[Environment] COP 11 – Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Hyderabad 2012 Outcomes, Bushmeat, Empty Jungle syndrome

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  1. Intro
  2. COP Conferences under CBD
  3. India and CBD
  4. COP11(HYDCBD): Outcomes/ Agreements
    1. #1: CASH
    2. #2: Ocean
    3. #3 Online forum
    4. #4: Bushmeat
    5. #5: Champions and their pledges
    6. #6: Nagoya Ratification
    7. #7:Misc


  • When it comes to environment protection, climate change, wildlife protection, there are multiple conventions and each convention has “parties”.
  • Those parties hold conferences at regular interval.
  • such conferences are called “conference of Parties” COP.
  • In a single calendar year there can be more than on COP (because these are different conventions).
For example
What? When? Where? Issue/topic/convention?
COP-11 Oct 2012 Hyderabad, India Biodiversity (CBD)
COP-18 Nov-Dec 2012 Doha, Qatar Climate change (UNFCC)
COP-16 March 2013 Bangkok, Thailand illegal trade of endangered species (CITES)

let’s focus on COP related to CBD (Convention on biological diversity)

COP Conferences under CBD
Year COP# Where
2010 10 Nagoya, Japan
2012 11 Hyd, India
2014 12 PyeongChang, S.Korea (theme = Biodiversity forSustainable Development)

India and CBD

  • The Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) has near universal membership with 193 countries. The USA is the only major country that is not a Party.
  • India has ratified the CBD.
  • India also enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002 and notified the Rules in 2004 to give effect to the provisions of the CBD.
  • Now India has got presidency of CBD for two years. (2012-14). previously it was with Japan.


  • Total 170 countries participated in the conference.
  • Current decade (2011-2020) has been declared as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity and United Nations Decade for Deserts and the Fight against Desertification.
  • COP11-HYDCBD is the first conference during above special ‘decades’.
  • Just few days before the official COP11, Hyderabad also hosted the 6th meeting of parties to Cartagena protocol on biosafety (under CBD). This is known as COP-MOP-6.
October 1-5 COP-MOP-6
October 8-19 COP11


  • Was developed by National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad for the Government of India. This logo symbolises the cycle of life with a tiger, a dolphin, a bird and a women with grains depicting linkage of biodiversity with livelihoods.
  • On top is the slogan in Sanskrit with English translation ‘Nature Protects if She is Protected’

COP11(HYDCBD): Outcomes/ Agreements

  • “HYDCBD” is not the official name. Just visualize Eleven cops (policemen) hiding kabaad (trash)= 11th COP was held in Hyderabad for Convention on Biodiversity.
  • The Previous COP (#10) was held @ Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan in 2010.

Anyways, let’s check the outcome of COP-11(HYDCBD)

#1: CASH

Who? What did they say?
Developed countries (EU/US)
  • We’ll double (2x) the funding to help developing states to meet Aichi Biodiversity Targets, by 2015.
  • roughly it means, developing countries will get about 30 billion USD=~Rs. 1,50,000 crore over the next 8 years.
Developing Countries
  • For the first time, developing countries at COP 11, including India and several African states, pledged additional cash above and beyond their core funding towards CBD
  • India committed over US$ 50 million.
  • By 2015, We’ll prepare national financial plans for biodiversity and increase domestic Expenditure for it.

#2: Ocean

  • COP-11(HYDCBD) gave much focus to Ocean, marine biodiversity.
  • Countries agreed to pay more attention to Sargasso Sea, the Tonga archipelago and key corals sites off the coast of Brazil.

map sagasso sea

Sargasso Sea
  • middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Tonga Archipelago
  • South Pacific Ocean.
  • Tonga is a sovereign state.
  • We’ll factor biodiversity into environmental impact assessments (EIA) for infra/development projects in costal areas.
  • We call upon the fisheries management bodies to play a stronger role in protecting biodiversity.

#2a: Ocean: Protected Planet 2012

  • Protected planet 2012=it is name of the report released by UNEP.
  • This report says
    • Half of the world’s richest biodiversity zones remain entirely unprotected.
    • If you want to meet the Aichi Biodiversity targets, then you’ve declare an additional 8 million square kilometers of marine and coastal areas as protected.
  • We, the COP11(HYDCBD) players, will show these results to UN General assembly and ask them amend United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea accordingly + international agreement for biodiversity conservation in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction.

#2b: Ocean: Research

We’ll do more research into adverse effect of

  1. underwater noise from ships on marine biodiversity, and
  2. Marine litter*
  3. Climate change impacts on coral reefs,

What is Marine Litter?
These are items / materials that

  • People deliberately discard/throw into the sea or rivers or on beaches.
  • indirectly brought to sea via rivers, sewage, storm water or winds;
  • Lost at sea in accident/bad weather.

#3 Online forum

  • National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans Forum (NBSAP Forum) was launched at COP11 (HYDCBD)
  • This online forum will provide easy-to-access, targeted information such as best practices, guidelines and learning tools for countries.
  • This online forum is joint initiative by
    1. UNEP
    2. UNDP
    3. GEF Global Environment Facility
    4. CBD

#4: Bushmeat

  • In Africa, forest is often called ‘bush’, so meat from jungle= bushmeat.
  • Large scale hunting of monkeys, elephants, wild-buffalos etc. for ‘bushmeat’ = led to Empty forest syndrome.

Empty forest syndrome?

  • You already know that protection of jungle and wildlife=both important.
  • Empty forest syndrome = jungles are still visible but animals gone.

In other words, Empty forest syndrome is a situation in which animals disappear at a much faster rate than their habitats. WHY? Because

  1. Bushmeat (as explained above)
  2. Trading of Skin, Hides, tusks etc. for making jewelry, trophies etc.
  3. Making Traditional medicine from animal-bones etc. (and it can even cure AIDS and Cancer!)
  4. Trading of exotic pets endangered birds, orangutan etc.)
  5. Climate change

Anyways back to the main topic (outcome of COP11)

  • In Central Africa, gorillas, chimpanzees and many more wild animals are hunted as bush meat is the only cheap source of protein and food security for the poor communities.
  • The players @COP11 (HYDCBD) adoped “Hyderabad bushmeat recommendations” for ‘sustainable’ use and Management of bushmeat species to prevent the empty forest syndrome.

#5: Champions and their pledges

  • COP-11 invited parties and partner organizations to make pledges to support one or more Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • Under this
who pledged what?
India Pledged to give 50 million USD
Maldives pledged to make their entire country a Biosphere Reserve.

Maldives: Biosphere reserve “nation”

  • In support of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (of CBD), the Republic of Maldives has pledged to become the first nation where the entire country and its Exclusive Economic Zone will be a Biosphere Reserve.
  • First they’ll implement biodiversity protection plans in their different atolls in a stepwise fashion, till the end 2017,
  • Then they’ll apply to UNSECO to declare Maldives as a Biosphere Reserve. (under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program.)

#6: Nagoya Ratification

  • Nagoya Protocol=under CBD,
  • For sharing benefits from genetic resources.
  • Official name= Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS).
  • India has already ratified Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit sharing.
  • Now that we’ve got 2 years’ presidency for CBD, India will work tirelessly to get the Protocol ratified by 50 countries so that it comes into force during the Presidency of India.


  • We’ll ask main economic sectors, such as business and development organizations, to integrate biodiversity objectives in their plans and programmes.
  • We’ll enhance collaboration between the CBD and UN climate change initiatives including Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).
  • CBD Secretariat to monitor and control trade, movement of invasive alien species.
  • encourage parties to expand the use of biofuel, although with precautions
  • Encourage parties to adopt Addis ababa principles (on sustainable use of biodiversity), in their national planning.

Science Express Biodiversity Special

  • A train to generate awareness about biodiversity conservation. (actually this started way before the actual COP11 (HYDCBD) took place. But the train was stationed @Hyderabad during the conference.)
  • Collaborative initiative of Ministry of Environment & Forests + Department of Science and Technology.
  • will cover over 100 stations in two years.
  • Has total Of the 16 coaches
  • 8 of them are solely dedicated to showcasing the biodiversity spread across all the bio-geographical zones of India.

Museum in Hyd

  • Government already established a a commemorative Pylon and a Biodiversity Garden in Hyderabad for CBD.
  • Now they’re also planning to establish a Biodiversity Museum on that site.

Rajiv Gandhi award
Indian Government has proposed to institute Rajiv Gandhi International Award for Harnessing Biodiversity for Livelihood.

Mock Questions

  1. Correct statements about Maldives
    1. It is world’s first nation to hold underwater cabinet meeting.
    2. It plans to be world’s first nation where entire country and its EEZ is declared a ‘biosphere reserve’.
    3. Both
    4. None
  2. Who among the following grants “biosphere reserve” status to a given site?
    1. CBD
    2. UNFCC
    3. UNESCO
    4. None of above
  3. Which of the following is not related of Hyderabad Summit of CBD?
    1. Developed countries will double their funding.
    2. Adoption of recommendations for sustainable use and management of bushmeat species.
    3. Decision to commence second phase of Kyoto protocol from 1 January 2013.
    4. None of above.
  4. Which of the following is not used for bushmeat?
    1. Gorillas
    2. Wild buffalos
    3. Domesticated Swine
    4. All of above
  5. Correct statements about 12th COP under CBD
    1. It’ll be held in Bangkok in 2013
    2. Theme is “biodiversity for sustainable Development”
    3. Both
    4. None
  6. From North to South, which is the correct order?
    1. Sargasso Sea, Labrador Sea, Tasmanian Sea,
    2. Labrador Sea, Tasmanian Sea, Sargasso Sea
    3. Labrador Sea, Sargasso Sea, Tasmanian Sea
    4. None of above
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68 Comments on “[Environment] COP 11 – Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Hyderabad 2012 Outcomes, Bushmeat, Empty Jungle syndrome”

  1. 1 C
    2 C
    3 C
    4 C
    5 B
    6 C

    1. Yaar fir jeet gaye tum.agale article me sabse pehla mera comment aayega dekh lena. :D

      1. Yahan toh it doesnt matter , aasha karta hun aap prelims mein pehle (1st) zaroor ayein :)

    2. Jokes apart,thank u mrunal sir once again.this is always my favorite line.

  2. Thanks Sir

    1. isn’t answer to 1 is B??

      1. 1.both a & b are correct,hence c.
        google and cross check.

  3. Mrunal sir in the new format of page view we cannot zoom the content..little difficult to read for long hour..!!

  4. 1 b
    2 c
    3 d
    4 c
    5 b
    6 c????????

  5. I just observed that it is the developed countries who have to pay money in all these conventions/protocols, but what profit are they getting out of it? They can opt out of these aggrements like USA did in Kyoto protocol and CBD. What real benefit are they getting out of it? Why can’t all other member countries put pressure on USA to sign Kyoto protocal and be a member in COPs of CBD ???

    1. I think the prospects of profit is not the sole driver behind all the acts of a nation. Although in this case the developed countries are morally liable (although not bound) to pay more.
      Well when it comes to USA, it has been behaving like the head of the family (world) always. Given the politico economic picture of the world currently no country wants to be in it’s bad book (except China). However in this situation China being the largest emitter of GhG gases is silenced automatically.

      Correct me if I am flawed in my general understanding.

  6. hello sir,
    just wanted to ensure if the point mentioned in the above article #5 Champions and their pledges, contribution of INDIA is 50 Million or Billion, printed Billion, but Million seems #legit.

  7. 1-c

  8. Sir difference between PARTY and SIGNATORY to a convention..??

    1. signing = supporting d objctives of the protocol but not adhere 2 its rules n there intention 2 bcm party in near future
      signatory\party = state joinin by ratifyng\approving\accepting d protocol signed by head of state \ foreign affairs minister
      aftr ratifyn protocol enter into force aftr 90 days legally bindin
      hope ur doubt hv cleared

      1. isnt it that signing a convention itself makes you a signatory?? u’ve put signatory n party together..matlab difference kya hua..?:(

        1. oh sorry tht was by mistake
          signing = supporting d objctives of the protocol but not adhere 2 its rules n there intention 2 bcm party in near future
          party = state joinin by ratifyng\approving\accepting d protocol signed by head of state \ foreign affairs minister
          aftr ratifyn protocol enter into force aftr 90 days legally bindin
          mean signin shws support n party means u hv ratified it

        2. sign a treaty is way to become a party to it,though not unique.A country may become a party to a treaty through more than one path. One path is to sign the treaty during the period in which the treaty is open for signature and then to ratify the treaty. However, country may also become a party by acceding to or by accepting the treaty.

          When a country becomes a signatory to a treaty, it declares its intention to make the terms of the treaty legally binding on itself, but the act itself does not make that act binding. When a country ratifies a treaty, it makes the terms of the treaty legally binding, once the treaty’s requirements for entry into force are met.

          For example, the U.S. has signed the Kyoto Protocol, but not ratified it. The Kyoto Protocol is not binding on the U.S.

          Members of the European Union have both signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol; when the Kyoto Protocol meets the minimum requirements for entry into force, the protocol will be binding on them. Kyoto has not yet met those requirements, however, so Kyoto is not legally binding on any country.

          1. **last line above is wrong.
            actually kyoto protocol is a legally binding treaty with caveats and criterias.

        3. n one more thng that
          by becoming party several thngs
          1. play imp role in decesion making
          2. can receive funds
          3. role in making rules,procedures etc
          hope u cleared now

          1. Yupp!! thanks a lot love and TRA.. I was looking for the answer for a long time..:)

            And mrunal sir i have to say this is THE BEST site i’ve ever come across… Way better than all those Fb and whatever…
            THANKYOU for this endevour of yours. Every single person benefits in some way or the other from your site..

            One suggestion- Please stsrt a “doubts section” on your site where you can answer all the doubts and clarify them though this comments section also works but the doubts to the much older articles stay as such…A big THANKYOU to you sir for ALL your articles:)

  9. sir
    i think there is a little mistake…in cash assistance by developed countries shouldnt it be doubled to achieve aichi targets by 2020 rather than 2015 ??

  10. i’m of d opinion that in mains we can anyhow mention gandhis schemes/awards when we hav nothing much to write. lol..
    thanks for d nice article.

  11. thanks sir..

  12. Dear Mrunal,
    Please share me the link for EnB material of NOS…

  13. exceptional work sir. thank u

  14. I was waiting for this .Article from many days.. Finally we got it.. Thank you very much.. Sir..

  15. 1. c
    2. d …..here in India Biosphere reserve is 1st declared by PARLIAMENT…..then apply for MAB of UNESCO, Currently their are 7 MAB UNESCO sites out of total 19 biosphere reserves in our country. ??????????
    3. c
    4. c
    5. b
    6. c …….its TASMAN SEA in between Australia and New Zealand not Tasmania sea.

    1. i think there are 8 MAB UNESCO sites (Achanakmar amarkantak in mp/chhattisgarh was approved in 2012) out of total 18 biosphere reserves in the country

      1. thanks 4 d info.

  16. Developed countries (EU/US)

    We’ll double (2x) the funding to help developing states to meet Aichi Biodiversity Targets, by 2015.
    roughly it means, developing countries will get about US $ 30 billion=~Rs. 1,50,000 crore over the next 8 years.

    1. US is a signatory to CBD. As a signatory, they can pledge finance to CBD. But they did not ratify the protocol. Because the protocol wants technology transfer to developing countries and US think it will threaten their IPR. This is my best guess.

      And Mrunal ji, #5. India pledged 50 million right?

  17. Excellent sir. But what is that pyongyang,south korea #CoP-12,2014?? u meant seoul,southkorea or py,northkorea??

    1. Its pyeong CHANG in SOUTH korea..

  18. i read it many times, earlier but information provided by you was nowhere

  19. why large depletion of ozone over antarctica??

    1. CFCs are well mixed globally in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The reason for occurrence of the ozone hole above Antarctica is not because there are more CFCs concentrated but because the low temperatures help form polar stratospheric clouds.

      As winter arrives, a vortex of winds develops around the pole and isolates the polar stratosphere. Polar winters are dark, consisting of 3 months without solar radiation (sunlight). The lack of sunlight contributes to a decrease in temperature and the polar vortex traps and chills air.

      Reactions that take place on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play an important role in enhancing ozone depletion. PSCs form more readily in the extreme cold of Antarctic stratosphere. This is why ozone holes first formed, and are deeper, over Antarctica.

      The role of sunlight in ozone depletion is the reason why the Antarctic ozone depletion is greatest during spring. During winter, even though PSCs are at their most abundant, there is no light over the pole to drive chemical reactions. During the spring, however, the sun comes out, providing energy to drive photo chemical reactions and melt the polar stratospheric clouds, releasing considerable ClO, which drives the hole mechanism. The hole over Antarctica reaches to maximum in the month of September.

    2. two reasons
      1.polar vortex
      2.absence of enough sunlight for 6 months (i.e polar nights prolonged winter)

      1. i think what he’s trying to say is – sunlight acts catalyzes the reactions taking place in PSCs (which eventually deplete ozone), i.e. more sunlight–more depletion… winter on the other hand creates the right environment needed for the reaction ( which occurs in summer)..

        so reasons are
        1. Polar vortex
        2. Presence of sunlight in PSC areas….

    3. thnx 2 all

  20. Reaction b/w CFC and O3 occurs faster in cold temp.
    Distance is also a factor as ozn layer is closer to poles.

  21. Sir pls post articles for march-april science and tech

  22. Sir pls post articles for march april science and tech…….

  23. mrunal bhai where do i get the list of endangered species..

  24. Little correction needed..

    #5: Champions and their pledges
    Indian Contribution : India—-> Pledged to give 50 billion USD

    nice article Mrunal.. keep it up..

    1. @Princeaniket
      50 million USD is right

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