohag Bihu in Assam marks the coming of new year.
- From Lohri onwards starts the economic year of zainindars. From Nauroz (21st March) starts the Parsi new year.
- As we have pointed out earlier all these festivals have socio-cultural aspects also and involve all the people in an area or region irrespective of caste and community in the festivities. Kite flying is a special feature (specially in Ahmedabad and Jaipur) of Makara Sankranti celebrations.
Dance is another significant characteristic of Indian Festivals.
- during Bohag Bihu celebrations needs no elaboration. It is not only the very life of Assamese but has attained a place among the national heritage. During Bihu celebrations Bihu dance is the biggest attraction. On this day whole Assam comes to life. People sing and dance on the beat of drum, pepa (a kind of instrument made of buffaloes’ horn), tal, gagna (sarangi), etc. In this dance both young men and women take part.
- On this day another dance Husori is,also organised. The difference between the two is that the former one is danced on the tunes of love songs while the latter is played on religious themes. Latter is generally organised in groups by men.
- Similarly Navaratri in Gujarat involves Garba/Daandia (a form of dance)
- Kathakali dance, which is among the classical dances of India, is the chief attraction of Onam festival. Boat races or vallamkali* also marks Onam festivities- especially at Aranmulai and Kottayam. Here `Odde’ boats are rowed by about 100 oarsmen each to the accompaniment of songs and drums.
Correction by Mr.Sudheesh: For boat race its vallamkali and not vallurnkali(onam festival)
- In the West, they’ve “carnivals”, and in the east, we’ve “processions” during Ganesh visarjan, VijayaDashmi, Durga puja, Lath-maar holi (UP), Mohram and other festivals of India.
Artificial / Non-religious Festivals
So far we saw that all the indian festivals have socio-religious and agriculture contexts. But the Tourism departments of various states, also organize festivals to attract tourists from abroad. Examples of such artificial / non-reglious festivals:
- Jaisalmer Desert Festival, Music and Dance Festivals at many places in the country,
- Mango Festivals in Delhi, Haryana and U.P.,
- Garden Festivals in Delhi and Sikkim
- Elephant Festival in Kerala.
- Rannotsav in Kutch, Gujarat. (Those of you watching Tarak Mehta, recall that Jethala and family had gone to Kutch/Bhuj to see this festival and the white desert of Dhorda but Jetha got arrested by Pakistani Rangers as his camel crossed the international border. According to Gujarati Newspapers, this made Border Security Force (BSF) very angry and furious because the Producer had never told the BSF IG about this twist in the script while taking permission to shoot the episode.)
Appendix: Major Festivals of India
Bihu: three types
People of Assam, irrespective of caste and creed celebrate three Bihus. All these three Bihus are connected with each other. Bohag Bihu is celebrated in mid-April; second in line is Magh Bihu observed in mid-January; and the third one Kati Bihu is commemorated in mid-October. But, the most celebrated one is Bohag Bihu. Bohag Bihu heralds the coming of the New Year in the Assamese calendar. Magh Bihu is basically related with agriculture. It is observed when the paddy crop is harvested. Kati Bihu is celebrated on the last day of the Ahin month of Assamese calendar. This is also known as Kangali Bihu for this is the time when almost all the granaries are empty. On this day people perform rituals in the midst of paddy fields to wish for good paddy crop
It is celebrated on January 14. This marks the beginning of `Uttarayana’ or the half year long northern sojourn of the Sun. It is celebrated in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh as the three-day long Pongal festival, and in Karnataka and Northern India as Makar Sankranti. Kite flying is a special feature of the cities of Ahmedabad and Jaipur on this day.
It is celebrated on the last day of the Paush month (12-13 January). It coincides with Pongal and Makar Sankranti marking the culmination of winter. It is believed that this is the coldest day of the year. Community bonfires are lit. Traditionally, any family having a wedding or any happy occasion to celebrate plays host to the rest of the village on this festival. Rice-flakes, popcorns and sweets made from jaggery (gur) and sesame seed (til) like “Gajak” and “Revadi” are tossed into the bonfire.
Onam: It is celebrated in the Hindu month of Sravana on the day of Sravana Nakshatra (September-October).
Kerala’s major festival. According to legend, king Mahabali practiced great penance and became all-powerful. Vishnu took the incarnation of a Brahmin dwarf, Vamana and asked the king to give him all the land he could cover in three steps as alms. The king agreed. At this Vamana grew to super-human proportions. Covering the earth and heaven in two steps, Vamana asked where he should place his third step. Mahabali offered his own head and was pushed into the nether world (or Patalam). In recognition of his piety, Mahabali was made King of Patalam. He is allowed to return to his former kingdom once a year in an invisible form. Onam is celebrated to assure King Mahabali that all remains well in his land, and that his people are happy and prosperous.
On the eve of Tiruonam, the second and the most important day of the 4-day Onam festival, everything is cleaned and decorated in preparation for king Mahabali’s visit. Auspicious saffron colour cloths are presented to friends and relatives.
Mrunal Edit: ^this is given in page 7 of the IGNOU PDF file. But according Mr. Akash Ravi’s comment
Onam is not a 4-day festival !! It is a 10-day harvest festival and just as it does celebrate King Mahabali’s return from the netherworld, it also is a tribute to Lord Vishnu’s Vamana avatar.
And most importantly, Thiruvonam – the “biggest” of the 10 days, is the 10th day and not the 2nd day, as you put it .
And wikipedia also says that Onam is a 10 days festival.
It is celebrated on the 1st day of the Tamil month of Tai i.e. mid-January. Its a three-day festival. The first day is called Bhogi-Pongal. On this day people clean and white-wash their houses and in the evening community bonfire is conducted. Surya-Pongal, the second day, is marked by women preparing `pongal’ (rice cooked in milk and jaggery) and offering it to the sun (Surya). The third day, Mattu-Pongal, is dedicated to cattle (matu). Tonga!’ offered to deities is given to the cattle to eat. Their horns are polished, and flowers hung around their necks. Coloured balls of `pongal’ are left for birds.
^This is from IGNOU pdf. And according to Anitha
Pongal is actually 4 day festival.It starts with bhogi,surya pongal,mattu pongal and kaanum pongal.
Bhogi is celebrated in punjab as LOHRI and in assam as MOGALI BIHU
Kaanum pongal is paying respect to elderly people and get together as family and visit relatives,friends.Brothers give gifts to their married sisters on this day.Tamilnadu governement also celebrates THIRUVALLUVAR DAY which coincides with this kaanum pongal festival.
It is celebrated on the Purnima day in the month of Sravana (July-August) all over India. Girls tie colourful `rakhis’ or thread of silk and amulets, around the wrists of their brothers, including cousins, In return, the brothers offer gifts and pledge to protect their sisters. On this day Brahmans and Purohits also tie Rakhis on the wrists of their Yajman.
Navratri Durga Pooja, Dashehra
These are celebrated in the month of Ashvin
(September-October). These are important ten day festivals for the Hindus in most of India. First nine days are celebrated as Navratri. The Navratri festivities of Gujarat, with its music and dance (garba) are of exceptional appeal. Saptami, Ashtami and Navmi forms famous Durga Pooja celebrations of Bengal; while the tenth day, known as Vijaya Dashmi is observed as Dashehra in various parts of India. People in Bengal immerse Durga statue on this day, thus ends the Durga Pooja festivities. Though, Dashehra is celebrated in various parts of India in different ways, the concept behind these celebrations is the same i.e. victory of good.
Holi is the festival of colour. On this day coloured powder and coloured water are sprinkled by people on each other. This spring festival, falls in the month of Phagun on the day of Purnima (February-March), was known in ancient times as ‘Madan-Utsay.’ One story about Holi concerns Prahlad, son of evil King Hiranyakasipu. Hiranyakasipu demanded that every one should worship him as a God. When Hiranyakasipu’s own son, Prahlad, continued to worship Vishnu, Hiranyakasipu persecuted Prahlad. Ultimately, Prahlad’s aunt Holika, who was immune to fire because of divine boon, entered a blazing fire with Prahlad with the intention of burning the prince. However, it was Holika who was burnt to ashes, while Prahlad came out unscathed due to Divine intervention. Thus, even today, on the evening preceding the colour festival, bonfires are lit to symbolise the burning of Holika – the destruction of evil.
The Holi of Braj (the Mathura-Brindavan region of Uttar Pradesh traditionally associated with Krishna’s childhood, and with stories of Radha-krishna), is marked by several days of festivals. At Anandpur Sahib, in Punjab, the day following Holi is marked by festivities, mock-battles, archery and fencing contests by a sect of the Sikh community.
India’s ‘Festival of Light’ (Dipawali) falls 20 days after Dashehra on the Atnavasya or ‘New Moon’ night of the Hindu month of Kartik (October-November). Coinciding with the approach of winter, and the sowing of the winter-crop in many parts of India, people celebrate the return of Rama to Ayodhya, after 14 years of exile, and after slaying Ravana. For many in South India, Dipawali commemorates the slaying of Naraka by Krishna. In Bengal and some other parts of Eastern India, Kali is worshipped on this occasion. Dipawali marks the beginning of new commercial year for many and businessmen fmalize their old account books and open new accounts.
Practically every village, town and city is illuminated with earthen lamps, candles and even electric bulbs to welcome Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity and wealth. Jains also celebrate Deep-Dipawali ten days after Dipawali as part of Moksha celebrations of their 24th Tirthankar, Mahavir.
Id-ul Fitr marks the end of the holy month of Ramzan, during which pious Muslims have fasted from dawn to sunset. It is celebrated on the 1st Shawwal of Arabic calendar. This festival is commonly referred to as ‘sweet Id’ by children, as vermicelli or `seveyian’ are offered to all. It is a day of celebrations, feasting and wearing new clothes. People offer prayers at Idgahs. Alms are given to the poor and children receive gifts (idi).
Update by Mr.Yasir: I would like to suggest some correction on the dates of Id-ul Fitr ( it is celebrated on the 1st Shawwal of Arabic calendar.)
Id-ul Zuha (Id-ul Azha)
Its also called Bakr Id. This commemorates the sacrifice of Ibrahim (Abraham of the Bible and of the Jewish tradition). Ibrahim was ordered by God to offer his son Ismail as a sacrifice. Ibrahim blindfolded himself and devotedly carried out God’s instructions. However, when he removed the cloth from his eyes he found his son alive by his, side, and instead a ram, lying on the sacrificial altar. God then commended Ibrahim’s trust. A sacrifice of a goat or ram is made by each Muslim family symbolizing Ibrahim’s offering and faith in God. Id prayers follow, along with feasting and rejoicing. It follows around 2 months 10 days after Id-ul
Muharram is a solemn occasion commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (grandson of the holy Prophet Mohammed), along with his followers at Kerbala. It is a ten-days observance of intense mourning by sections of the Muslim community. `Tazias’ made of paper and bamboo (symbolizing the tomb at Kerbala), are carried in procession. A horse, representing Imam Hussain’s horse, Did Dul, accompanies the procession.
The birth anniversary of Jesus Christ (25th December) is celebrated by Christians in India amidst Church services on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day, singing of carols (religious songs), exchange of gifts and feasting. The day after Christmas is observed by giving alms to the needy. (Thus the name Boxing Day, because money and gifts were put into boxes meant for the poor). Churches, Cathedrals and homes are decorated, and scenes depicting the infant Christ are put up.
Christians observe Good Friday (March-April) with Church services and the singing of hymns in memory of the crucificaion of Jesus Christ on this day. A long period Of fasting and prayer, known as Lent, precedes Good Friday. This comes to an end on Easter Day.
The Sunday after Good Friday (March-April) is a day of celebrations for Christians.
It is believed that Jesus Christ, who was crucified on Good Friday, resurrected on this day.
This is a Parsi (or Zoroastrian) festival. Linked to the spring equinox (21 March), it is believed to date from the time when King Jamshed ruled Persia. Worship at the Parsi fire- temples is followed by visits to friends and relatives to exchange greetings.
Buddha Jayanti (Budddha Purnima)
It is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth, enlightenment and ‘Nirvana’ (death) of Gautama Buddha – all of which occurred on the same day according to Buddhist tradition. Buddha Purnima (April-May) is marked by chanting of verses from dawn to late-night, and ceremonial offerings at Buddhist shrines. The celebrations are noteworthy at Sarnath near Varanasi (where Buddha preached his very first sermon), at Bodhgaya in Bihar (where he became the ‘Enlightened One’ – i.e. Buddha), and in Sikkim and Ladakh.
Its observed in the honour of Ganesh, the elephant headed God, son of Siva and Parvati. It is celebrated in the month of Bhadrapada (August-September). Ganapati is worshipped on this day in other parts of India as well but it is celebrated with special zeal and fervour in Western India. Clay images of Ganesh are made and sold to worshippers. The images are sanctified and worshipped for ten days after which they are immersed in a tank or river.
This one is contribution from a reader:
- It marks the new year of andhra and karnataka requires a mention .It is celebrated by the traditional rendering of annual almanac called as`panchanga sravanam`
- and also by consumption of a special pickle made of 6 tastes sweet sour bitter salt spice and characteristic taste of fresh mangoes
- In the same way vishu which is the new year of kerala marked by Vishukkani, which literally means “the first thing seen on the day of Vishu after waking up”.
- The Vishukkani consists of a ritual arrangement of auspicious articles like raw rice, fresh lemon, golden cucumber, betel leaves, arecanut, metal mirror, yellow flowers konna (Cassia fistula), and a holy text and coins, in a bell metal vessel called uruli in the puja room of the house. A lighted bell metal lamp called nilavilakku is also placed alongside. This is arranged the night before. On Vishu, the custom is to wake up at dawn and go to the puja room with eyes closed so that the Vishukkani is the first sight in the new season.
I wonder why odishan festivals seldom feature in any discussions? Odia culture is also very rich but be it in NCERTs or any other national forum, It is a neglected and sidelined state.. (..my opinion..) I have met a few Indians who ask me If Odisha is a country and many don’t know where Bhubaneswar is..Such a pity !
As an Odia myself, I must say that Odias must first respect their own language , culture and festivals. I have met plenty of Odias in trains working in the software industry in Bangalore and Hyderabad who look down upon our state and refuse to speak in Odia. It is when we Odias respect out culture will the world start respecting us.
Shankarai pongal is to be written and read as sakkarai pongal.
Sugar in Tamil is sakkarai.
Seriously I need